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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    1
    27 October 1924 – The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union.


    Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

    The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (US: /ʊzˈbɛkɪstæn, -stɑːn/ , UK: /ʊzˌbɛkɪˈstɑːn, ʌz-, -ˈstæn/), also known as Soviet Uzbekistan, the Uzbek SSR, UzSSR, or simply Uzbekistan and rarely Uzbekia, was a union republic of the Soviet Union. It was governed by the Uzbek branch of the Soviet Communist Party, the legal political party, from 1925 until 1990. From 1990 to 1991, it was a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with its own legislation.

    Beginning 20 June 1990, the Uzbek SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty within its borders. Islam Karimov became the republic's inaugural president.

    On 31 August 1991, the Uzbek SSR was renamed the Republic of Uzbekistan and declared independence three months before the Soviet Union's dissolution on 26 December 1991.

    Uzbekistan was bordered by Kazakhstan to the north; Tajikistan to the southeast; Kirghizia to the northeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest.

    1. ^ Historical names:
      • 1924–1936: Uzbek Socialist Soviet Republic Ўзбекистон Социалистик Совет Республикаси; Узбекская Социалистическая Советская Республика)
     
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    28 October 1922Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.

    March on Rome

    The March on Rome (Italian: Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration and a coup d'état in October 1922 which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) ascending to power in the Kingdom of Italy. In late October 1922, Fascist Party leaders planned an insurrection to take place by marching on the capital. On 28 October, the fascist demonstrators and Blackshirt paramilitaries approached Rome; Prime Minister Luigi Facta wished to declare a state of siege, but this was overruled by King Victor Emmanuel III, who, fearing bloodshed, persuaded Facta to resign by threatening to abdicate. On 30 October 1922, the King appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister, thereby transferring political power to the fascists without armed conflict. On 31 October the fascist Blackshirts paraded in Rome, while Mussolini formed his coalition government.[1][2]

    1. ^ Lyttelton, Adrian (2008). The Seizure of Power: Fascism in Italy, 1919–1919. New York: Routledge. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-415-55394-0.
    2. ^ "March on Rome | Italian history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-07-25.
     
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    29 October 1956Suez Crisis begins: Israeli forces invade the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal

    Suez Crisis

    The Suez Crisis[a] or the Second Arab–Israeli War,[8][9][10] also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression[b] in the Arab world[11] and as the Sinai War[c] in Israel,[d] was a British–French–Israeli invasion of Egypt in 1956. Israel invaded on 29 October, having done so with the primary objective of re-opening the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as the recent tightening of the eight-year-long Egyptian blockade further prevented Israeli passage.[12] After issuing a joint ultimatum for a ceasefire, the United Kingdom and France joined the Israelis on 5 November, seeking to depose Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and regain control of the Suez Canal, which Nasser had earlier nationalised by transferring administrative control from the foreign-owned Suez Canal Company to Egypt's new government-owned Suez Canal Authority.[e] Shortly after the invasion began, the three countries came under heavy political pressure from both the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as from the United Nations, eventually prompting their withdrawal from Egypt. Israel's four-month-long occupation of the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip and Egypt's Sinai Peninsula enabled it to attain freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran, but the Suez Canal itself was closed from October 1956 to March 1957.[14][15] The Suez Crisis led to international humiliation for the British and the French in the wake of the Cold War, which established the Americans and the Soviets as the world's superpowers. It also strengthened Nasser's standing.[16][17][18]

    Before they were defeated, Egyptian troops had blocked all ship traffic by sinking 40 ships in the Suez Canal. It later became clear that Israel, the United Kingdom, and France had conspired to invade Egypt. Though the three allies had attained a number of their military objectives, the Suez Canal itself was useless. American president Dwight D. Eisenhower had issued a strong warning to the British if they were to invade Egypt; he threatened serious damage to the British financial system by selling the American government's bonds of pound sterling. Historians have concluded that the Suez Crisis "signified the end of Great Britain's role as one of the world's major powers" vis-à-vis the United States and the Soviet Union.[19][20][21][22]

    As a result of the conflict, the United Nations established the United Nations Emergency Force to police and patrol the Egypt–Israel border, while British prime minister Anthony Eden resigned from his position. For his diplomatic efforts in resolving the conflict through United Nations initiatives, Canadian external affairs minister Lester B. Pearson received a Nobel Peace Prize. Analysts have argued that the Suez Crisis may have emboldened the Soviet Union, prompting the Soviet invasion of Hungary.[23][24]

    1. ^ "Military Casualties in Arab-Israeli Wars". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 17 March 2023.[better source needed]
    2. ^ "Casualties of Mideast Wars". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 8 March 1991. p. A7. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
    3. ^ a b Varble 2003, p. 90
    4. ^ Zuljan, Ralph. "Armed Conflict Year Index". OnWar.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2023. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
    5. ^ Schiff 1974, p. 70.
    6. ^ Schiff 1974.
    7. ^ "Invasion of Egypt!". Israel – The Suez War of 1956: U.S. newsreel footage. Event occurs at 0:30–0:40. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021.
    8. ^ Ross, Stewart (2004). Causes and Consequences of the Arab–Israeli Conflict. Evans Brothers. pp. 76ff. ISBN 978-0-2375-2585-9.
    9. ^ Isacoff, Jonathan B. (2006). Writing the Arab–Israeli Conflict: Pragmatism and Historical Inquiry. Lexington Books. pp. 79ff. ISBN 978-0-7391-1273-1.
    10. ^ Caplan, Neil (1983). Futile Diplomacy: Operation Alpha and the Failure of Anglo-American Coercive Diplomacy in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1954–1956. Psychology Press. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0-7146-4757-9.
    11. ^ Egypt Today staff (3 November 2019). "In 63rd ann. of Tripartite Aggression, members of popular resistance tell heroic stories". Egypt Today. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
    12. ^ Mayer, Michael S. (2010). The Eisenhower Years. Infobase Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8160-5387-2.
    13. ^ Copeland, Miles (1989). The Game Player: Confessions of the CIA's original political operative. Aurum Press. pp. 170–171, 201.
    14. ^ Pierre, Major Jean-Marc (15 August 2014). 1956 Suez Crisis And The United Nations. Tannenberg Publishing. ISBN 978-1-7828-9608-1. Still in 1950 Egypt blocked the Straits of Tiran barring Israel from the waterway ( Longgood 1958, xii-xiii).
    15. ^ Golani, Motti (1995). "The Historical Place of the Czech-Egyptian Arms Deal, Fall 1955". Middle Eastern Studies. 31 (4): 803–827. doi:10.1080/00263209508701081. ISSN 0026-3206. JSTOR 4283762. 3. The blockade of the Straits of Eilat (Tiran) had actually been in effect since 1948, but was significantly aggravated on 12 September 1955, when Egypt announced that it was being tightened and extended to the aerial sphere as well. (p. 805)
    16. ^ Abernathy, David (2000). The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 1415–1980. Yale University Press. p. CXXXIX. ISBN 978-0-3000-9314-8.
    17. ^ Owen, Roger (2001). Krieger, Joel (ed.). Suez Crisis. The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.[page needed]
    18. ^ "An affair to remember". The Economist. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
    19. ^ Ellis, Sylvia (2009). Historical Dictionary of Anglo-American Relations. Scarecrow Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-8108-6297-5.
    20. ^ Peden, G. C. (December 2012), "Suez and Britain's Decline as a World Power", The Historical Journal, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1073–1096, doi:10.1017/S0018246X12000246
    21. ^ Mullen, Matt; Onion, Amanda; Sullivan, Missy; Zapata, Christian (14 September 2022). "Suez Crisis". History Channel. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
    22. ^ Smith, Simon C., ed. (2016). Reassessing Suez 1956: New perspectives on the crisis and its aftermath. Routledge. pp. 216–218. ISBN 978-0-7546-6170-2.
    23. ^ Mastny, Vojtech (March 2002). "NATO in the Beholder's Eye: Soviet Perceptions and Policies, 1949–56" (PDF). Cold War International History Project. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 November 2023. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
    24. ^ Christopher, Adam (2010). The 1956 Hungarian Revolution: Hungarian and Canadian Perspectives. University of Ottawa Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7766-0705-4.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    30 October 1953President Eisenhower approves the top-secret document NSC 162/2 concerning the maintenance of a strong nuclear deterrent force against the Soviet Union.

    NSC 162/2

    Title page of NSC 162/2.

    NSC 162/2 was a policy paper of the United States National Security Council approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 30 October 1953 which defined the Cold War national security policy during the Eisenhower administration. NSC 162/2 was based upon NSC 162, which was the final synthesis of the task force reports of Project Solarium.[1] On 7 January 1955, NSC 162/2 was superseded by NSC 5501.[2]

    1. ^ Mitrovich, Gregory (2000). Undermining the Kremlin: America's Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947–1956. Cornell University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0801437113.
    2. ^ Mitrovich, Gregory (2000). Undermining the Kremlin: America's Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947–1956. Cornell University Press. p. 166. ISBN 0801437113.
     
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    30 October 1953President Eisenhower approves the top-secret document NSC 162/2 concerning the maintenance of a strong nuclear deterrent force against the Soviet Union.

    NSC 162/2

    Title page of NSC 162/2.

    NSC 162/2 was a policy paper of the United States National Security Council approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 30 October 1953 which defined the Cold War national security policy during the Eisenhower administration. NSC 162/2 was based upon NSC 162, which was the final synthesis of the task force reports of Project Solarium.[1] On 7 January 1955, NSC 162/2 was superseded by NSC 5501.[2]

    1. ^ Mitrovich, Gregory (2000). Undermining the Kremlin: America's Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947–1956. Cornell University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0801437113.
    2. ^ Mitrovich, Gregory (2000). Undermining the Kremlin: America's Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947–1956. Cornell University Press. p. 166. ISBN 0801437113.
     
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    31 October 1940World War II: The Battle of Britain ends, causing Germany to abandon Operation Sea Lion.

    Battle of Britain


    The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England, "air battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) of the Royal Navy defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It was the first major military campaign fought entirely by air forces.[13] The British officially recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as the Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941.[14] German historians do not follow this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to May 1941, including the Blitz.[15]

    The primary objective of the German forces was to compel Britain to agree to a negotiated peace settlement. In July 1940, the air and sea blockade began, with the Luftwaffe mainly targeting coastal-shipping convoys, as well as ports and shipping centres such as Portsmouth. On 1 August, the Luftwaffe was directed to achieve air superiority over the RAF, with the aim of incapacitating RAF Fighter Command; 12 days later, it shifted the attacks to RAF airfields and infrastructure. As the battle progressed, the Luftwaffe also targeted factories involved in aircraft production and strategic infrastructure. Eventually, it employed terror bombing on areas of political significance and on civilians.[nb 9]

    The Germans had rapidly overwhelmed France and the Low Countries in the Battle of France, leaving Britain to face the threat of invasion by sea. The German high command recognised the difficulties of a seaborne attack while the Royal Navy controlled the English Channel and the North Sea. On 16 July, Hitler ordered the preparation of Operation Sea Lion as a potential amphibious and airborne assault on Britain, to follow once the Luftwaffe had air superiority over the Channel. In September, RAF Bomber Command night raids disrupted the German preparation of converted barges, and the Luftwaffe's failure to overwhelm the RAF forced Hitler to postpone and eventually cancel Operation Sea Lion. The Luftwaffe proved unable to sustain daylight raids, but their continued night-bombing operations on Britain became known as the Blitz.

    Germany's failure to destroy Britain's air defences to force an armistice (or even an outright surrender) was the first major German defeat in the Second World War and a crucial turning point in the conflict.[17] The Battle of Britain takes its name from the speech given by Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the House of Commons on 18 June: "What General Weygand called the 'Battle of France' is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."[18]

    1. ^ a b Foreman 1989, p. 8
    2. ^ Haining 2005, p. 68
    3. ^ Peszke 1980, p. 134
    4. ^ a b Bungay 2000, p. 107
    5. ^ Wood & Dempster 2003, p. 318
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Bungay p. 368 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Ramsay 1989, pp. 251–297
    8. ^ "Battle of Britain RAF and FAA Roll of Honour". (Archived 17 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine.) RAF. Retrieved: 14 July 2008.
    9. ^ Wood & Dempster 2003, p. 309
    10. ^ Overy 2001, p. 161
    11. ^ a b Hans Ring, "Die Luftschlacht über England 1940", Luftfahrt international Ausgabe 12, 1980. p. 580.
    12. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 440. ISBN 978-0786474707.
    13. ^ "92 Squadron – Geoffrey Wellum." Battle of Britain Memorial Flight via raf.mod.uk.. Retrieved: 17 November 2010, archived 2 March 2009.
    14. ^ "Introduction to the Phases of the Battle – History of the Battle of Britain – Exhibitions & Displays – Research". RAF Museum. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    15. ^ Overy 2013, pp. 73–74.
    16. ^ Bungay 2000, pp. 305–306
    17. ^ Bungay 2000, p. 388
    18. ^ Stacey 1955, p. 18


    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1 November 1897 – Italian Sport-Club Juventus is founded by a group of students of Liceo Classico Massimo d'Azeglio.

    Juventus FC

    Juventus Football Club (from Latin: iuventūs, 'youth'; Italian pronunciation: [juˈvɛntus]), colloquially known as Juve (pronounced [ˈjuːve]),[5] is an Italian professional football club based in Turin, Piedmont, that competes in the Serie A, the top tier of the Italian football league system. Founded in 1897 by a group of Torinese students, the club has worn a black and white striped home kit since 1903 and has played home matches in different grounds around its city, the latest being the 41,507-capacity Juventus Stadium. Nicknamed la Vecchia Signora ("the Old Lady"), the club has won 36 official league title, 14 Coppa Italia titles and nine Supercoppa Italiana title, being the records holder for all these competitions; two Intercontinental Cup, two European Cup / UEFA Champions League, one European Cup Winners' Cup, a joint national record of three UEFA Cup, two UEFA Super Cup and a joint national records of one UEFA Intertoto Cup.[6][7] Consequently, the side leads the historical Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio (FIGC) classification,[c] whilst on the international stage the club occupies the sixth position in Europe and the twelfth in the world for most confederation title won with eleven trophies,[9] as well as the fourth in the all-time Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) competitions ranking,[d] having obtained the highest coefficient score during seven seasons since its introduction in 1979, the most for an Italian team in both cases and joint second overall in the last cited.

    Founded with the name of Sport-Club Juventus, initially as an athletics club,[11] it is the second oldest of its kind still active in the country after Genoa's football section (1893) and has competed every season of the premier club division (reformulated in different formats until the Serie A inception in 1929) since its debut in 1900 with the exception of the 2006–07 season, being managed by the industrial Agnelli family almost continuously since 1923.[e] The relationship between the club and that dynasty is the oldest and longest in national sports, making Juventus one of the first professional sporting clubs ante litteram in the country,[13] having established itself as a major force in the national stage since the 1930s and at confederation level since the mid-1970s,[14] and becoming, in a nearly stable basis, one of the top-ten wealthiest in world football in terms of value, revenue and profit since the mid-1990s,[15] being listed on the Borsa Italiana since 2001.[16]

    Under the management of Giovanni Trapattoni, the club won 13 trophies in the ten years before 1986, including six league title and five international title, and became the first to win all three seasonal competitions organised by the Union of European Football Associations: the 1976–77 UEFA Cup (first Southern European side to do so), the 1983–84 Cup Winners' Cup and the 1984–85 European Champions' Cup.[17] With successive triumphs in the 1984 European Super Cup and 1985 Intercontinental Cup, it became the first and thus far only in the world to complete a clean sweep of all five historical confederation trophies;[18] an achievement that they revalidated with the title won in the 1999 UEFA Intertoto Cup after another successful era led by Marcello Lippi,[19] becoming in addition, until 2022, the only professional Italian club to have won every ongoing honour available to the first team and organised by a national or international football association.[f] In December 2000, Juventus was placed seventh in the FIFA's historic ranking of the best clubs in the world,[20] and nine years later was ranked second best club in Europe during the 20th century based on a statistical study series by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS), the highest for an Italian club in both.[21]

    The club's fan base is the largest at national level and one of the largest worldwide.[22][23] Unlike most European sporting supporters' groups, which are often concentrated around their own club's city of origin,[24] it is widespread throughout the whole country and the Italian diaspora, making Juventus a symbol of anticampanilismo ("anti-parochialism") and italianità ("Italianness").[25][26] Juventus players have won eight Ballon d'Or awards, four of these in consecutive years (1982–1985, an overall joint record), among these Michel Platini as well as three of the five recipients with Italian nationality as the first player representing Serie A, Omar Sívori, and the former member of the youth sector Paolo Rossi; they have also won four FIFA World Player of the Year awards, with winners as Roberto Baggio and Zinedine Zidane, a national record and third and joint second highest overall, respectively, in the cited prizes. Finally, the club has also provided the most players to the Italy national team—mostly in official competitions in almost uninterrupted way since 1924—who often formed the group that led the Azzurri squad to international success, most importantly in the 1934, 1982 and 2006 FIFA World Cup.[27][28]


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "1° novembre 1897, nasce la Juventus: dal rosanero alla prima vittoria". Eurosport (in Italian). 1 November 2018. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    2. ^ "Juventus: storia, trofei, aneddoti e prossime partite del club bianconero". DAZN (in Italian). 26 May 2022. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    3. ^ "The story of a legend". Juventus Football Club S.p.A. official website. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    4. ^ "Buon compleanno, Juventus Stadium!" (in Italian). Juventus FC. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
    5. ^ Fabio Rossi; et al. (2003). "Sport e comunicazione nella società moderna". Enciclopedia dello sport (in Italian). Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017.
    6. ^ "Old Lady sits pretty". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2003.
    7. ^ "Juventus building bridges in Serie B". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017.
    8. ^ Consiglio Federale FIGC, ed. (27 May 2014). Comunicato ufficiale n. 171/A (PDF) (in Italian). Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio. pp. 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    9. ^ "Al Ahly é o clube com mais títulos internacionais; São Paulo é o 7º". Placar (in Portuguese). 21 February 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
    10. ^ "Which teams have played the most UEFA games?". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 2 June 2020. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
    11. ^ Manzo & Peirone (2006, p. 86)
    12. ^ Tranfaglia & Zunino (1998, p. 193)
    13. ^ Hazard & Gould 2001, pp. 209, 215.
    14. ^ "Breathing in football and Alpine air in Turin". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
    15. ^ Deloitte Sports Business Group (January 2017). Planet Football (PDF). Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Ltd. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 November 2017. {{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help); |work= ignored (help)
    16. ^ "Juventus Football Club" (in Italian). Borsa Italiana S.p.A. 14 April 2015. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015.
    17. ^ "Giovanni Trapattoni". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 31 May 2010. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
    18. ^ "1985: Juventus end European drought". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 December 1985. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013.
    19. ^ Paul Saffer (10 April 2016). "Paris aim to join multiple trophy winners". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017.
    20. ^ "The FIFA Club of the Century" (PDF). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
    21. ^ "Europe's Club of the Century". International Federation of Football History & Statistics. 10 September 2009. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012.
    22. ^ Demos & Pi (2016, pp. 3, 10)
    23. ^ AA.VV. (2016) [2015]. Sports DNA. Repucom S.A., cf. also Bilancio di sostenibilità (2016, p. 7)
    24. ^ Hazard & Gould 2001, p. 209.
    25. ^ Giovanni De Luna. 100 secondi: Nasce la Juventus. RAI Storia (in Italian). Event occurs at 0:01:13. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017.
    26. ^ Sappino 2000, pp. 712–713, 1491–1492.
    27. ^ Peter Staunton (10 July 2010). "Ten World Cup teams influenced by one club". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
    28. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1934wc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    1 November 1897 – Italian Sport-Club Juventus is founded by a group of students of Liceo Classico Massimo d'Azeglio.

    Juventus FC

    Juventus Football Club (from Latin: iuventūs, 'youth'; Italian pronunciation: [juˈvɛntus]), colloquially known as Juve (pronounced [ˈjuːve]),[5] is an Italian professional football club based in Turin, Piedmont, that competes in the Serie A, the top tier of the Italian football league system. Founded in 1897 by a group of Torinese students, the club has worn a black and white striped home kit since 1903 and has played home matches in different grounds around its city, the latest being the 41,507-capacity Juventus Stadium. Nicknamed la Vecchia Signora ("the Old Lady"), the club has won 36 official league title, 14 Coppa Italia titles and nine Supercoppa Italiana title, being the records holder for all these competitions; two Intercontinental Cup, two European Cup / UEFA Champions League, one European Cup Winners' Cup, a joint national record of three UEFA Cup, two UEFA Super Cup and a joint national records of one UEFA Intertoto Cup.[6][7] Consequently, the side leads the historical Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio (FIGC) classification,[c] whilst on the international stage the club occupies the sixth position in Europe and the twelfth in the world for most confederation title won with eleven trophies,[9] as well as the fourth in the all-time Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) competitions ranking,[d] having obtained the highest coefficient score during seven seasons since its introduction in 1979, the most for an Italian team in both cases and joint second overall in the last cited.

    Founded with the name of Sport-Club Juventus, initially as an athletics club,[11] it is the second oldest of its kind still active in the country after Genoa's football section (1893) and has competed every season of the premier club division (reformulated in different formats until the Serie A inception in 1929) since its debut in 1900 with the exception of the 2006–07 season, being managed by the industrial Agnelli family almost continuously since 1923.[e] The relationship between the club and that dynasty is the oldest and longest in national sports, making Juventus one of the first professional sporting clubs ante litteram in the country,[13] having established itself as a major force in the national stage since the 1930s and at confederation level since the mid-1970s,[14] and becoming, in a nearly stable basis, one of the top-ten wealthiest in world football in terms of value, revenue and profit since the mid-1990s,[15] being listed on the Borsa Italiana since 2001.[16]

    Under the management of Giovanni Trapattoni, the club won 13 trophies in the ten years before 1986, including six league title and five international title, and became the first to win all three seasonal competitions organised by the Union of European Football Associations: the 1976–77 UEFA Cup (first Southern European side to do so), the 1983–84 Cup Winners' Cup and the 1984–85 European Champions' Cup.[17] With successive triumphs in the 1984 European Super Cup and 1985 Intercontinental Cup, it became the first and thus far only in the world to complete a clean sweep of all five historical confederation trophies;[18] an achievement that they revalidated with the title won in the 1999 UEFA Intertoto Cup after another successful era led by Marcello Lippi,[19] becoming in addition, until 2022, the only professional Italian club to have won every ongoing honour available to the first team and organised by a national or international football association.[f] In December 2000, Juventus was placed seventh in the FIFA's historic ranking of the best clubs in the world,[20] and nine years later was ranked second best club in Europe during the 20th century based on a statistical study series by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS), the highest for an Italian club in both.[21]

    The club's fan base is the largest at national level and one of the largest worldwide.[22][23] Unlike most European sporting supporters' groups, which are often concentrated around their own club's city of origin,[24] it is widespread throughout the whole country and the Italian diaspora, making Juventus a symbol of anticampanilismo ("anti-parochialism") and italianità ("Italianness").[25][26] Juventus players have won eight Ballon d'Or awards, four of these in consecutive years (1982–1985, an overall joint record), among these Michel Platini as well as three of the five recipients with Italian nationality as the first player representing Serie A, Omar Sívori, and the former member of the youth sector Paolo Rossi; they have also won four FIFA World Player of the Year awards, with winners as Roberto Baggio and Zinedine Zidane, a national record and third and joint second highest overall, respectively, in the cited prizes. Finally, the club has also provided the most players to the Italy national team—mostly in official competitions in almost uninterrupted way since 1924—who often formed the group that led the Azzurri squad to international success, most importantly in the 1934, 1982 and 2006 FIFA World Cup.[27][28]


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "1° novembre 1897, nasce la Juventus: dal rosanero alla prima vittoria". Eurosport (in Italian). 1 November 2018. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    2. ^ "Juventus: storia, trofei, aneddoti e prossime partite del club bianconero". DAZN (in Italian). 26 May 2022. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    3. ^ "The story of a legend". Juventus Football Club S.p.A. official website. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
    4. ^ "Buon compleanno, Juventus Stadium!" (in Italian). Juventus FC. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
    5. ^ Fabio Rossi; et al. (2003). "Sport e comunicazione nella società moderna". Enciclopedia dello sport (in Italian). Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017.
    6. ^ "Old Lady sits pretty". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2003.
    7. ^ "Juventus building bridges in Serie B". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017.
    8. ^ Consiglio Federale FIGC, ed. (27 May 2014). Comunicato ufficiale n. 171/A (PDF) (in Italian). Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio. pp. 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    9. ^ "Al Ahly é o clube com mais títulos internacionais; São Paulo é o 7º". Placar (in Portuguese). 21 February 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
    10. ^ "Which teams have played the most UEFA games?". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 2 June 2020. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
    11. ^ Manzo & Peirone (2006, p. 86)
    12. ^ Tranfaglia & Zunino (1998, p. 193)
    13. ^ Hazard & Gould 2001, pp. 209, 215.
    14. ^ "Breathing in football and Alpine air in Turin". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
    15. ^ Deloitte Sports Business Group (January 2017). Planet Football (PDF). Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Ltd. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 November 2017. {{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help); |work= ignored (help)
    16. ^ "Juventus Football Club" (in Italian). Borsa Italiana S.p.A. 14 April 2015. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015.
    17. ^ "Giovanni Trapattoni". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 31 May 2010. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
    18. ^ "1985: Juventus end European drought". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 December 1985. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013.
    19. ^ Paul Saffer (10 April 2016). "Paris aim to join multiple trophy winners". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017.
    20. ^ "The FIFA Club of the Century" (PDF). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
    21. ^ "Europe's Club of the Century". International Federation of Football History & Statistics. 10 September 2009. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012.
    22. ^ Demos & Pi (2016, pp. 3, 10)
    23. ^ AA.VV. (2016) [2015]. Sports DNA. Repucom S.A., cf. also Bilancio di sostenibilità (2016, p. 7)
    24. ^ Hazard & Gould 2001, p. 209.
    25. ^ Giovanni De Luna. 100 secondi: Nasce la Juventus. RAI Storia (in Italian). Event occurs at 0:01:13. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017.
    26. ^ Sappino 2000, pp. 712–713, 1491–1492.
    27. ^ Peter Staunton (10 July 2010). "Ten World Cup teams influenced by one club". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
    28. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1934wc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    2 November 1899 – The Boers begin their 118-day siege of British-held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War.

    Siege of Ladysmith

    The siege of Ladysmith was a protracted engagement in the Second Boer War, taking place between 2 November 1899 and 28 February 1900 at Ladysmith, Natal.

     
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    3 November 1967Vietnam War: The Battle of Dak To begins.

    Battle of Dak To

    The battle of Dak To (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Đắk Tô - Tân Cảnh) in Vietnam was a series of major engagements of the Vietnam War that took place between 3 and 23 November 1967,[1] in Kon Tum Province, in the Central Highlands of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The action at Đắk Tô was one of a series of People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) offensive initiatives that began during the second half of the year. PAVN attacks at Lộc Ninh (in Bình Long Province), Sông Bé (in Phước Long Province) and at Con Thien and Khe Sanh, (in Quảng Trị Province), were other actions which, combined with Đắk Tô, became known as "the border battles". The post hoc purported objective of the PAVN forces was to distract American and South Vietnamese forces away from cities towards the borders in preparation for the Tet Offensive.

    During the summer of 1967, engagements with PAVN forces in the area prompted the launching of Operation Greeley, a combined search and destroy effort by elements of the U. S. 4th Infantry Division and 173rd Airborne Brigade, along with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) 42nd Infantry Regiment, 22nd Division and Airborne units. The fighting was intense and lasted into late 1967, when the PAVN seemingly withdrew.

    By late October U.S. intelligence indicated that local communist units had been reinforced and combined into the PAVN 1st Division, which was to capture Đắk Tô and destroy a brigade-size U.S. unit. Information provided by a PAVN defector provided the allies a good indication of the locations of PAVN forces. This intelligence prompted the launching of Operation MacArthur and brought the units back to the area along with more reinforcements from the ARVN Airborne Division. The battles on the hill masses south and southeast of Đắk Tô became some of the hardest-fought and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.

    1. ^ a b c Scott, Leonard B (1988). "The Battle of Hill 875, Dak To, Vietnam 1967" (PDF). Army War College. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2012.
    2. ^ a b Murphy, Edward F. (2007). Dak To: America's Sky Soldiers in South Vietnam's Central Highlands. Ballantine. p. 325. ISBN 9780891419105.
    3. ^ Stanton, Shelby L. (1985). The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973. Dell. p. 168. ISBN 9780891418276.
    4. ^ "Baotangkontum.vn". Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
    5. ^ Smedberg, M (2008). Vietnamkrigen: 1880–1980. Historiska Media. p. 211.
    6. ^ "B Btry 1/92nd FA Unit Citation - Dak To / Ben Het Vietnam". www.bravecannons.org.
     
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    4 November 1979Iran hostage crisis: A group of Iranian college students overruns the U.S. embassy in Tehran and takes 90 hostages.

    Iran hostage crisis

    The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, including Hossein Dehghan (future Iranian Minister of Defense), Mohammad Ali Jafari (future Revolutionary Guards Commander-In-Chief) and Mohammad Bagheri (future Chief of the General Staff of the Iranian Army),[3][4] took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran[5][6] and took them as hostages. The hostages were held for 444 days, from November 4, 1979 to their release on January 20, 1981. The crisis is considered a pivotal episode in the history of Iran–United States relations.[7]

    Western media described the crisis as an "entanglement" of "vengeance and mutual incomprehension".[8] U.S. President Jimmy Carter called the hostage-taking an act of "blackmail" and the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy".[9] In Iran, it was widely seen as an act against the U.S. and its influence in Iran, including its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution and its long-standing support of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was overthrown in 1979.[10] After Shah Pahlavi was overthrown, he was granted asylum and admitted to the U.S. for cancer treatment. The new Iranian regime demanded his return in order to stand trial for the crimes he was accused of committing against Iranians during his rule through his secret police. These demands were rejected, which Iran saw as U.S. complicity in those abuses. The U.S. saw the hostage-taking as an egregious violation of the principles of international law, such as the Vienna Convention, which granted diplomats immunity from arrest and made diplomatic compounds inviolable.[11][12][13][14] The Shah left the U.S. in December 1979 and was ultimately granted asylum in Egypt, where he died from complications of cancer at age 60 on July 27, 1980.

    Six American diplomats who had evaded capture were rescued by a joint CIA–Canadian effort on January 27, 1980. The crisis reached a climax in early 1980 after diplomatic negotiations failed to win the release of the hostages. Carter ordered the U.S. military to attempt a rescue mission – Operation Eagle Claw – using warships that included USS Nimitz and USS Coral Sea, which were patrolling the waters near Iran. The failed attempt on April 24, 1980, resulted in the death of one Iranian civilian and the accidental deaths of eight American servicemen after one of the helicopters crashed into a transport aircraft. U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance resigned his position following the failure. In September 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War. These events led the Iranian government to enter negotiations with the U.S., with Algeria acting as a mediator.

    Political analysts cited the standoff as a major factor in the continuing downfall of Carter's presidency and his landslide loss in the 1980 presidential election.[15] The hostages were formally released into United States custody the day after the signing of the Algiers Accords, just minutes after American President Ronald Reagan was sworn into office. In Iran, the crisis strengthened the prestige of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the political power of theocrats who opposed any normalization of relations with the West.[16] The crisis also led to American economic sanctions against Iran, which further weakened ties between the two countries.[17]

    1. ^ Clark, Mark Edmond (2016). "An Analysis of the Role of the Iranian Diaspora in the Financial Support System of the Mujaheddin-e-Khalid". In David Gold (ed.). Microeconomics. Routledge. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-1-317-04590-8. Following the seizure of the US embassy in Tehran, the MEK participated physically at the site by assisting in defending it from attack. The MEK also offered strong political support for the hostage-taking action.
    2. ^ Buchan, James (2013). Days of God: The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences. Simon and Schuster. p. 257. ISBN 978-1-4165-9777-3.
    3. ^ https://iranwire.com/en/features/65968/
    4. ^ "What Became of Those Who Seized the US Embassy in Tehran".
    5. ^ Penn, Nate (November 3, 2009). "444 Days in the Dark: An Oral History of the Iran Hostage Crisis". GQ. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
    6. ^ Sahimi, Muhammad (November 3, 2009). "The Hostage Crisis, 30 Years On". Frontline. PBS. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
    7. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (October 2008). "Inside Iran's Fury". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
    8. ^ Skow, John (January 26, 1981). "The Long Ordeal of the Hostages". Time. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
    9. ^ "Air Force Magazine" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. April 5, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
    10. ^ Kinzer, Stephen. "Thirty-five years after Iranian hostage crisis, the aftershocks remain". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
    11. ^ "Doing Satan's Work in Iran" (PDF). The New York Times. November 6, 1979. Archived from the original on February 1, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
    12. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2003). All The Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
    13. ^ Nalle, David (2003). "All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror". Middle East Policy. 10 (4): 148–155.
    14. ^ Pryce-Jones, David (2003). "A Very Elegant Coup". National Review. 55 (17): 48–50.
    15. ^ "Reagan's Lucky Day: Iranian Hostage Crisis Helped The Great Communicator To Victory". CBS News. January 21, 2001. Archived May 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
    16. ^ Mackey, Sandra (1996). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. New York: Dutton. p. 298. ISBN 9780525940050
    17. ^ "A Review Of US Unilateral Sanctions Against Iran". Mafhoum. August 26, 2002. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
     
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    5 November 1968Richard Nixon is elected as 37th President of the United States.

    Richard Nixon

    Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a representative and senator from California and as the 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. His presidency saw the reduction of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, détente with the Soviet Union and China, the Apollo 11 Moon landing, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Nixon's second term ended early when he became the only U.S. president to resign from office, as a result of the Watergate scandal.

    Nixon was born into a poor family of Quakers in a small town in Southern California. He graduated from Duke Law School in 1937, practiced law in California, and then moved with his wife Pat to Washington, DC, in 1942 to work for the federal government. After active duty in the Naval Reserve during World War II, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946. His work on the Alger Hiss case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist, which elevated him to national prominence, and in 1950, he was elected to the Senate. Nixon was the running mate of Eisenhower, the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1952 election, and served for eight years as vice president. He narrowly lost the 1960 presidential election to the Democratic Party nominee John F. Kennedy; after his loss in the 1962 race for governor of California, he announced his retirement from political life. However, in 1968, he made another run for the presidency and narrowly defeated the Democratic incumbent vice president Hubert Humphrey.

    Nixon ended American involvement in Vietnam combat in 1973 and the military draft in the same year. His visit to China in 1972 eventually led to diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he also then concluded the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union. Domestically, Nixon pushed for the Controlled Substances Act and began the war on drugs. Nixon's first term took place at the height of the American environmental movement and enacted many progressive environmental policy shifts; his administration created the Environmental Protection Agency and passed legislation such as the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Air Acts. He implemented the ratified Twenty-sixth Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18, and enforced the desegregation of Southern schools. Under Nixon, relations with Native Americans improved, seeing an increase in self-determination for Native Americans and his administration rescinded the termination policy. Nixon imposed wage and price controls for 90 days, began the war on cancer, and presided over the Apollo 11 Moon landing, which signaled the end of the Space Race. He was re-elected in 1972, when he defeated Democratic candidate George McGovern in one of the largest landslide victories in American history.

    In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, a conflict which led to the oil crisis at home. From 1973, ongoing revelations from the Nixon administration's involvement in Watergate eroded his support in Congress and the country. The scandal began with a break-in at the Democratic National Committee office, ordered by administration officials, and escalated despite cover-up efforts by the Nixon administration, of which he was aware. On August 9, 1974, facing almost certain impeachment and removal from office, Nixon resigned. Afterward, he was issued a controversial pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford. During nearly 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote ten books and undertook many foreign trips, rehabilitating his image into that of an elder statesman and leading expert on foreign affairs. He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later. Evaluations of his presidency have proven complex, with its successes contrasted against the circumstances of his departure.

    1. ^ "Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum" (PDF). September 21, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2015.
     
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    6 November 1977 – The Kelly Barnes Dam, located above Toccoa Falls College near Toccoa, Georgia, fails, killing 39

    Kelly Barnes Dam

    Kelly Barnes Dam was an earthen embankment dam in Stephens County, Georgia, just outside the city of Toccoa. Heavy rainfall caused it to collapse on November 6, 1977, and the resulting flood killed 39 people and caused $2.8 million in damage. The dam was never rebuilt.

    A memorial to the dead stands downstream, by Toccoa Falls on the campus of Toccoa Falls College.

     
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    7 November 1991Magic Johnson announces that he is HIV-positive and retires from the NBA.

    Magic Johnson

    Earvin "Magic" Johnson Jr. (born August 14, 1959) is an American businessperson and former professional basketball player. Often regarded as the greatest point guard of all time,[3][4][5][6][7] Johnson spent his entire career with the Los Angeles Lakers in the National Basketball Association (NBA). After winning a national championship with Michigan State in 1979, Johnson was selected first overall in the 1979 NBA draft by the Lakers, leading the team to five NBA championships during their "Showtime" era. Johnson retired abruptly in 1991 after announcing that he had contracted HIV, but returned to play in the 1992 All-Star Game, winning the All-Star MVP Award. After protests against his return from his fellow players, he retired again for four years, but returned in 1996, at age 36, to play 32 games for the Lakers before retiring for the third and final time.

    Known for his extraordinary court vision, passing abilities, and leadership on the court, Johnson was one of the most dominant players of his era. His career achievements include three NBA Most Valuable Player Awards, three NBA Finals MVPs, nine All-NBA First Team designations, and twelve All-Star games selections. He led the league in regular season assists four times, and is the NBA's all-time leader in average assists per game in both the regular season (11.19 assists per game) and the playoffs (12.35 assists per game).[8][9] He also holds the records for most career playoff assists and most career playoff triple-doubles.[10][11] Johnson was a member of the 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team ("The Dream Team"), which won the Olympic gold medal in Barcelona. After leaving the NBA in 1991, Johnson formed the Magic Johnson All-Stars, a barnstorming team that traveled around the world playing exhibition games.[12]

    Johnson was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996 and selected to the NBA 75th Anniversary Team in 2021, and became a two-time inductee into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame—being enshrined in 2002 for his individual career, and again in 2010 as a member of the "Dream Team".[13] His friendship and rivalry with Boston Celtics star Larry Bird, whom he faced in the 1979 NCAA finals and three NBA championship series, are well documented.

    Since his retirement, Johnson has been an advocate for HIV/AIDS prevention and safe sex,[14] as well as an entrepreneur,[15] philanthropist,[16] broadcaster and motivational speaker.[17] Johnson is a former part-owner of the Lakers and was the team's president of basketball operations in the late 2010s. He is a founding member of Guggenheim Baseball Management, managing entity of the MLB's Los Angeles Dodgers, and also partly owns the WNBA's Los Angeles Sparks, the MLS' Los Angeles FC, and the NFL's Washington Commanders. Johnson has won 14 total championships during his career, one in college, five as an NBA player and eight as an owner.[18]

    1. ^ Povtak, Tim (February 7, 1992). "Magic weekend is on tap as Johnson set for NBA encore". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
    2. ^ "2021–22 Big Ten Men's Basketball Media Guide" (PDF). Big Ten Conference. 2021. p. 88. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference greatestpg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference top10pg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ The Athletic NBA Staff (February 23, 2022). "NBA 75: Top 75 NBA players of all time, from MJ and LeBron to Lenny Wilkens". The Athletic. Archived from the original on April 7, 2022. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
    6. ^ Oram, Bill (February 14, 2022). "NBA 75: At No. 5, Magic Johnson combined dazzling playmaking with charisma to lead the Showtime Lakers to five titles". The Athletic. Archived from the original on August 17, 2022. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
    7. ^ Greer, Jordan (September 16, 2022). "Magic Johnson vs. Stephen Curry: Does Warriors star have stats case to surpass Lakers legend as GOAT point guard?". Sporting News. Archived from the original on November 28, 2022. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
    8. ^ "NBA & ABA Career Leaders and Records for Assists Per Game". Basketball Reference. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
    9. ^ "NBA & ABA Career Playoff Leaders and Records for Assists Per Game". Basketball Reference. Archived from the original on September 13, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
    10. ^ "NBA & ABA Career Playoff Leaders and Records for Assists". Basketball Reference. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
    11. ^ "NBA & ABA Career Playoff Leaders and Records for Triple-Doubles". Basketball Reference. Archived from the original on February 10, 2024. Retrieved February 10, 2024.
    12. ^ "Magic Johnson." Archived July 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. How Stuff Works. Retrieved June 4, 2022.
    13. ^ Rohlin, Melissa (April 4, 2020). "Magic Johnson Says It Breaks His Heart That Kobe Bryant Won't Be At Hall Of Fame Ceremony". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
    14. ^ Jaslow, Ryan (November 29, 2013). "Magic Johnson's HIV activism hasn't slowed 22 years after historic announcement". CBS News. Archived from the original on April 5, 2022. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference espnticket was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Haire, Thomas (May 1, 2003). "Do You Believe in 'Magic'?". Response Magazine. Archived from the original on October 26, 2006. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
    17. ^ Springer, Steve (November 7, 2001). "Magic's Announcement: 10 years later, a real survivor". Los Angeles Times. p. D1.
    18. ^ "Magic Johnson now has championship rings in the NBA, MLB and WNBA". Bardown. October 28, 2020. Archived from the original on November 16, 2021. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
     
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    8 November 1972 – American pay television network Home Box Office (HBO) launches.

    HBO

    Home Box Office (HBO) is an American pay television network, which is the flagship property of namesake parent-subsidiary Home Box Office, Inc., itself a unit owned by Warner Bros. Discovery. The overall Home Box Office business unit is based at Warner Bros. Discovery's corporate headquarters inside 30 Hudson Yards in Manhattan's West Side district. Programming featured on the network consists primarily of theatrically released motion pictures and original television programs as well as made-for-cable movies, documentaries, occasional comedy, and concert specials, and periodic interstitial programs (consisting of short films and making-of documentaries).

    HBO is the oldest subscription television service in the United States still in operation.[2] HBO pioneered modern pay television upon its launch on November 8, 1972: it was the first television service to be directly transmitted and distributed to individual cable television systems, and was the conceptual blueprint for the "premium channel", pay television services sold to subscribers for an extra monthly fee that does not accept traditional advertising and present their programming without editing for objectionable material. It eventually became the first television channel in the world to begin transmitting via satellite—expanding the growing regional pay service, originally available to cable and multipoint distribution service (MDS) providers in the northern Mid-Atlantic and southern New England, into a national television network—in September 1975, and, alongside sister channel Cinemax, was among the first two American pay television services to offer complimentary multiplexed channels in August 1991.

    The network operates seven 24-hour, linear multiplex channels as well as a traditional subscription video on demand platform (HBO On Demand) and its content is the centerpiece of Max (previously HBO Max), an expanded streaming platform operated separately from but sharing management with Home Box Office, Inc., which also includes original programming produced exclusively for the service and content from other Warner Bros. Discovery properties. The HBO linear channels are not presently accessible on HBO Max but continue to be available to existing subscribers of traditional and virtual pay television providers (including Hulu and YouTube TV, which also sell their HBO add-ons independently of their respective live TV tiers).[3][4]

    As of September 2018, HBO's programming was available to approximately 35.656 million U.S. households that had a subscription to a multichannel television provider (34.939 million of which receive HBO's primary channel at minimum),[5] giving it the largest subscriber total of any American premium channel. (From 2006 to 2018, this distinction was held by Starz Encore—currently owned by Lionsgate subsidiary Starz Inc.—which, according to February 2015 Nielsen estimates, had 40.54 million pay subscribers vs. the 35.8 million subscribers that HBO had at the time.)[6][7] In addition to its U.S. subscriber base, HBO distributes its programming content in at least 151 countries worldwide too, as of 2018, an estimated 140 million cumulative subscribers.[8][9]

    1. ^ "Contact US - WarnerMedia". WarnerMedia. September 2, 2022. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
    2. ^ Brandon, Elissaveta M. (May 26, 2023). "What was HBO Max thinking? 3 experts decode the rebrand blunder of the year". Fast Company. Archived from the original on June 1, 2023. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
    3. ^ Denise Petski (July 6, 2017). "Hulu Adds HBO In Time For 'Game Of Thrones Season 7 Premiere". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
    4. ^ Kris Holt (September 30, 2022). "You can now buy some YouTube TV add-ons without the $65 base plan". Engadget. Retrieved November 2, 2022.
    5. ^ Andrew Bucholtz (September 10, 2018). "Nielsen coverage estimates for September see gains at ESPN networks, NBCSN, and NBA TV, drops at MLBN and NFLN (Cable Network Coverage Area Household Universe Estimates: September 2018)". Awful Announcing. NESN Digital. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
    6. ^ Robert Seidman (July 21, 2015). "List of how many homes each cable network is in as of July 2015". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
    7. ^ "2015 Company Overview" (Press release). Starz Inc. December 31, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
    8. ^ "HBO: Home Box Office". Time Warner. September 24, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
    9. ^ AT&T 10-K for 2018


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    9 November 1729 – Spain, France and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Seville.

    Treaty of Seville

    The Treaty of Seville was signed on 9 November 1729 between Britain, France, and Spain, formally ending the 1727–1729 Anglo-Spanish War; the Dutch Republic joined the Treaty on 29 November.

    However, the Treaty failed to resolve underlying tensions that led first to the War of Jenkins' Ear in 1739, then the wider War of the Austrian Succession in 1740.

     
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    10 November 1989 – Germans begin to tear down the Berlin Wall.

    Berlin Wall

    Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
    West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˌliːnɐ ˈmaʊɐ] ) was a guarded concrete barrier that encircled West Berlin of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; West Germany) from 1961 to 1989, separating it from East Berlin and the German Democratic Republic (GDR; East Germany).[a][1][3] Construction of the Berlin Wall was commenced by the government of the GDR on 13 August 1961. It included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[4] accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, beds of nails and other defenses. The primary intention for the Wall's construction was to prevent East German citizens from fleeing to the West.[5]

    The Soviet Bloc propaganda portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from "fascist elements conspiring to prevent the will of the people" from building a communist state in the GDR. The authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall, pronounced [antifaˌʃɪstɪʃɐ ˈʃʊtsval] ). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.[6] Along with the separate and much longer inner German border, which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the Iron Curtain that separated the Western Bloc and Soviet satellite states of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[7]

    Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[8] During this period, over 100,000[9] people attempted to escape, and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll of those murdered by East German authorities ranging from 136[10] to more than 200[7][11] in and around Berlin.

    In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany.[12] In particular, the Pan-European Picnic in August 1989 set in motion a peaceful development during which the Iron Curtain largely broke, the rulers in the East came under pressure to cease their repressive policies, the Berlin Wall fell and finally the Eastern Bloc collapsed.[13][14][15] After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit the FRG and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.[7] The Brandenburg Gate, a few meters from the Berlin Wall, was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1994.[1] The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.[7]

    1. ^ a b c "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall". Chicago Tribune. 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    2. ^ Piotrowicz, Ryszard W.; Blay, Sam (1997). The unification of Germany in international and domestic law. Rodopi. p. 42. ISBN 90-5183-755-0. OCLC 36437948.
    3. ^ Video: Berlin, 1961/08/31 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    4. ^ Marck, Jack (October 2006). "Over the Wall: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience". American Heritage. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008.
    5. ^ "Berlin Wall". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 23 January 2024.
    6. ^ "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know". The Telegraph. 12 August 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    7. ^ a b c d "Berlin Wall Fast Facts". CNN. 16 September 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
    8. ^ "Freedom!". Time. 20 November 1989. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
    9. ^ "Victims of the Wall". www.berlin.de. 19 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chronik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference contemporary research was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Mary Elise Sarotte, Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014
    13. ^ Hilde Szabo: Die Berliner Mauer begann im Burgenland zu bröckeln (The Berlin Wall began to crumble in Burgenland - German), in Wiener Zeitung 16 August 1999; Otmar Lahodynsky: Paneuropäisches Picknick: Die Generalprobe für den Mauerfall (Pan-European picnic: the dress rehearsal for the fall of the Berlin Wall - German), in: Profil 9 August 2014.
    14. ^ Thomas Roser: DDR-Massenflucht: Ein Picknick hebt die Welt aus den Angeln (German - Mass exodus of the GDR: A picnic clears the world) in: Die Presse 16 August 2018.
    15. ^ Der 19. August 1989 war ein Test für Gorbatschows" (German - August 19, 1989 was a test for Gorbachev), in: FAZ 19 August 2009.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    11 November 1620 – The Mayflower Compact is signed in what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod.

    Mayflower Compact

    The Mayflower Compact, originally titled Agreement Between the Settlers of New Plymouth, was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the men aboard the Mayflower, consisting of Separatist Puritans, adventurers, and tradesmen. Although the agreement contained a pledge of loyalty to the King, the Puritans and other Protestant Separatists were dissatisfied with the state of the Church of England, the limited extent of the English Reformation and reluctance of King James I of England to enforce further reform.

    The Mayflower Compact was signed aboard ship on November 21 [O.S. November 11], 1620.[1] Signing the covenant were 41 of the ship's 101 passengers;[2][3] the Mayflower was anchored in Provincetown Harbor within the hook at the northern tip of Cape Cod.[4]

    1. ^ Bennett, William J.; Cribb, John T. E. (2013). The American Patriot's Almanac: Daily Readings on America. Thomas Nelson. p. 460. ISBN 978-1595553751.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Prince1736 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference passengers was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Young1841 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    12 November 1954Ellis Island ceases operations

    Ellis Island

    Ellis Island is a federally owned island in New York Harbor, situated within the U.S. states of New Jersey and New York, that was the busiest immigrant inspection and processing station in the United States. From 1892 to 1954, nearly 12 million immigrants arriving at the Port of New York and New Jersey were processed there under federal law.[6] Today, it is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument and is accessible to the public only by ferry. The north side of the island is the site of the main building, now a national museum of immigration. The south side of the island, including the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is open to the public only through guided tours.

    In the 19th century, Ellis Island was the site of Fort Gibson and later became a naval magazine. The first inspection station opened in 1892 and was destroyed by fire in 1897. The second station opened in 1900 and housed facilities for medical quarantines and processing immigrants. After 1924, Ellis Island was used primarily as a detention center for migrants. During both World War I and World War II, its facilities were also used by the US military to detain prisoners of war. After the immigration station's closure, the buildings languished for several years until they were partially reopened in 1976. The main building and adjacent structures were completely renovated in 1990.

    The 27.5-acre (11.1 ha) island was greatly expanded by land reclamation between the late 1890s and the 1930s. Jurisdictional disputes between New Jersey and New York State persisted until the 1998 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in New Jersey v. New York.

    1. ^ "Ellis Island – Hudson County, New Jersey". USGS. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
    2. ^ "Proclamation 3656 – Adding Ellis Island to the Statue of Liberty National Monument". April 5, 2010.
    3. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
    4. ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
    5. ^ Ellis Island Main Building Interior Designation Report 1993.
    6. ^ "Overview + History | Ellis Island". Statue of Liberty & Ellis Island. March 4, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
     
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    13 November 1947 – The Soviet Union completes development of the AK-47, one of the first proper assault rifles.

    AK-47

    The AK-47, officially known as the Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russian: Автомат Калашникова, lit. 'Kalashnikov's automatic [rifle]'; also known as the Kalashnikov or just AK), is a gas-operated assault rifle that is chambered for the 7.62×39mm cartridge. Developed in the Soviet Union by Russian small-arms designer Mikhail Kalashnikov, it is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov (or "AK") family of rifles. After more than eight decades since its creation, the AK-47 model and its variants remain one of the most popular and widely used firearms in the world.

    Design work on the AK-47 began in 1945. It was presented for official military trials in 1947, and, in 1948, the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service for selected units of the Soviet Army. In early 1949, the AK was officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces[9] and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact.

    The model and its variants owe their global popularity to their reliability under harsh conditions, low production cost (compared to contemporary weapons), availability in virtually every geographic region, and ease of use. The AK has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces and insurgencies throughout the world. As of 2004, "of the estimated 500 million firearms worldwide, approximately 100 million belong to the Kalashnikov family, three-quarters of which are AK-47s".[4] The model is the basis for the development of many other types of individual, crew-served, and specialized firearms.

    1. ^ Monetchikov 2005, chpts. 6 and 7: (if AK-46 and AK-47 are to be seen as separate designs).
    2. ^ Ezell, Edward Clinton (1986). The AK47 Story, Evolution of the Kalashnikov Weapons. Stackpole Books. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-811-70916-3.
    3. ^ Joe, Poyer (2004). The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications Inc. p. 8. ISBN 1-882391-33-0.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference k3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference foxnews was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АК 1967, pp. 161–162.
    7. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АКМ (АКМС) 1983, pp. 149–150.
    8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cite error: The named reference izhmash was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Monetchikov 2005, p. 67; Bolotin 1995, p. 129.
     
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    14 November 2008 – The first G-20 economic summit opens in Washington, D.C.

    2008 G20 Washington summit

    The 2008 G20 Washington Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy took place on November 14–15, 2008, in Washington, D.C., United States. It achieved general agreement amongst the G20 on how to cooperate in key areas so as to strengthen economic growth, deal with the 2008 financial crisis, and lay the foundation for reform to avoid similar crises in the future.[1][2] The Summit resulted from an initiative by the French and European Union President, Nicolas Sarkozy, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, and the British Prime Minister, Gordon Brown.[3][4] In connection with the G7 finance ministers on October 11, 2008, United States President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting of the G20 would be important in finding solutions to the economic crisis. Since many economists and politicians called for a new Bretton Woods system (a monetary management which was instituted after World War II) to overhaul the world's financial structure, the meeting has sometimes been described by the media as Bretton Woods II.[1]

    1. ^ a b "European call for 'Bretton Woods II'". Eurodad. 2008-10-16. Archived from the original on 2008-10-19. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
    2. ^ "Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy". White House. 2008-11-11. Archived from the original on 2011-10-23. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
    3. ^ Xu Yi-Chong (2011-08-03). "Australian Participation in the G20". Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
    4. ^ Lex Rieffel (2008-10-27). "The G-20 Summit: What's It All About?". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
     
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    15 November 1942World War II: The Battle of Guadalcanal ends in a decisive Allied victory.

    Naval Battle of Guadalcanal

    The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, sometimes referred to as the Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island, the Battle of the Solomons, The Battle of Friday the 13th, The Night of the Big Guns, or, in Japanese sources, the Third Battle of the Solomon Sea (第三次ソロモン海戦, Dai-san-ji Soromon Kaisen), took place from 12 to 15 November 1942 and was the decisive engagement in a series of naval battles between Allied (primarily American) and Imperial Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal campaign in the Solomon Islands during World War II. The action consisted of combined air and sea engagements over four days, most near Guadalcanal and all related to a Japanese effort to reinforce land forces on the island. The only two U.S. Navy admirals to be killed in a surface engagement in the war were lost in this battle.

    Allied forces landed on Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942 and seized an airfield, later called Henderson Field, that was under construction by the Japanese military. There were several subsequent attempts to recapture the airfield by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy using reinforcements delivered to Guadalcanal by ship, efforts which ultimately failed. In early November 1942, the Japanese organized a transport convoy to take 7,000 infantry troops and their equipment to Guadalcanal to attempt once again to retake the airfield. Several Japanese warship forces were assigned to bombard Henderson Field with the goal of destroying Allied aircraft that posed a threat to the convoy. Learning of the Japanese reinforcement effort, U.S. forces launched aircraft and warship attacks to defend Henderson Field and prevent the Japanese ground troops from reaching Guadalcanal.

    In the resulting battle, both sides lost numerous warships in two extremely destructive surface engagements at night. Nevertheless, the U.S. succeeded in turning back attempts by the Japanese to bombard Henderson Field with battleships. Allied aircraft also sank most of the Japanese troop transports and prevented the majority of the Japanese troops and equipment from reaching Guadalcanal. Thus, the battle turned back Japan's last major attempt to dislodge Allied forces from Guadalcanal and nearby Tulagi, resulting in a strategic victory for the U.S. and its allies and deciding the ultimate outcome of the Guadalcanal campaign in their favor. The Japanese decided on the evacuation of Guadalcanal the following month, which they completed by early February 1943.

    Guadalcanal was the last major naval battle in the Pacific War for the next one-and-a-half years, until the Battle of the Philippine Sea. It was one of the costliest naval battles of the Second World War in terms of lives lost.

    1. ^ Kirishima, Nagara and 4 destroyers return after the first night's engagement
    2. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 490; and Lundstrom, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 523.
    3. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 490. Frank's breakdown of Japanese losses includes only 450 soldiers on the transports, "a figure no American flier would have believed", p. 462, but cites Japanese records for this number.
      Miller, in Guadalcanal: The First Offensive (1948) Archived 23 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, cites "USAFISPA, Japanese Campaign in the Guadalcanal Area, 29–30, estimates that 7,700 troops had been aboard, of whom 3,000 drowned, 3,000 landed on Guadalcanal, and 1,700 were rescued." Frank's number is used here instead of Miller. Aircraft losses from Lundstrom, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 522.
     
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    16 November 1855David Livingstone becomes the first European to see the Victoria Falls in what is now Zambia-Zimbabwe.

    Victoria Falls

    Victoria Falls (Lozi: Mosi-oa-Tunya, "Thundering Smoke"; Tonga: Shungu Namutitima, "Boiling Water") is a waterfall on the Zambezi River in southern Africa, which provides habitat for several unique species of plants and animals. It is located on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe[2] and is one of the world's largest waterfalls, with a width of 1,708 m (5,604 ft).

    Archeological sites and oral history describe a long record of African knowledge of the site. Though known to some European geographers before the 19th century, Scottish missionary David Livingstone identified the falls in 1855, providing the British colonial name of Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria. Since the mid 20th century, the site has been an increasingly important source of tourism. Zambia and Zimbabwe both have national parks and tourism infrastructure at the site. Research in the late 2010s found that precipitation variability due to climate change is likely to change the character of the fall.

    1. ^ "Victoria Falls". World Waterfall Database. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
    2. ^ "Soar Above One of the Most Awe-Inspiring Waterfalls on Earth". National Geographic. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
     
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    17 November 1969Cold War: Negotiators from the Soviet Union and the United States meet in Helsinki, Finland to begin SALT I negotiations aimed at limiting the number of strategic weapons on both sides.

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

    The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War superpowers dealt with arms control in two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II.

    Negotiations commenced in Helsinki, in November 1969.[1] SALT I led to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and an interim agreement between the two countries.

    Although SALT II resulted in an agreement in 1979 in Vienna, the US Senate chose not to ratify the treaty in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which took place later that year. The Supreme Soviet did not ratify it either. The agreement expired on December 31, 1985, and was not renewed, although both sides continued to respect it.

    The talks led to the STARTs, or Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, which consisted of START I, a 1991 completed agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union, and START II, a 1993 agreement between the United States and Russia which never entered into effect, both of which proposed limits on multiple-warhead capacities and other restrictions on each side's number of nuclear weapons. A successor to START I, New START, was proposed and was eventually ratified in February 2011.

    1. ^ Paterson, Thomas G. (2009). American foreign relations: a history. Vol. 2 (7th ed.). Wadsworth. p. 376. ISBN 9780547225692. OCLC 553762544.
     
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    18 November 1905 – Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.

    Haakon VII

    Haakon VII (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈhôːkʊn]; born Prince Carl of Denmark; 3 August 1872 – 21 September 1957) was King of Norway from November 1905 until his death in September 1957.

    Originally a Danish prince, he was born in Copenhagen as the son of the future Frederick VIII of Denmark and Louise of Sweden. Prince Carl was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy and served in the Royal Danish Navy. After the 1905 dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway, Prince Carl was offered the Norwegian crown. Following a November plebiscite, he accepted the offer and was formally elected King of Norway by the Storting. He took the Old Norse name Haakon and ascended to the throne as Haakon VII, becoming the first independent Norwegian monarch since 1387.[1]

    As king, Haakon gained much sympathy from the Norwegian people. Although the Constitution of Norway vests the King with considerable executive powers, in practice Haakon confined himself to a representative and ceremonial role while rarely interfering in politics, a practice continued by his son and grandson.

    Norway was invaded by Nazi Germany in April 1940. Haakon rejected German demands to legitimise the Quisling regime's puppet government, vowing to abdicate rather than do so. He refused to abdicate after going into exile in Great Britain. As such, he played a pivotal role in uniting the Norwegian nation in its resistance to the invasion and the subsequent five-year-long occupation during the Second World War. He returned to Norway in June 1945 after the defeat of Germany.

    He became King of Norway when his grandfather Christian IX was still reigning in Denmark, and before his father and elder brother became kings of Denmark. During his reign he saw his father Frederick VIII, his elder brother Christian X, and his nephew Frederik IX ascend the throne of Denmark, in 1906, 1912 (also of Iceland from 1918 to 1944), and 1947 respectively. Haakon died at the age of 85 in September 1957, after having reigned for nearly 52 years. He was succeeded by his only son, who ascended to the throne as Olav V.[2]

    1. ^ "Carl (Haakon VII)". kongernessamling.dk. The Royal Danish Collection. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
    2. ^ "Kong Olav 5". nrk.no. Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
     
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    19 November 1969 – Association football player Pelé scores his 1,000th goal.

    Pelé

    Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈɛtsõ aˈɾɐ̃tʃiz du nasiˈmẽtu]; 23 October 1940 – 29 December 2022), better known by his nickname Pelé (Portuguese pronunciation: [peˈlɛ]), was a Brazilian professional footballer who played as a forward. Widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all-time, he was among the most successful and popular sports figures of the 20th century.[2][3] In 1999, he was named Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee and was included in the Time list of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. In 2000, Pelé was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS) and was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century. His 1,279 goals in 1,363 games, which includes friendlies, is recognised as a Guinness World Record.[4]

    Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, the only player to do so and the youngest player to win a World Cup (17). He was nicknamed O Rei (The King) following the 1958 tournament. With 77 goals in 92 games for Brazil, Pelé held the record as the national team's top goalscorer for over fifty years. At club level, he is Santos's all-time top goalscorer with 643 goals in 659 games. In a golden era for Santos, he led the club to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores, and to the 1962 and 1963 Intercontinental Cup. Credited with connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football, Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, and his teams toured internationally to take full advantage of his popularity.[5] During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world. After retiring in 1977, Pelé was a worldwide ambassador for football and made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the honorary president of the New York Cosmos.

    Averaging almost a goal per game throughout his career, Pelé was adept at striking the ball with either foot in addition to anticipating his opponents' movements on the field. While predominantly a striker, he could also drop deep and take on a playmaking role, providing assists with his vision and passing ability, and he would also use his dribbling skills to go past opponents. In Brazil, he was hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor. His emergence at the 1958 World Cup, where he became a black global sporting star, was a source of inspiration.[6] Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received numerous individual and team awards for his performance on the field, his record-breaking achievements, and his legacy in the sport.

    1. ^ "Pelé, who rose from a Brazilian slum to become the world's greatest soccer player, dies at 82". Los Angeles Times. 29 December 2022. Archived from the original on 29 December 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference fifa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Luhn, Michele (29 December 2022). "Pelé, Brazilian soccer star and the only player to win the World Cup three times, dies at age 82". CNBC. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference GWR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference britannica was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ronay was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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    20 November 1969 – Occupation of Alcatraz: Native American activists seize control of Alcatraz Island until being ousted by the U.S. Government on June 11, 1971.

    Occupation of Alcatraz

    Graffiti on the water tower

    The Occupation of Alcatraz (November 20, 1969 – June 11, 1971) was a 19-month long protest when 89 Native Americans and their supporters occupied Alcatraz Island. The protest was led by Richard Oakes, LaNada Means, and others, while John Trudell served as spokesman. The group lived on the island together until the protest was forcibly ended by the U.S. government.

    The protest group chose the name Indians of All Tribes (IAT) for themselves.[1] IAT claimed that, under the Treaty of Fort Laramie between the U.S. and the Lakota tribe, all retired, abandoned, or out-of-use federal land was to be returned to the Indigenous peoples who once occupied it. As Alcatraz penitentiary had been closed on March 21, 1963, and the island had been declared surplus federal property in 1964, a number of Red Power activists felt that the island qualified for a reclamation by Indians.

    The Occupation of Alcatraz had a brief effect on federal Indian Termination policies and established a precedent for Indian activism. Oakes was shot to death in 1972, and the American Indian Movement was later targeted by the federal government and the FBI in COINTELPRO operations.

    1. ^ Kelly, Casey Ryan (2014). "Détournement, Decolonization, and the American Indian Occupation of Alcatraz Island (1969–1971)". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 44 (2): 168–190. doi:10.1080/02773945.2014.888464. S2CID 143586269.
     
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    21 November 2017Robert Mugabe formally resigns as President of Zimbabwe, after thirty-seven years in office.

    Robert Mugabe

    Robert Gabriel Mugabe (/mʊˈɡɑːbi/;[1] Shona: [muɡaɓe]; 21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017. He served as Leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist, and as a socialist after the 1990s.[clarification needed]

    Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Educated at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a schoolteacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered by white minority rule of his homeland within the British Empire, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalists calling for an independent state controlled by the black majority. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw its role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominantly white government. He reluctantly participated in peace talks in the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement, putting an end to the war. In the 1980 general election, Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory, becoming Prime Minister when the country, now renamed Zimbabwe, gained internationally recognised independence later that year. Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream economic policies.

    Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also deteriorated. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1987, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 20,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians. Internationally, he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–1989), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–1998), and the African Union (2015–2016). Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, economic decline, and foreign sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa.

    Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe was a controversial figure. He was praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule. Critics accused Mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement and widespread corruption and human rights abuses, including anti-white racism, crimes against humanity and genocide.

    1. ^ "Mugabe". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary.
     
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    22 November 1963 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy is assassinated and Texas Governor John Connally is seriously wounded by Lee Harvey Oswald,

    Assassination of John F. Kennedy

    On November 22, 1963, John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, was assassinated while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was in the vehicle with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie, when he was fatally shot from the nearby Texas School Book Depository by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald. The motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where Kennedy was pronounced dead about 30 minutes after the shooting; Connally was also wounded in the attack but recovered. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was hastily sworn in as president two hours and eight minutes later aboard Air Force One at Dallas Love Field.

    After the assassination, Oswald returned home to retrieve a pistol; he shot and killed lone Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit shortly afterwards. Around 70 minutes after Kennedy and Connally were shot, Oswald was apprehended by the Dallas Police Department and charged under Texas state law with the murders of Kennedy and Tippit. At 11:21 a.m. on November 24, 1963, as live television cameras covered Oswald's being moved through the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters, he was fatally shot by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby. Like Kennedy, Oswald was taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where he soon died. Ruby was convicted of Oswald's murder, though the decision was overturned on appeal, and Ruby died in prison in 1967 while awaiting a new trial.

    After a 10-month investigation, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald assassinated Kennedy, and that there was no evidence that either Oswald or Ruby was part of a conspiracy. In 1967, New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison brought the only trial for Kennedy's murder, against businessman Clay Shaw; Shaw was acquitted. Subsequent federal investigations—such as the Rockefeller Commission and Church Committee—agreed with the Warren Commission's general findings. In its 1979 report, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that Kennedy was likely "assassinated as a result of a conspiracy". The HSCA did not identify possible conspirators, but concluded that there was "a high probability that two gunmen fired at [the] President". The HSCA's conclusions were largely based on a police Dictabelt recording later debunked by the U.S. Justice Department.

    Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned many conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios; polls found that a majority of Americans believed there was a conspiracy. The assassination left a profound impact and was the first of four major assassinations during the 1960s in the United States, coming two years before the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, and five years before the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Kennedy's brother Robert in 1968. Kennedy was the fourth U.S. president to be assassinated and is the most recent to have died in office.

     
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    23 November 2007MS Explorer, a cruise liner carrying 154 people, sinks in the Antarctic Ocean south of Argentina after hitting an iceberg near the South Shetland Islands. There are no fatalities and everyone was rescued.

    MV Explorer (1969)

    The MS Explorer or MV Explorer was a Liberian-registered cruise ship, the first vessel of that kind used specifically to sail the icy waters of the Antarctic Ocean. She was the first cruise ship to sink there,[3] after striking an iceberg on 23 November 2007. All passengers and crew were rescued.[4]

    The ship was commissioned and operated by the Swedish explorer Lars-Eric Lindblad. Its 1969 expeditionary cruise to Antarctica was the forerunner for today's sea-based tourism in that region.[5][6] The vessel was originally named MS Lindblad Explorer (until 1985), and MS Society Explorer (until 1992). Ownership of the vessel changed several times, the last owner being the Toronto-based travel company G.A.P Adventures which acquired Explorer in 2004.[2][7]

    Explorer was abandoned in the early hours of 23 November 2007 after taking on water near the South Shetland Islands in the Southern Ocean, an area which is usually stormy but was calm at the time.[8] Explorer was confirmed by the Chilean Navy to have sunk at an approximate position of 62°24′S 57°16′W / 62.400°S 57.267°W / -62.400; -57.267, between the South Shetlands and Grahams Land in the Bransfield Strait;[9] where the depth is roughly 600 m.[10] The Royal Navy Antarctic Patrol Ship Endurance, whilst carrying out a hydrographic survey for the British Antarctic Survey and at the request of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, later pinpointed Explorer's final resting place as 62°24′17.57″S 57°11′46.49″W / 62.4048806°S 57.1962472°W / -62.4048806; -57.1962472, at an approximate depth of 1,130 m – a distance of 4,373 m from her reported sinking position. This is broadly consistent with the direction of the prevailing current.[11]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Possibly also named MS World Explorer after 1985
    3. ^ Reel, Monte (24 November 2007). "Cruise Ship Sinks Off Antarctica". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
    4. ^ "154 Rescued From Sinking Ship in Antarctic: Passengers, Crew Boarding Another Ship After Wait In Lifeboats; No Injuries Reported". CBS News. 23 November 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007.
    5. ^ Mar 28 – Hump Day Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, British Antarctic Survey.
    6. ^ Scope of Antarctic Tourism – A Background Presentation Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, IAATO official website.
    7. ^ "Expeditions aboard the legendary M/S Explorer". G.A.P. Adventures. Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
    8. ^ "Doomed Ship Defies Antarctica Odds". Reuters. 25 November 2007. Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
    9. ^ "MS Explorer – situation report". The Falkland Islands News. 23 November 2007. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
    10. ^ MV Explorer Cruise Ship Sinking In South Atlantic, The Shipping Times, 23 November 2007
    11. ^ "Royal Navy Locates Antarctic Wreck of Cruise Liner". Fleet Media & Communication, Royal Navy. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
     
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    24 November 1974Donald Johanson and Tom Gray discover the 40% complete Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, nicknamed "Lucy" (after The Beatles song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"), in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression.

    Lucy (Australopithecus)

    AL 288-1, commonly known as Lucy or Dinkʼinesh (Amharic: ድንቅ ነሽ, lit.'you are marvellous'), is a collection of several hundred pieces of fossilized bone comprising 40 percent of the skeleton of a female of the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis. It was discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia, at Hadar, a site in the Awash Valley of the Afar Triangle, by Donald Johanson, a paleoanthropologist of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.[1][2][3]

    Lucy is an early australopithecine and is dated to about 3.2 million years ago. The skeleton presents a small skull akin to that of non-hominin apes, plus evidence of a walking-gait that was bipedal and upright, akin to that of humans (and other hominins); this combination supports the view of human evolution that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size.[4][5] A 2016 study proposes that Australopithecus afarensis was also, to a large extent, tree-dwelling, though the extent of this is debated.[6][7]

    Lucy was named by Pamela Alderman after the 1967 song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" by the Beatles, which was played loudly and repeatedly in the expedition camp all evening after the excavation team's first day of work on the recovery site.[8] After public announcement of the discovery, Lucy captured much international interest, becoming a household name at the time.

    Lucy became famous worldwide, and the story of her discovery and reconstruction was published in a book by Johanson and Edey. Beginning in 2007, the fossil assembly and associated artefacts were exhibited publicly in an extended six-year tour of the United States; the exhibition was called Lucy's Legacy: The Hidden Treasures of Ethiopia. There was discussion of the risks of damage to the unique fossils, and other museums preferred to display casts of the fossil assembly.[9] The original fossils were returned to Ethiopia in 2013, and subsequent exhibitions have used casts.

    1. ^ Johanson & Wong 2009, p. 8.
    2. ^ Johanson & Wong 2009, p. 9.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference iho1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Hadar entry in Encyclopædia (2008).
    5. ^ Tomkins, Stephen (1998). The Origins of Humankind. Cambridge University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-521-46676-9.
    6. ^ Klein, Joanna (November 30, 2016). "Study Suggests 3.2 Million-Year-Old Lucy Spent a Lot of Time in Trees". New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
    7. ^ Ruff, Christopher B.; Burgess, M. Loring; Ketcham, Richard A.; Kappelman, John (2016). "Limb Bone Structural Proportions and Locomotor Behavior in A.L. 288-1". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0166095. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1166095R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166095. PMC 5130205. PMID 27902687.
    8. ^ Johanson & Wong 2009, pp. 7–8.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference bloom was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    25 November 1759 – An earthquake hits the Mediterranean destroying Beirut and Damascus and killing 30,000–40,000.

    Near East earthquakes of 1759

    The Near East earthquakes of 1759 were a series of devastating earthquakes that shook a large portion of the Levant in October and November of that year. This geographical crossroads in the Eastern Mediterranean were at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire (now includes portions of Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Israel and Palestine). The ruins of Baalbek, a settlement in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon east of the Litani River, were badly damaged. These 1759 events, along with the earlier 1202 Syria earthquake, are likely the strongest historical earthquakes in the region.[4]

    1. ^ a b Kitto 1841, p. xc
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Yeats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Kitto 1841, p. xlxxxix
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Daeron_p529 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    26 November 1942 – Casablanca, the movie starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, premieres in New York City.

    Casablanca (film)

    Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Paul Henreid. Filmed and set during World War II, it focuses on an American expatriate (Bogart) who must choose between his love for a woman (Bergman) and helping her husband (Henreid), a Czechoslovak resistance leader, escape from the Vichy-controlled city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Germans. The screenplay is based on Everybody Comes to Rick's, an unproduced stage play by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison. The supporting cast features Claude Rains, Conrad Veidt, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, and Dooley Wilson.

    Warner Bros. story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the film rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were initially assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capra's Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay until the Epsteins returned a month later. Principal photography began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3; the film was shot entirely at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California, with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Los Angeles.

    Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to stand out among the many pictures produced by Hollywood yearly.[7] Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier.[8] It had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run.

    Exceeding expectations, Casablanca went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, while Curtiz was selected as Best Director and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for Best Adapted Screenplay. Its reputation has gradually grown, to the point that its lead characters,[9] memorable lines,[10] and pervasive theme song[11] have all become iconic, and it consistently ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history. In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected the film as one of the first for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

    1. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 15, 1996). "Great Movies: Casablanca". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2015. Bogart, Bergman and Paul Henreid were stars, and no better cast of supporting actors could have been assembled on the Warners lot than Peter Lorre, Sidney Greenstreet, Claude Rains and Dooley Wilson
    2. ^ "Casablanca (U)". Warner Bros. British Board of Film Classification. December 17, 1942. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
    3. ^ Schatz, Thomas (1999). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. University of California Press. p. 218. ISBN 9780520221307.
    4. ^ a b Warner Bros financial information in "The William Shaefer Ledger". See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (1995) 15:sup 1, 1–31 p. 23 doi:10.1080/01439689508604551
    5. ^ "Casablanca". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
    6. ^ "Top Grossers of the Season". Variety. January 5, 1944. p. 54. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017.
    7. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 15, 1996). "Casablanca (1942)". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
    8. ^ Stein, Eliot (May 1995). "Howard Koch, Julius Epstein, Frank Miller Interview". Vincent's Casablanca. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved June 11, 2008. Frank Miller: "There was a scene planned, after the ending, that would have shown Rick and Renault on an Allied ship just prior to the landing at Casablanca, but plans to shoot it were scrapped when the marketing department realized they had to get the film out fast to capitalize on the liberation of North Africa."
    9. ^ Smith, Briony; Wallace, Andrew. "The demise of dating: Two writers square off on their favourite fictional dating men". Elle Canada. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
      - "How Hollywood (Fictionally) Won World War Two". Empire. August 4, 2011. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
    10. ^ Jones, Emma (February 13, 2012). "Guess the movie quote: How well do you know classic romantic films?: Casablanca". MSN Entertainment Canada. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
      - Doyle, Dee (June 5, 2008). "Best Movie Lines That Have Stuck In Pop Culture". starpulse.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
      - "Round up the usual suspects", for example, has been incorporated in the titles of business Archived November 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, sociology and political science Archived December 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine articles.
    11. ^ Beckerman, Jim. "Clifton's crazy connection to 'Casablanca'". North Jersey. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
      - "Casablanca As Time Goes By Piano Up For Sale". Sky News. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
     
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    27 November 1918 – The Makhnovshchina is established.

    Makhnovshchina

    The Makhnovshchina (Ukrainian: Махновщина, romanizedMakhnovshchyna) was a mass movement to establish anarchist communism in southern and eastern Ukraine during the Ukrainian War of Independence of 1917–1921. Named after Nestor Makhno, the commander-in-chief of the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine, its aim was to create a system of free soviets that would manage the transition towards a stateless and classless society.

    The Makhnovist movement first gained ground in the wake of the February Revolution, when it established a number of agricultural communes in Makhno's home town of Huliaipole. After siding with the Bolsheviks during the Ukrainian–Soviet War, the Makhnovists were driven underground by the Austro-German invasion and waged guerrilla warfare against the Central Powers throughout 1918. After the insurgent victory at the Battle of Dibrivka, the Makhnovshchina came to control much of Katerynoslav province and set about constructing anarchist-communist institutions. A Regional Congress of Peasants, Workers and Insurgents was convened to organise the region politically and economically, with a Military Revolutionary Council being established as the movement's de facto executive organ.

    Surrounded on all sides by different enemies, the Makhnovist line in the battle for the Donbas eventually fell to the advancing White movement in June 1919. The Makhnovists were subsequently driven into a retreat to Kherson, where they reorganised their military and led a successful counteroffensive against the Whites at the Battle of Peregonovka. With the White advance defeated, the Makhnovists came to control most of southern and eastern Ukraine in late 1919, even taking over a number of large industrial cities, despite being a predominantly peasant movement.

    The Makhnovist control over the region was brought to an end when the Red Army invaded Ukraine in January 1920, initiating the Bolshevik–Makhnovist conflict. The Makhnovists waged a guerrilla war against the forces of the Red Terror and war communism, supported in large part by their peasant base. Although a peace was briefly secured by the two factions with the Starobilsk agreement (in order to combat the remnants of the White movement), the Makhnovists were again attacked by the Red Army and eventually defeated by August 1921. Leading Makhnovists were either driven into exile, defeated or captured and killed by the Red Army.

     
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    28 November 1960Mauritania becomes independent of France.

    Mauritania

    Mauritania,[a] officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Arabic: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية, al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah), is a sovereign country in Northwest Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest. By land area, Mauritania is the 11th-largest country in Africa and the 28th-largest in the world, and 90% of its territory is situated in the Sahara. Most of its population of approximately 4.3 million lives in the temperate south of the country, with roughly one-third concentrated in the capital and largest city, Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.

    The country's name derives from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, located in North Africa within the ancient Maghreb. Berbers occupied what is now Mauritania beginning in the third century AD. Arabs under the Umayyad Caliphate conquered the area in the late seventh century, bringing Islam, Arab culture, and the Arabic language. In the early 20th century, Mauritania was colonized by France as part of French West Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, but has since experienced recurrent coups and periods of military dictatorship. The most recent coup, in 2008, was led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, who won subsequent presidential elections in 2009 and 2014.[8] He was succeeded by Mohamed Ould Ghazouani following the 2019 elections, which were considered Mauritania's first peaceful transition of power since independence.[9]

    Mauritania is culturally and politically part of the Arab world; it is a member of the Arab League and Arabic is the official language. The official religion is Islam, and almost all inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. Despite its prevailing Arab identity, Mauritanian society is multiethnic; the Bidhan, or so-called "white moors", make up 30% of the population,[10] while the Haratin, or so-called "black moors", comprise 40%.[10] Both groups reflect a fusion of Arab-Berber ethnicity, language, and culture. The remaining 30% of the population comprises various sub-Saharan ethnic groups.

    Despite an abundance of natural resources, including iron ore and petroleum, Mauritania remains poor; its economy is based primarily on agriculture, livestock, and fishing. Mauritania is generally seen as having a poor human rights record, and is particularly censured for the perpetuation of slavery as an institution within Mauritanian society, with an estimation by the 2018 Global Slavery Index of about 90,000 slaves in the country (or 2.1% of the population).[11][12][13]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "1: Répartition spatiale de la population" (PDF). Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat (RGPH) 2013 (Report) (in French). National Statistical Office of Mauritania. July 2015. p. v. Retrieved 20 December 2015.[permanent dead link]
    3. ^ "Mauritania". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
    4. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Mauritania)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
    5. ^ "Gini Index coefficient". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
    6. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    7. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
    8. ^ Diagana, Kissima (23 June 2019). "Ruling party candidate declared winner of Mauritania election". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 June 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
    9. ^ "First peaceful transfer of power in Mauritania's presidential polls". RFI. 22 June 2019. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
    10. ^ a b "Mauritania - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
    11. ^ "Global Slavery Index country data – Mauritania". Global Slavery Index. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
    12. ^ "Activists warn over slavery as Mauritania joins U.N. human rights council". reuters.com. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
    13. ^ "Mauritania". United States Department of State. Retrieved 18 December 2023.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    28 November 1960Mauritania becomes independent of France.

    Mauritania

    Mauritania,[a] officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Arabic: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية, al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah), is a sovereign country in Northwest Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest. By land area, Mauritania is the 11th-largest country in Africa and the 28th-largest in the world, and 90% of its territory is situated in the Sahara. Most of its population of approximately 4.3 million lives in the temperate south of the country, with roughly one-third concentrated in the capital and largest city, Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.

    The country's name derives from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, located in North Africa within the ancient Maghreb. Berbers occupied what is now Mauritania beginning in the third century AD. Arabs under the Umayyad Caliphate conquered the area in the late seventh century, bringing Islam, Arab culture, and the Arabic language. In the early 20th century, Mauritania was colonized by France as part of French West Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, but has since experienced recurrent coups and periods of military dictatorship. The most recent coup, in 2008, was led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, who won subsequent presidential elections in 2009 and 2014.[8] He was succeeded by Mohamed Ould Ghazouani following the 2019 elections, which were considered Mauritania's first peaceful transition of power since independence.[9]

    Mauritania is culturally and politically part of the Arab world; it is a member of the Arab League and Arabic is the official language. The official religion is Islam, and almost all inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. Despite its prevailing Arab identity, Mauritanian society is multiethnic; the Bidhan, or so-called "white moors", make up 30% of the population,[10] while the Haratin, or so-called "black moors", comprise 40%.[10] Both groups reflect a fusion of Arab-Berber ethnicity, language, and culture. The remaining 30% of the population comprises various sub-Saharan ethnic groups.

    Despite an abundance of natural resources, including iron ore and petroleum, Mauritania remains poor; its economy is based primarily on agriculture, livestock, and fishing. Mauritania is generally seen as having a poor human rights record, and is particularly censured for the perpetuation of slavery as an institution within Mauritanian society, with an estimation by the 2018 Global Slavery Index of about 90,000 slaves in the country (or 2.1% of the population).[11][12][13]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "1: Répartition spatiale de la population" (PDF). Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat (RGPH) 2013 (Report) (in French). National Statistical Office of Mauritania. July 2015. p. v. Retrieved 20 December 2015.[permanent dead link]
    3. ^ "Mauritania". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
    4. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Mauritania)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
    5. ^ "Gini Index coefficient". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
    6. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    7. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
    8. ^ Diagana, Kissima (23 June 2019). "Ruling party candidate declared winner of Mauritania election". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 June 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
    9. ^ "First peaceful transfer of power in Mauritania's presidential polls". RFI. 22 June 2019. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
    10. ^ a b "Mauritania - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
    11. ^ "Global Slavery Index country data – Mauritania". Global Slavery Index. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
    12. ^ "Activists warn over slavery as Mauritania joins U.N. human rights council". reuters.com. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
    13. ^ "Mauritania". United States Department of State. Retrieved 18 December 2023.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1
    29 November 1972Atari releases Pong, the first commercially successful video game

    Pong

    Pong is a table tennis–themed twitch arcade sports video game, featuring simple two-dimensional graphics, manufactured by Atari and originally released on 29 November 1972. It was one of the earliest arcade video games; it was created by Allan Alcorn as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell, but Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney were surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work and decided to manufacture the game. Bushnell based the game's concept on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console. In response, Magnavox later sued Atari for patent infringement.

    Pong was the first commercially successful video game,[3] and it helped to establish the video game industry along with the Magnavox Odyssey. Soon after its release, several companies began producing games that closely mimicked its gameplay. Eventually, Atari's competitors released new types of video games that deviated from Pong's original format to varying degrees, and this, in turn, led Atari to encourage its staff to move beyond Pong and produce more innovative games themselves.

    Atari released several sequels to Pong that built upon the original's gameplay by adding new features. During the 1975 Christmas season, Atari released a home version of Pong exclusively through Sears retail stores. The home version was also a commercial success and led to numerous clones. The game was remade on numerous home and portable platforms following its release. Pong is part of the permanent collection of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., due to its cultural impact.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Akagi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "After Pong". ACE. No. 6 (March 1988). 4 February 1988. pp. 29–32 (31).
    3. ^ "Atari PONG". The Centre for Computing History. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
     
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    30 November 1966 – Decolonization: Barbados becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

    Barbados

    Barbados (UK: /bɑːrˈbdɒs/ bar-BAY-doss; US: /bɑːrˈbds/ bar-BAY-dohss; locally /bɑːrˈbdəs/ bar-BAY-dəss) is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America, and is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands. It lies on the boundary of the South American and the Caribbean Plates. Its capital and largest city is Bridgetown.

    Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, and prior to that by other Indigenous peoples, Spanish navigators took possession of Barbados in the late 15th century, claiming it for the Crown of Castile. It first appeared on a Spanish map in 1511.[6] The Portuguese Empire claimed the island between 1532 and 1536, but abandoned it in 1620 with their only remnants being an introduction of wild boars for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados on 14 May 1625; its men took possession of the island in the name of King James I. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and Barbados became an English and later British colony.[7] During this period, the colony operated on a plantation economy, relying on the labour of African slaves who worked on the island's plantations. Slavery continued until it was phased out through most of the British Empire by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

    On 30 November 1966, Barbados gained independence and became a Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as Queen of Barbados. On 30 November 2021, Barbados transitioned to a republic within the Commonwealth.[8][9]

    Barbados's population is predominantly of African ancestry. While it is technically an Atlantic island, Barbados is closely associated with the Caribbean and is ranked as one of its leading tourist destinations.[10]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Our World in Data".
    3. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Barbados)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 20 October 2023.
    4. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    5. ^ "Barbados". 29 August 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. (fco.gov.uk), updated 5 June 2006.
    6. ^ Sauer, Carl Ortwin (1969) [1966]. Early Spanish Main, The. University of California Press. pp. 192–197. ISBN 0-520-01415-4.
    7. ^ Secretariat. "Barbados – History". Commonwealth of Nations. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014.
    8. ^ Said-Moorhouse, Lauren; Foster, Max (30 November 2021). "Barbadians celebrate the birth of a republic and bid farewell to the Queen". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
    9. ^ Safi, Michael (30 November 2021). "Barbados parts way with Queen and becomes world's newest republic". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
    10. ^ Belle, Nicole; Bramwell, Bill (1 August 2005). "Climate Change and Small Island Tourism: Policy Maker and Industry Perspectives in Barbados". Journal of Travel Research. 44: 34–38. doi:10.1177/0047287505276589. S2CID 154912745.
     
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    1 December 1988 – World AIDS Day is proclaimed worldwide by the UN member states.

    World AIDS Day

    World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988,[1] is an international day dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection and mourning those who've died of the disease. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV virus attacks the immune system of the patient and reduces its resistance to other diseases.[2] Government and health officials, non-governmental organizations, and individuals around the world observe the day, often with education on AIDS prevention and control.

    World AIDS Day is one of the eleven official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization (WHO), along with World Health Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Immunization Week, World Tuberculosis Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Malaria Day, World Hepatitis Day, World Antimicrobial Awareness Week, World Patient Safety Day and World Chagas Disease Day.[3]

    As of 2020, AIDS has killed between 27.2 million and 47.8 million people worldwide, and an estimated 37.7 million people are living with HIV,[4] making it one of the most important global public health issues in recorded history. Thanks to recent improved access to antiretroviral treatment in many regions of the world, the death rate from AIDS epidemic has decreased by 64% since its peak in 2004 (1.9 million in 2004, compared to 680 000 in 2020).[4]

    1. ^ "About World Aids Day". worldaidsday.org. National Aids Trust. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
    2. ^ "World AIDS Day 2020: Date, History, Current Theme, Importance, Significance". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
    3. ^ World Health Organization, WHO campaigns. Archived 31 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^ a b Global HIV & AIDS statistics — Fact sheet UNAIDS. Accessed 4 December 2021.
     
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    2 December 1939 – New York City's LaGuardia Airport opens.

    LaGuardia Airport

    LaGuardia Airport (IATA: LGA, ICAO: KLGA, FAA LID: LGA) /ləˈɡwɑːrdiə/ is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering 680 acres (280 ha) as of January 1, 2024,[2] the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as a public airport in 1939. It is named after former New York City mayor Fiorello La Guardia.

    The airport primarily accommodates airline service to domestic (and limited international) destinations. As of 2019, it was the third-busiest airport in the New York metropolitan area, behind Kennedy and Newark airports, and the twenty-first busiest in the United States by passenger volume.[3] The airport is located directly to the north of the Grand Central Parkway, the airport's primary access highway. While the airport is a hub for both American Airlines and Delta Air Lines, commercial service is strictly governed by unique regulations including a curfew, a slot system, and a "perimeter rule" prohibiting most non-stop flights to or from destinations greater than 1,500 mi (2,400 km).[4]

    Throughout the 2000s and 2010s, LaGuardia was criticized for its outdated facilities, inefficient air operations, and poor customer service metrics.[5][6] In response, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) in 2015 announced a multibillion-dollar reconstruction of the airport's passenger infrastructure, which is expected to be completed by 2025.[7]

    1. ^ December 2019 Traffic Report (PDF) (Report). The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
    2. ^ "LGA airport data at skyvector.com". skyvector.com. Retrieved August 24, 2022.
    3. ^ "2019 Airport Traffic Report" (PDF). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey: 29. 2019.
    4. ^ "Long Distance at La Guardia". The New York Sun. August 4, 2005. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
    5. ^ "LaGuardia Airport has most flight delays in the nation, report finds". WABC-TV. February 27, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
    6. ^ Krumboltz, Mike (February 6, 2014). "Biden compares New York's LaGuardia airport to 'third world country'". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on February 9, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
    7. ^ Cho, Aileen (October 27, 2020). "Final Destination in Sight for $8B LaGuardia Modernization". Engineering News-Record. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
     

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