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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    13 February 1955Israel obtains four of the seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

    Dead Sea Scrolls

    The Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea.[1] Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE.[2] The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls are currently in the collection of the Government of the State of Israel, with ownership disputed with Jordan and the Palestinian Authority, and they are housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum.

    Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority holding only small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived – fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran Caves.[2] Researchers have assembled a collection of 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves.[3] The 11 Qumran Caves lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the eastern Judaean Desert, in the West Bank.[4] The caves are located about one mile (1.6 kilometres) west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, whence they derive their name. Scholarly consensus dates the Qumran Caves Scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE.[2] Bronze coins found at the same sites form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (in office 135–104 BCE) and continuing until the period of the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), supporting the radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the scrolls.[5]

    In the larger sense, the Dead Sea Scrolls include manuscripts from additional Judaean Desert sites, dated as early as the 8th century BCE and as late as the 11th century CE.[1]

    Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea Scrolls have been discovered only in two silver scroll-shaped amulets containing portions of the Priestly Blessing from the Book of Numbers, excavated in Jerusalem at Ketef Hinnom and dated c. 600 BCE; some scholars also include the controversial Shapira Scroll. The third-oldest surviving known piece of the Torah, the En-Gedi Scroll, consists of a portion of Leviticus found in the Ein Gedi synagogue, burnt in the 6th century CE and analyzed in 2015. Research has dated it palaeographically to the 1st or 2nd century CE, and using the C14 method to sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE.[6]

    Most of the texts use Hebrew, with some written in Aramaic (for example the Son of God text; in different regional dialects, including Nabataean), and a few in Greek.[7] Discoveries from the Judaean Desert add Latin (from Masada) and Arabic (from Khirbet al-Mird) texts.[8] Most of the texts are written on parchment, some on papyrus, and one on copper.[9]

    Archaeologists have long associated the scrolls with the ancient Jewish sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this connection and argue that priests in Jerusalem, or Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish groups wrote the scrolls.[10][11]

    Owing to the poor condition of some of the scrolls, scholars have not identified all of their texts. The identified texts fall into three general groups:

    1. About 40% are copies of texts from the Hebrew Scriptures.
    2. Approximately another 30% are texts from the Second Temple Period which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, etc.
    3. The remainder (roughly 30%) are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group (sect) or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk, and The Rule of the Blessing.[12][need quotation to verify]
    1. ^ a b "The Digital Library: Introduction". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    2. ^ a b c "The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls: Nature and Significance". Israel Museum Jerusalem. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    3. ^ "Hebrew University Archaeologists Find 12th Dead Sea Scrolls Cave". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
    4. ^ Donahue, Michelle Z. (10 February 2017). "New Dead Sea Scroll Find May Help Detect Forgeries". nationalgeographic.com.
    5. ^ Leaney, A. R. C. From Judaean Caves: The Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls. p.27, Religious Education Press, 1961.
    6. ^ Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Pnina Shor, Yosef Porath; with an Appendix by Ada Yardeni (2016). "An Early Leviticus Scroll from En-Gedi: Preliminary Publication" (PDF). Textus. 26: 1–29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    7. ^ Vermes, Geza (1977). The Dead Sea Scrolls. Qumran in Perspective. London: Collins. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-00-216142-8.
    8. ^ "Languages and Scripts". Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
    9. ^ McCarthy, Rory (27 August 2008). "From papyrus to cyberspace". The Guardian.
    10. ^ Ofri, Ilani (13 March 2009). "Scholar: The Essenes, Dead Sea Scroll 'authors,' never existed". Ha'aretz. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
    11. ^ Golb, Norman (5 June 2009). "On the Jerusalem Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls" (PDF). University of Chicago Oriental Institute.
    12. ^ Abegg, Jr., Martin, Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English, San Francisco: Harper, 2002.
     
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    1
    14 February 1966 – Australian currency is decimalized.

    Decimalisation

    Decimalisation (American English: Decimalization) is the conversion of a system of currency or of weights and measures to units related by powers of 10.

    Most countries have decimalised their currencies, converting them from non-decimal sub-units to a decimal system, with one basic currency unit and sub-units that are to a power of 10, most commonly 100 and exceptionally 1000; and sometimes at the same time changing the name of the currency or the conversion rate to the new currency. Today, only two countries have non-decimal currencies: Mauritania, where 1 ouguiya = 5 khoums, and Madagascar, where 1 ariary = 5 iraimbilanja.[1] However, these are only theoretically non-decimal, as in both cases the value of the main unit is so low that the sub-units are too small to be of any practical use and coins of the sub-units are no longer used.

    For weights and measures this is also called metrication, replacing traditional units that are related in other ways, such as those formed by successive doubling or halving, or by more arbitrary conversion factors. Units of physical measurement, such as length and mass, were decimalised with the introduction of the metric system, which has been adopted by almost all countries with the prominent exception of the United States and, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom. Thus a kilometre is 1000 metres, while a mile is 1,760 yards. Electrical units are decimalised worldwide. Common units of time remain undecimalised; although an attempt was made during the French revolution, this proved to be unsuccessful and was quickly abandoned.

    1. ^ "Malagasy Ariary". famouswonders.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
     
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    1
    15 February 2001 – The first draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.

    Human genome

    The human genome is a complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. These are usually treated separately as the nuclear genome, and the mitochondrial genome.[1] Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. Haploid human genomes, which are contained in germ cells (the egg and sperm gamete cells created in the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction before fertilization creates a zygote) consist of three billion DNA base pairs, while diploid genomes (found in somatic cells) have twice the DNA content. While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1% due to single-nucleotide variants[2] and 0.6% when considering indels),[3] these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the bonobos and chimpanzees (~1.1% fixed single-nucleotide variants [4] and 4% when including indels).[5]

    The first human genome sequences were published in nearly complete draft form in February 2001 by the Human Genome Project[6] and Celera Corporation.[7] Completion of the Human Genome Project's sequencing effort was announced in 2004 with the publication of a draft genome sequence, leaving just 341 gaps in the sequence, representing highly-repetitive and other DNA that could not be sequenced with the technology available at the time.[8] The human genome was the first of all vertebrates to be sequenced to such near-completion, and as of 2018, the diploid genomes of over a million individual humans had been determined using next-generation sequencing.[9] These data are used worldwide in biomedical science, anthropology, forensics and other branches of science. Such genomic studies have led to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and to new insights in many fields of biology, including human evolution.

    Although the sequence of the human genome has been (almost) completely determined by DNA sequencing, it is not yet fully understood. Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression, organization of chromosome architecture, and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance.

    Prior to the acquisition of the full genome sequence, estimates of the number of human genes ranged from 50,000 to 140,000 (with occasional vagueness about whether these estimates included non-protein coding genes).[10] As genome sequence quality and the methods for identifying protein-coding genes improved,[8] the count of recognized protein-coding genes dropped to 19,000-20,000.[11] However, a fuller understanding of the role played by genes expressing regulatory RNAs that do not encode proteins has raised the total number of genes to at least 46,831,[12] plus another 2300 micro-RNA genes.[13] By 2012, functional DNA elements that encode neither RNA nor proteins have been noted.[14] and another 10% equivalent of human genome was found in a recent (2018) population survey.[15] Protein-coding sequences account for only a very small fraction of the genome (approximately 1.5%), and the rest is associated with non-coding RNA genes, regulatory DNA sequences, LINEs, SINEs, introns, and sequences for which as yet no function has been determined.[16]

    In June 2016, scientists formally announced HGP-Write, a plan to synthesize the human genome.[17][18]

    1. ^ Brown, Terence A. (2002). "The Human Genome". Wiley-Liss.
    2. ^ Abecasis GR, Auton A, Brooks LD, DePristo MA, Durbin RM, Handsaker RE, Kang HM, Marth GT, McVean GA (November 2012). "An integrated map of genetic variation from 1,092 human genomes". Nature. 491 (7422): 56–65. Bibcode:2012Natur.491...56T. doi:10.1038/nature11632. PMC 3498066. PMID 23128226.
    3. ^ Auton A, Brooks LD, Durbin RM, Garrison EP, Kang HM, Korbel JO, et al. (October 2015). "A global reference for human genetic variation". Nature. 526 (7571): 68–74. Bibcode:2015Natur.526...68T. doi:10.1038/nature15393. PMC 4750478. PMID 26432245.
    4. ^ Chimpanzee Sequencing; Analysis Consortium (2005). "Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome" (PDF). Nature. 437 (7055): 69–87. Bibcode:2005Natur.437...69.. doi:10.1038/nature04072. PMID 16136131.
    5. ^ Varki A, Altheide TK (December 2005). "Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack". Genome Research. 15 (12): 1746–58. doi:10.1101/gr.3737405. PMID 16339373.
    6. ^ International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Publishes Sequence and Analysis of the Human Genome
    7. ^ Pennisi E (February 2001). "The human genome". Science. 291 (5507): 1177–80. doi:10.1126/science.291.5507.1177. PMID 11233420.
    8. ^ a b International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". Nature. 431 (7011): 931–45. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..931H. doi:10.1038/nature03001. PMID 15496913.
    9. ^ Molteni M (19 November 2018). "Now You Can Sequence Your Whole Genome For Just $200". Wired.
    10. ^ Wade N (23 September 1999). "Number of Human Genes Is Put at 140,000, a Significant Gain". The New York Times.
    11. ^ Ezkurdia I, Juan D, Rodriguez JM, Frankish A, Diekhans M, Harrow J, Vazquez J, Valencia A, Tress ML (November 2014). "Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19,000 human protein-coding genes". Human Molecular Genetics. 23 (22): 5866–78. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu309. PMC 4204768. PMID 24939910.
    12. ^ Saey TH (17 September 2018). "A recount of human genes ups the number to at least 46,831". Science News.
    13. ^ Alles J, Fehlmann T, Fischer U, Backes C, Galata V, Minet M, et al. (April 2019). "An estimate of the total number of true human miRNAs". Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (7): 3353–3364. doi:10.1093/nar/gkz097. PMC 6468295. PMID 30820533.
    14. ^ Pennisi E (September 2012). "Genomics. ENCODE project writes eulogy for junk DNA". Science. 337 (6099): 1159–1161. doi:10.1126/science.337.6099.1159. PMID 22955811.
    15. ^ Zhang S (28 November 2018). "300 Million Letters of DNA Are Missing From the Human Genome". The Atlantic.
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference IHSGC2001 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Pollack A (2 June 2016). "Scientists Announce HGP-Write, Project to Synthesize the Human Genome". New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
    18. ^ Boeke JD, Church G, Hessel A, Kelley NJ, Arkin A, Cai Y, et al. (July 2016). "The Genome Project-Write". Science. 353 (6295): 126–7. Bibcode:2016Sci...353..126B. doi:10.1126/science.aaf6850. PMID 27256881.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    16 February 1985Hezbollah is founded.

    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah (/ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[38] Arabic: حزب اللهḤizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[39]—is a Shia Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.[40][41] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[42] and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group, along with its military wing is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League,[43] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[44][45] Argentina,[27] Paraguay,[28] the United Kingdom,[46][47] the Netherlands, Australia, Venezuela (Guaidó government)[33] Honduras and Colombia.[48] Germany and the European Union outlawed only Hezbollah's military wing, and work with Hezbollah's political wing and allow it to raise funds in Europe.[49]

    Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shia groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.[50] Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass Israel.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government,[51] which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Christian Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[52]

    Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and, as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000 and the SLA collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers who fought on the Bosnian side during the Bosnian War.[53] Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly[54][55] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[56][57] Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state",[58] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[59][60][61] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population,[62] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[63][64] Hezbollah also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds.[65] Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria.[66] Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

    After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[67] and clashes,[68] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies' obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power.[41] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[69] Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel.[70][71] It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIL.[72][73] The group's legitimacy has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.[59][74][75]

    1. ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
    2. ^ Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 978-90-8555-037-2.
      Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-415-78361-3.
      Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5): 803–815. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695.
    3. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
    4. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. ISBN 9781849043335. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
      Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Blumenau, Bernhard (2013). An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. ISBN 9780415635400. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel.
      Siegel, Larry J. (3 February 2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. ISBN 978-1133049647. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings.
    5. ^ a b "Who Are Hezbollah". BBC News. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    6. ^ Julius, Anthony. "Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England." Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. "Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present." Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Perry, Mark. "Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies." Google Books. 1 May 2015
      "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post – JPost.com.
    7. ^ "Interior Ministry releases numbers of votes for new MPs". The Daily Star. 9 May 2018.
    8. ^ a b "Hezbollah fighters train Iraqi Shiite militants near Mosul - FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 5 November 2016.
    9. ^ "New Experience of Hezbollah with Russian Military". 2 February 2016.
    10. ^ Rosenfeld, Jesse (11 January 2016). "Russia is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group's Field Commanders". The Daily Beast.
    11. ^ "Hezbollah Fights Alongside LAF Demonstrating its Continuing Control over Lebanon". The Tower. 21 August 2017.
    12. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    13. ^ McElroy, Damien (29 July 2014). "North Korea denies reports of missile deal with Hamas" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
    14. ^ "Venezuela denies U.S. drug report, Hezbollah charges". Reuters. 21 July 2009 – via www.reuters.com.
    15. ^ "Yemeni FM slams Hezbollah's Houthi support: report - News , Lebanon News - THE DAILY STAR". www.dailystar.com.lb.
    16. ^ "Lebanon's Hezbollah denies sending weapons to Yemen". Reuters. 20 November 2017 – via www.reuters.com.
    17. ^ "Hezbollah provides Iraq with its combat experience to liberate Tal Afar". Arabic.sputniknews.com (in Arabic).
    18. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 11 October 2005. Retrieved 16 July 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
    19. ^ "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2013.
    20. ^ "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. 26 March 2013.
    21. ^ Morocco cuts ties with Iran over Sahara weapons dispute, AP 1 May 2018
    22. ^ "Listed Terrorist Entities – Currently Listed Entities". Government of Canada. Public Safety Canada. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    23. ^ "Listed terrorist organisations – Hizballah's External Security Organisation (ESO)". Australian National Security. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    24. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
    25. ^ Proscribed terrorist organisations (Report). Home Office. 27 March 2015. p. 10. Retrieved 6 July 2015. Hizballah's External Security Organisation was proscribed March 2001 and in 2008 the proscription was extended to Hizballah's Military apparatus including the Jihad Council.
    26. ^ "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France". Algemeiner Journal. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
    27. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostPAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    29. ^ Norman, Lawrence; Fairclough, Gordon (7 September 2012). "Pressure Mounts for EU to Put Hezbollah on Terror List". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    30. ^ Ravid, Barak (21 February 2012). "Azerbaijan: Iranian, Hezbollah Operatives Arrested for Plotting Attack Against Foreign Targets". Haaretz.
    31. ^ ヒズボラ - 国際テロリズム要覧(Web版) - 公安調査庁 (in Japanese). Ministry of Justice of Japan.
    32. ^ "Taiwanese Official Admits Meeting with Hezbollah Leader". 8 August 2006.
    33. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AsambleaVE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Could Iran and Hezbollah really strike in Latin America?
    35. ^ Cite error: The named reference ColombiaHonduras was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    36. ^ "Israel's UN Ambassador Warns: Hezbollah Has 120,000 Hidden Missiles — More Than All European NATO Allies".
    37. ^ "Iran perpetrates terrorist acts in Europe using proxy organization Hezbollah". Gisreportsonline.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
    38. ^ "Hezbollah". The Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
      "Hezbollah". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
    39. ^ Other transliterations include Hizbollah, Hezbolla, Hezballah, Hisbollah, Hizbu'llah and Hizb Allah.
    40. ^ Jamail, Dahr (20 July 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
    41. ^ a b "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
    42. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 15. ISBN 9781849043335. ... the Jihad Council coordinates 'resistance activity'.
      Ghattas Saab, Antoine (15 May 2014). "Hezbollah cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing … Known as the "Jihad Council"
    43. ^ "Arab League labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization". Reuters. 11 March 2016.
    44. ^ "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    45. ^ "Hezbollah labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
    46. ^ "Britain bans Hezbollah - Middle East - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com.
    47. ^ "UK to ban Hezbollah as terrorist organisation". BBC News. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
    48. ^ Colombia and Honduras designate Hezbollah a terrorist organization
    49. ^ GERMAN YOUTH: CLASSIFY HEZBOLLAH AS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
    50. ^ Matthew Levitt. "A Proxy for Iran". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
    51. ^ Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
    52. ^ Itamar Rabinovich (2008). Israel in the Middle East. UPNE. ISBN 9780874519624. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
    53. ^ Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
    54. ^ "UN: Hezbollah has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
    55. ^ Frykberg, Mel (29 August 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved 31 May 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.
    56. ^ Barnard, Anne (20 May 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers
    57. ^ Morris, Loveday (12 June 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army.
    58. ^ "Iran-Syria vs. Israel, Round 1: Assessments & Lessons Learned". Defense Industry Daily. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
    59. ^ a b Hubbard, Ben (20 March 2014). "Syrian Fighting Gives Hezbollah New but Diffuse Purpose". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the fighting has also diluted the resources that used to go exclusively to facing Israel, exacerbated sectarian divisions in the region, and alienated large segments of the majority Sunni population who once embraced Hezbollah as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory.
    60. ^ Deeb, Lara (31 July 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
    61. ^ Goldman, Adam (28 May 2014). "Hezbollah operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders.
    62. ^ "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
    63. ^ "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, 25 January 2014.
    64. ^ The Christian Science Monitor (23 June 2013). "Why Hezbollah has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor.
    65. ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (21 December 2012). "In Hezbollah stronghold, Lebanese Christians find respect, stability". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
    66. ^ Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world.
    67. ^ Ghattas, Kim (1 December 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    68. ^ Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (10 May 2008). "Hezbollah fighters retreat from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
    69. ^ Nafez Qawas (6 August 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
    70. ^ Barnard, Anne (3 January 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times.
    71. ^ Barnard, Anne (9 July 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hezbollah has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad against Israel.
    72. ^ Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post 16 February 2015.
    73. ^ Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Al Monitor 25 November 2014
    74. ^ "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 17 September 2014. By siding with the Assad regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d'être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation.
    75. ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 March 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni rebels in Syria while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel.
     
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    16 February 1985Hezbollah is founded.

    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah (/ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[38] Arabic: حزب اللهḤizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[39]—is a Shia Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.[40][41] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[42] and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group, along with its military wing is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League,[43] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[44][45] Argentina,[27] Paraguay,[28] the United Kingdom,[46][47] the Netherlands, Australia, Venezuela (Guaidó government)[33] Honduras and Colombia.[48] Germany and the European Union outlawed only Hezbollah's military wing, and work with Hezbollah's political wing and allow it to raise funds in Europe.[49]

    Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shia groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.[50] Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass Israel.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government,[51] which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Christian Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[52]

    Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and, as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000 and the SLA collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers who fought on the Bosnian side during the Bosnian War.[53] Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly[54][55] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[56][57] Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state",[58] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[59][60][61] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population,[62] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[63][64] Hezbollah also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds.[65] Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria.[66] Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

    After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[67] and clashes,[68] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies' obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power.[41] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[69] Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel.[70][71] It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIL.[72][73] The group's legitimacy has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.[59][74][75]

    1. ^ Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
    2. ^ Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 978-90-8555-037-2.
      Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-415-78361-3.
      Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5): 803–815. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695.
    3. ^ a b Philip Smyth (February 2015). The Shiite Jihad in Syria and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
    4. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. ISBN 9781849043335. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
      Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Blumenau, Bernhard (2013). An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. ISBN 9780415635400. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel.
      Siegel, Larry J. (3 February 2012). Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. ISBN 978-1133049647. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti-Israel and has engaged in a series of terrorist actions including kidnappings, car bombings, and airline hijackings.
    5. ^ a b "Who Are Hezbollah". BBC News. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    6. ^ Julius, Anthony. "Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in England." Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. "Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present." Google Books. 1 May 2015.
      Perry, Mark. "Talking to Terrorists: Why America Must Engage with Its Enemies." Google Books. 1 May 2015
      "Analysis: Hezbollah's lethal anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post – JPost.com.
    7. ^ "Interior Ministry releases numbers of votes for new MPs". The Daily Star. 9 May 2018.
    8. ^ a b "Hezbollah fighters train Iraqi Shiite militants near Mosul - FDD's Long War Journal". www.longwarjournal.org. 5 November 2016.
    9. ^ "New Experience of Hezbollah with Russian Military". 2 February 2016.
    10. ^ Rosenfeld, Jesse (11 January 2016). "Russia is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group's Field Commanders". The Daily Beast.
    11. ^ "Hezbollah Fights Alongside LAF Demonstrating its Continuing Control over Lebanon". The Tower. 21 August 2017.
    12. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    13. ^ McElroy, Damien (29 July 2014). "North Korea denies reports of missile deal with Hamas" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
    14. ^ "Venezuela denies U.S. drug report, Hezbollah charges". Reuters. 21 July 2009 – via www.reuters.com.
    15. ^ "Yemeni FM slams Hezbollah's Houthi support: report - News , Lebanon News - THE DAILY STAR". www.dailystar.com.lb.
    16. ^ "Lebanon's Hezbollah denies sending weapons to Yemen". Reuters. 20 November 2017 – via www.reuters.com.
    17. ^ "Hezbollah provides Iraq with its combat experience to liberate Tal Afar". Arabic.sputniknews.com (in Arabic).
    18. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 11 October 2005. Retrieved 16 July 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
    19. ^ "Hezbollah – International terrorist organization". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 22 July 2013.
    20. ^ "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. 26 March 2013.
    21. ^ Morocco cuts ties with Iran over Sahara weapons dispute, AP 1 May 2018
    22. ^ "Listed Terrorist Entities – Currently Listed Entities". Government of Canada. Public Safety Canada. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    23. ^ "Listed terrorist organisations – Hizballah's External Security Organisation (ESO)". Australian National Security. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
    24. ^ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
    25. ^ Proscribed terrorist organisations (Report). Home Office. 27 March 2015. p. 10. Retrieved 6 July 2015. Hizballah's External Security Organisation was proscribed March 2001 and in 2008 the proscription was extended to Hizballah's Military apparatus including the Jihad Council.
    26. ^ "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France". Algemeiner Journal. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
    27. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference JPostPAR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    29. ^ Norman, Lawrence; Fairclough, Gordon (7 September 2012). "Pressure Mounts for EU to Put Hezbollah on Terror List". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    30. ^ Ravid, Barak (21 February 2012). "Azerbaijan: Iranian, Hezbollah Operatives Arrested for Plotting Attack Against Foreign Targets". Haaretz.
    31. ^ ヒズボラ - 国際テロリズム要覧(Web版) - 公安調査庁 (in Japanese). Ministry of Justice of Japan.
    32. ^ "Taiwanese Official Admits Meeting with Hezbollah Leader". 8 August 2006.
    33. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference AsambleaVE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    34. ^ Could Iran and Hezbollah really strike in Latin America?
    35. ^ Cite error: The named reference ColombiaHonduras was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    36. ^ "Israel's UN Ambassador Warns: Hezbollah Has 120,000 Hidden Missiles — More Than All European NATO Allies".
    37. ^ "Iran perpetrates terrorist acts in Europe using proxy organization Hezbollah". Gisreportsonline.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
    38. ^ "Hezbollah". The Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
      "Hezbollah". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
    39. ^ Other transliterations include Hizbollah, Hezbolla, Hezballah, Hisbollah, Hizbu'llah and Hizb Allah.
    40. ^ Jamail, Dahr (20 July 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
    41. ^ a b "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
    42. ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 15. ISBN 9781849043335. ... the Jihad Council coordinates 'resistance activity'.
      Ghattas Saab, Antoine (15 May 2014). "Hezbollah cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing … Known as the "Jihad Council"
    43. ^ "Arab League labels Hezbollah a terrorist organization". Reuters. 11 March 2016.
    44. ^ "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    45. ^ "Hezbollah labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
    46. ^ "Britain bans Hezbollah - Middle East - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com.
    47. ^ "UK to ban Hezbollah as terrorist organisation". BBC News. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
    48. ^ Colombia and Honduras designate Hezbollah a terrorist organization
    49. ^ GERMAN YOUTH: CLASSIFY HEZBOLLAH AS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION
    50. ^ Matthew Levitt. "A Proxy for Iran". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
    51. ^ Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
    52. ^ Itamar Rabinovich (2008). Israel in the Middle East. UPNE. ISBN 9780874519624. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
    53. ^ Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
    54. ^ "UN: Hezbollah has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
    55. ^ Frykberg, Mel (29 August 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved 31 May 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.
    56. ^ Barnard, Anne (20 May 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers
    57. ^ Morris, Loveday (12 June 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah over role in Syria". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army.
    58. ^ "Iran-Syria vs. Israel, Round 1: Assessments & Lessons Learned". Defense Industry Daily. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
    59. ^ a b Hubbard, Ben (20 March 2014). "Syrian Fighting Gives Hezbollah New but Diffuse Purpose". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the fighting has also diluted the resources that used to go exclusively to facing Israel, exacerbated sectarian divisions in the region, and alienated large segments of the majority Sunni population who once embraced Hezbollah as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory.
    60. ^ Deeb, Lara (31 July 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
    61. ^ Goldman, Adam (28 May 2014). "Hezbollah operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders.
    62. ^ "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
    63. ^ "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, 25 January 2014.
    64. ^ The Christian Science Monitor (23 June 2013). "Why Hezbollah has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor.
    65. ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (21 December 2012). "In Hezbollah stronghold, Lebanese Christians find respect, stability". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
    66. ^ Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world.
    67. ^ Ghattas, Kim (1 December 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
    68. ^ Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (10 May 2008). "Hezbollah fighters retreat from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
    69. ^ Nafez Qawas (6 August 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
    70. ^ Barnard, Anne (3 January 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times.
    71. ^ Barnard, Anne (9 July 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hezbollah has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad against Israel.
    72. ^ Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post 16 February 2015.
    73. ^ Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Al Monitor 25 November 2014
    74. ^ "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 17 September 2014. By siding with the Assad regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni rebels, Hezbollah has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d'être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation.
    75. ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 March 2014). "Israel Watches Warily as Hezbollah Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni rebels in Syria while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel.
     
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    17 February 2015 – Eighteen people are killed and 78 injured in a stampede at a Mardi Gras parade in Haiti.

    2015 Haiti Carnival stampede

    On February 17, 2015, starting at around 2:48 AM,[1] a stampede occurred during the traditional Mardi Gras parade on Champ de Mars in the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince. Initial reports stated that at least 16 people had died in the accident.[2] The number was revised to 18 dead (15 men and 3 women) according to the Haitian Minister of Communications, Rotchild François Junior.[3] Nadia Lochard, of the Department of Civil Protection, stated that 20 people were killed in the accident.[4] In addition, 78 people were injured, according to Haiti Prime Minister Evans Paul.[4]

    The stampede occurred after a man participating on top of a Carnival float during the Mardi Gras was shocked by high-voltage wires. Video footage of the incident shows visible sparks that triggered the stampede.[5] The man, known by his stage name Fantom, and part of the Haitian hip hop band Barikad Crew, survived the shock[4] and was in stable condition.[6]

    1. ^ Associated Press (17 February 2015). "Haiti cancels last day of Carnival after at least 16 die in power line tragedy". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
    2. ^ Associated Press (17 February 2015). "Float Accident at Haiti Carnival Parade Kills at Least 16". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
    3. ^ Baron, Amelie (18 February 2015). "Haiti to implement safety measures after Carnival tragedy". Reuters. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
    4. ^ a b c Associated Press (17 February 2015). "Float Accident at Haiti Carnival Parade Kills at Least 16". ABC News. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
    5. ^ ABC News. "Burned Singer Describes Deadly Haiti Carnival Accident". ABC News.
    6. ^ Bacon, John (17 February 2015). "At least 16 die in Haiti Carnival accident". USA Today. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
     
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    18 February 1954 – The first Church of Scientology is established in Los Angeles.

    Church of Scientology

    The Church of Scientology is a group of interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, a new religious movement.[1] The church and the movement have been the subject of a number of controversies, and the church has been described by government inquiries, international parliamentary bodies, law lords, and numerous superior court judgements as both a cult and a manipulative profit-making business.[11] The German government classifies Scientology as an anti-constitutional sect.[12][13] In France, it has been classified as a dangerous cult.[14][15] In some countries, it has attained legal recognition as a religion.[16]

    The Church of Scientology International (CSI) is officially the Church of Scientology's parent organization, and is responsible for guiding local Scientology churches.[17][18][19] Its international headquarters are located at the Gold Base, in an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California. The location at Gilman Hot Springs is private property and not accessible by the public.[20] Scientology Missions International is under CSI and oversees Scientology missions, which are local Scientology organizations smaller than churches.[21][22] The Church of Spiritual Technology (CST) is the organization which owns all the copyrights of the estate of L. Ron Hubbard.[1]

    All Scientology management organizations are controlled exclusively by members of the Sea Org, which is a legally nonexistent paramilitary organization for the "elite, innermost dedicated core of Scientologists".[1][21] David Miscavige is the highest-ranking Sea Org officer, holding the rank of captain.

    1. ^ a b c Urban, Hugh B. (2015). New Age, Neopagan, and New Religious Movements: Alternative Spirituality in Contemporary America. Univ of California Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0520281172.
    2. ^ Behar, Richard (May 6, 1991). "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power". TIME Magazine. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
    3. ^ Edge, Peter W. (2006). Religion and law: an introduction. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3048-7.
    4. ^ Anderson, K.V. (1965). Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology (PDF) (Report). State of Victoria, Australia. p. 179. Retrieved June 30, 2019. In reality it is a dangerous medical cult
    5. ^ "Scientology (Written answer)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. July 25, 1968. col. 189–191W.
    6. ^ Hunt, John; de Puig, Luis; Espersen, Ole (February 5, 1992). European Council, Recommendation 1178: Sects and New Religious Movements (Report). Council of Europe. Retrieved June 30, 2019. It is a cool, cynical, manipulating business and nothing else.
    7. ^ Cottrell, Richard (1999). Recommendation 1412: Concernant les activités illégales des sectes (Report). Conseil d'Europe.
    8. ^ "Church of Scientology". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Lords. December 17, 1996. col. 1392–1394.
    9. ^ Hubbard and another v. Vosper and another, 1 All ER 1023 (Court of Appeal 19 November 1971).
    10. ^ RE B & G (Minors: Custody), F.L.R. 493 (Court of Appeal 19 September 1984).
    11. ^ [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
    12. ^ "Hubbard's Church 'Unconstitutional': Germany Prepares to Ban Scientology - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel Online. spiegel.de. December 7, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
    13. ^ "National Assembly of France report No. 2468". assemblee-nationale.fr. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
    14. ^ A 1995 parliamentary report lists Scientology groups as cults, and in its 2006 report MIVILUDES similarly classified Scientology organizations as a dangerous cult
    15. ^ Le point sur l'Eglise de Scientologie, Le Nouvel Observateur
    16. ^ Weird, Sure. A Cult, No. Washington Post By Mark Oppenheimer, August 5, 2007
    17. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (September 2000). The Church of Scientology. Studies in Contemporary Religions, 1. Signature Books in cooperation with CESNUR. Since 1981, all of the churches and organizations of the church have been brought together under the Church of Scientology International. The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden, New Jersey by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard.
    18. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8184-0499-3.
    19. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron. "Pulpateer". Church of Scientology International. Archived from the original on July 30, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2006.
    20. ^ Janet Reitman Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion, p. 318, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011 ISBN 0547549237, 9780547549231
    21. ^ a b Davis, Derek; Hankins, Barry (2003). New Religious Movements and Religious Liberty in America. Baylor University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0918954924.
    22. ^ Flinn, Frank K. (2003). "Scientology". In Karen Christensen, and David Levinson (ed.). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 1209–11.
     
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    21 February 1848Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

    The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

    The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism. In the last paragraph of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as a call for communist revolutions around the world.[1][2]

    In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I.[3]

    1. ^ "Marx's philosophy and the *necessity* of violent politics – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D." Retrieved 24 September 2019.
    2. ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2017), "Communism, Violence and Terror", in Pons, Silvio; Smith, Stephen (eds.), The Cambridge History of Communism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–303, doi:10.1017/9781316137024.014, ISBN 9781316137024, retrieved 24 September 2019
    3. ^ "Schriften von Karl Marx: "Das Minifest der Kommunistischen Partei" (1948) und "Das Kapital", ernster Band (1867)". UNESCO.
     
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    21 February 1848Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

    The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

    The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism. In the last paragraph of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as a call for communist revolutions around the world.[1][2]

    In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I.[3]

    1. ^ "Marx's philosophy and the *necessity* of violent politics – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D." Retrieved 24 September 2019.
    2. ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2017), "Communism, Violence and Terror", in Pons, Silvio; Smith, Stephen (eds.), The Cambridge History of Communism, Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–303, doi:10.1017/9781316137024.014, ISBN 9781316137024, retrieved 24 September 2019
    3. ^ "Schriften von Karl Marx: "Das Minifest der Kommunistischen Partei" (1948) und "Das Kapital", ernster Band (1867)". UNESCO.
     
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    22 February 1959Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500.

    Daytona 500

    The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, and one of three held in Florida, with the annual spring showdown Dixie Vodka 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami. It is one of the four tapered spacer races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

    The Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse.[2] Championship points awarded are equal to that of any other NASCAR Cup Series race. It is also the series' first race of the year; this phenomenon is virtually unique in sports, which tend to have championships or other major events at the end of the season rather than the start. Since 1995, U.S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn greatly surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing. The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers.[3]

    The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is sometimes known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing".[4][5][6] Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, and again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February. On eight occasions, the race has been run on Valentine's Day .

    The winner of the Daytona 500 since 1997 is presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, and the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway.

    Denny Hamlin is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2020.

    1. ^ Chad Culver (2014). Dover International Speedway: The Monster Mile. 53: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 1467121371.CS1 maint: location (link)
    2. ^ "Culture, Class, Distinction"Bennett, Tony. Culture, Class, Distinction. Routledge (2009) Disaggregating cultural capital. English translation ISBN 0-415-42242-6 (hardcover).
    3. ^ "World's most watched TV sports events: 2006 Rank & Trends report". Initiative. 2007-01-19. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
    4. ^ "A History of the Daytona 500". TicketCity. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    5. ^ Crossman, Matt (February 22, 2015). "Daytona 500 Magic Hour: Best 60 minutes in sports". NASCAR. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    6. ^ Briggs, Josh. "How Daytona Qualifying Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
     
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    1
    22 February 1959Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500.

    Daytona 500

    The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, and one of three held in Florida, with the annual spring showdown Dixie Vodka 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami. It is one of the four tapered spacer races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

    The Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse.[2] Championship points awarded are equal to that of any other NASCAR Cup Series race. It is also the series' first race of the year; this phenomenon is virtually unique in sports, which tend to have championships or other major events at the end of the season rather than the start. Since 1995, U.S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn greatly surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing. The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers.[3]

    The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is sometimes known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing".[4][5][6] Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, and again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February. On eight occasions, the race has been run on Valentine's Day .

    The winner of the Daytona 500 since 1997 is presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, and the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway.

    Denny Hamlin is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2020.

    1. ^ Chad Culver (2014). Dover International Speedway: The Monster Mile. 53: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 1467121371.CS1 maint: location (link)
    2. ^ "Culture, Class, Distinction"Bennett, Tony. Culture, Class, Distinction. Routledge (2009) Disaggregating cultural capital. English translation ISBN 0-415-42242-6 (hardcover).
    3. ^ "World's most watched TV sports events: 2006 Rank & Trends report". Initiative. 2007-01-19. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
    4. ^ "A History of the Daytona 500". TicketCity. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    5. ^ Crossman, Matt (February 22, 2015). "Daytona 500 Magic Hour: Best 60 minutes in sports". NASCAR. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    6. ^ Briggs, Josh. "How Daytona Qualifying Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
     
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    23 February 1934Leopold III becomes King of Belgium.

    Leopold III of Belgium

    The face of Leopold III on a bas-relief by Pierre De Soete.

    Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) was King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin. From 1944 until 1950, Leopold's brother, Charles, served as prince regent while Leopold was declared unable to reign. Leopold's controversial actions during the Second World War resulted in a political crisis known as the Royal Question. In 1950, the debate about whether Leopold could resume his royal functions escalated. Following a referendum, Leopold was allowed to return from exile to Belgium, but the continuing political instability pressured him to abdicate in 1951.

    Leopold was born in Brussels and succeeded to the throne of Belgium on 23 February 1934, following the death of his father King Albert I.

     
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    24 February 1976 – The current constitution of Cuba is formally proclaimed.

    Constitution of Cuba

    Even before attaining its independence from Spain, Cuba had several constitutions either proposed or adopted by insurgents as governing documents for territory they controlled during their war against Spain. Cuba has had several constitutions since winning its independence. The first constitution since the Cuban Revolution was drafted in 1976 and has since been amended. In 2018, Cuba became engaged in a major revision of its Constitution, which was widely discussed by the people and by academics.[1] The current constitution was then enacted in 2019.[2][3][4][5]

    1. ^ "With significant constitutional changes, Cuba's leaders aim for their system's survival". NBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
    2. ^ https://www.local10.com/news/cuba/cuba-enacts-new-constitution
    3. ^ http://en.escambray.cu/2019/raul-castro-new-constitution-guarantees-continuity-of-revolution/
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference latinaproclaim was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ https://www.france24.com/en/20190410-defiant-cuba-enacts-new-constitution-amid-us-pressure
     
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    25 February 1991 – Cold War: The Warsaw Pact is abolished.

    Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Treaty Organization[1] (WTO); officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[2] commonly known as the Warsaw Pact, was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO[3][4][5][6] in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954,[7][8][9][10][11] but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.[12]

    The Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of power[13] or counterweight[14] to NATO; there was no direct military confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs.[14] Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania, and East Germany),[13] which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland[15] and its electoral success in June 1989.

    East Germany withdrew from the Pact following the reunification of Germany in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared at an end by the defense and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO (East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the Baltic states which had been part of the Soviet Union.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/warsaw-treaty
    2. ^ "Text of Warsaw Pact" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference History Channel 2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "In reaction to West Germany's NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." Citation from: NATO website. "A short history of NATO". nato.int. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference The Future of European Alliance Systems was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference christopher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference enclopedia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969 Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11.02.2015
    11. ^ The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold War Debra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO"
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Warsaw Pact: Wartime Status-Instruments of Soviet Control was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Amos Yoder (1993). Communism in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires. Taylor & Francis. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8448-1738-5. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    14. ^ a b Bob Reinalda (11 September 2009). Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day. Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-134-02405-6. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    15. ^ [1] Archived 23 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001
     
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    26 February 2013 – A hot air balloon crashes near Luxor, Egypt, killing 19 people.

    2013 Luxor hot air balloon crash

    On 26 February 2013, a hot air balloon crashed near Luxor, Egypt, killing 19 out of the 21 people on board. A fire developed in the basket due to a leak in the balloon's gas fuel system, causing the balloon to deflate mid-air and crash to the ground.[1][2]

    It was the deadliest ballooning accident in history and the deadliest aerostat disaster since the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, which killed 36 people.[3][4]

    1. ^ "At least 19 tourists dead in Egypt hot air balloon crash". RT. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cline, Seth. "7 of the Worst Hot Air Balloons Accidents in Recent Memory". US News. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
    4. ^ Bell, Matthew (3 March 2013). "'The tip of the iceberg': Egyptian hot air balloon crash was 'inevitable,' says British pilot". The Independent. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
     
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    27 February 1881First Boer War: The Battle of Majuba Hill takes place.

    Battle of Majuba Hill

    The Battle of Majuba Hill (near Volksrust, South Africa) on 27 February 1881 was the final and decisive battle of the First Boer War. It was a resounding victory for the Boers and the battle is considered to have been one of the most humiliating defeats of British arms in history.[1] Maj. Gen. Sir George Pomeroy Colley occupied the summit of the hill on the night of 26–27 February 1881. Colley's motive for occupying Majuba Hill may have been anxiety that the Boers would soon occupy it themselves, Colley having witnessed their trenches being dug in the direction of the hill.[2] The Boers believed that he might have been attempting to outflank their positions at Laing's Nek. The hill was not considered to be scalable by the Boers, for military purposes, and hence it may have been Colley's attempt to emphasise British power and strike fear into the Boer camp.[3]

    1. ^ "It can hardly be denied that the Dutch raid on the Medway vies with the Battle of Majuba in 1881 and the Fall of Singapore in 1942 for the unenviable distinctor of being the most humiliating defeat suffered by British arms." – Charles Ralph Boxer: The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th Century, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London (1974), p.39
    2. ^ "The rapid strides that had been made by the Boers in throwing up entrenchments on the right flank of their position, and the continuance of these works in the same direction upon the lower slopes on the Majuba hill during the days subsequent to his return, induced him to believe that if the hill was to be seized before it was occupied and probably fortified by the Boers that this must be done at once." - The National Archives, WO 32/7827, "From Lt. Col. H. Stewart, A.A.G., to the General Officer Commanding, Natal and Transvaal, Newcastle, Natal, 4th April 1881. Report of the action on Majuba Hill, 27th February."
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Little Wars was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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