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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

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    19 March 1932 – The Sydney Harbour Bridge is opened.

    Sydney Harbour Bridge

    The Sydney Harbour Bridge is an Australian heritage-listed steel through arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. The view of the bridge, the harbour, and the nearby Sydney Opera House is widely regarded as an iconic image of Sydney, and of Australia itself. The bridge is nicknamed "The Coathanger" because of its arch-based design.[1][2]

    Under the direction of John Bradfield of the New South Wales Department of Public Works, the bridge was designed and built by British firm Dorman Long of Middlesbrough (who based the design on their 1928 Tyne Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne) and opened in 1932.[3][4] The bridge's general design, which Bradfield tasked the NSW Department of Public Works with producing, was a rough copy of the Hell Gate Bridge in New York City. This general design document, however, did not form any part of the request for tender, which remained sufficiently broad as to allow cantilever (Bradfield's original preference) and even suspension bridge proposals. The design chosen from the tender responses was original work created by Dorman Long, who leveraged some of the design from their own Tyne Bridge which, though superficially similar, does not share the graceful flares at the ends of each arch which make the harbour bridge so distinctive.[5] It is the sixth longest spanning-arch bridge in the world and the tallest steel arch bridge, measuring 134 m (440 ft) from top to water level.[6] It was also the world's widest long-span bridge, at 48.8 m (160 ft) wide, until construction of the new Port Mann Bridge in Vancouver was completed in 2012.[7][8]

    The Sydney Harbour Bridge was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 19 March 2007[9] and to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 25 June 1999.[10]

    1. ^ "7BridgesWalk.com.au". Bridge History. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2006.
    2. ^ "Sydney Harbour Bridge". Australian Government. 14 August 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
    3. ^ "Dr J.J.C. Bradfield". Pylon Lookout: Sydney Harbour Bridge. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
    4. ^ "BBC News – Olympic connections across the UK". Bbc.co.uk. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
    5. ^ James Weirick (2007). "Radar Exhibition – Bridging Sydney". Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
    6. ^ "Sydney Harbour Bridge". culture.gov.au. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
    7. ^ "Widest Bridge". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
    8. ^ "Port Mann Bridge". TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT CORPORATION. British Columbia: Province of British Columbia. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012. Once complete, the new 10-lane Port Mann Bridge will the second largest and longest cable-supported bridge in North America, and at 65 metres wide it will be the widest bridge in the world.
    9. ^ "Sydney Harbour Bridge, Bradfield Hwy, Dawes Point - Milsons Point, NSW, Australia (Place ID 105888)". Australian Heritage Database. Department of the Environment. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
    10. ^ "Sydney Harbour Bridge, approaches and viaducts (road and rail)". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00781. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
     
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    20 March 1915Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity.

    General relativity

    Slow motion computer simulation of the black hole binary system GW150914 as seen by a nearby observer, during 0.33 s of its final inspiral, merge, and ringdown. The star field behind the black holes is being heavily distorted and appears to rotate and move, due to extreme gravitational lensing, as spacetime itself is distorted and dragged around by the rotating black holes.[1]

    General relativity (GR), also known as the general theory of relativity (GTR), is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and refines Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.

    Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay. The predictions of general relativity in relation to classical physics have been confirmed in all observations and experiments to date. Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity.

    Einstein's theory has important astrophysical implications. For example, it implies the existence of black holes—regions of space in which space and time are distorted in such a way that nothing, not even light, can escape—as an end-state for massive stars. There is ample evidence that the intense radiation emitted by certain kinds of astronomical objects is due to black holes. For example, microquasars and active galactic nuclei result from the presence of stellar black holes and supermassive black holes, respectively. The bending of light by gravity can lead to the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, in which multiple images of the same distant astronomical object are visible in the sky. General relativity also predicts the existence of gravitational waves, which have since been observed directly by the physics collaboration LIGO. In addition, general relativity is the basis of current cosmological models of a consistently expanding universe.

    Widely acknowledged as a theory of extraordinary beauty, general relativity has often been described as the most beautiful of all existing physical theories.[2]

    1. ^ "GW150914: LIGO Detects Gravitational Waves". Black-holes.org. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    21 March 1963Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary (in California) closes.

    Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary

    The Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary or United States Penitentiary, Alcatraz Island (often referred to as Alcatraz or The Rock) was a maximum security federal prison on Alcatraz Island, 1.25 miles (2.01 km) off the coast of San Francisco, California, United States, which operated from 11 August 1934, until 21 March 1963.

    Alcatraz had been the site of a fort since the 1850s; the main prison building was built in 1910–1912 as a United States Army military prison. The United States Department of Justice acquired the United States Disciplinary Barracks, Pacific Branch, on Alcatraz on 12 October 1933, and the island became a prison of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in August 1934 after the buildings were modernized and security increased. Given this high security and the island's location in the cold waters and strong currents of San Francisco Bay, prison operators believed Alcatraz to be escape-proof and America's strongest prison.

    Alcatraz was used to hold prisoners who continually caused trouble at other federal prisons. One of the world's most notorious and best known prisons over the years, it housed some 1,576 federal inmates, including some of America's most ruthless, such as Al Capone, Robert Franklin Stroud (the "Birdman of Alcatraz"), George "Machine Gun" Kelly, Bumpy Johnson, Rafael Cancel Miranda,[3] Mickey Cohen, Arthur R. "Doc" Barker, Whitey Bulger, and Alvin "Creepy" Karpis (who served more time at Alcatraz than any other inmate). The Bureau of Prisons' staff and their families lived on the island as well. 36 prisoners made 14 escape attempts during the prison's 29-year history; most notable were the violent attempt of May 1946 called the "Battle of Alcatraz" and the possibly successful June 1962 attempt by Frank Morris, John Anglin, and Clarence Anglin, which was marked by careful planning and execution. Faced with high maintenance costs and a poor reputation, Alcatraz closed on 21 March 1963.

    The three-story cellhouse included the four main cell blocks, A-block through D-block, the warden's office, visitation room, the library, and the barber shop. The prison cells typically measured 9 feet (2.7 m) by 5 feet (1.5 m) and 7 feet (2.1 m) high. The cells were primitive and lacked privacy, with a bed, desk, and washbasin, and a toilet on the back wall, and with few furnishings except a blanket. African-Americans were segregated from other inmates in cell designation due to racial abuse. D-Block housed the worst inmates, and six cells at its end were designated "The Hole," where badly behaving prisoners would be sent for periods of often brutal punishment. The dining hall and kitchen extended from the main building. Prisoners and staff ate three meals a day together. The Alcatraz Hospital was above the dining hall.

    Prison corridors were named after major U.S. streets such as Broadway and Michigan Avenue. Working at the prison was considered a privilege for inmates and many of the better inmates were employed in the Model Industries Building and New Industries Building during the day, actively involved in providing for the military in jobs such as sewing and woodwork, and performing various maintenance and laundry chores.

    Today, Alcatraz is a public museum and one of San Francisco's major tourist attractions, attracting some 1.5 million visitors annually. Now operated by the National Park Service's Golden Gate National Recreation Area, the timeworn former prison is being restored and maintained.

    1. ^ "Alcatraz Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
    2. ^ Filion, Ron; Storm, Pamela (22 January 2006). "Escapes from Alcatraz Image Gallery: Federal Penitentiary Wardens". San Francisco History. SF Genealogy. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
    3. ^ "Former Alcatraz inmate speaks about his time", San Francisco Examiner, by D. Morita; 9 October 2009
     
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    22 March 2017 – A terrorist attack in London near the Houses of Parliament leaves four people dead and at least 20 injured.

    2017 Westminster attack

    On 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack took place outside the Palace of Westminster in London, seat of the British Parliament. The attacker, 52-year-old Briton Khalid Masood, drove a car into pedestrians on the pavement along the south side of Westminster Bridge and Bridge Street, injuring more than 50 people, four of them fatally. He then crashed the car into the perimeter fence of the Palace grounds and ran into New Palace Yard, where he fatally stabbed an unarmed police officer. He was then shot by an armed police officer and died at the scene.

    Police treated the attack as "Islamist-related terrorism". Masood reportedly said in a final text message that he was waging jihad in revenge for Western military action in Muslim countries in the Middle East. Amaq News Agency, which is linked to Islamic State, said the attacker answered the group's calls to target citizens of states that are fighting against it, though the claim was questioned by the UK police and government. Police have found no link with a terrorist organisation and believe Masood acted alone.[1]

    1. ^ a b Sengupta, Kim (27 April 2017). "Last message left by Westminster attacker Khalid Masood uncovered by security agencies". The Independent. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
     
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    22 March 2017 – A terrorist attack in London near the Houses of Parliament leaves four people dead and at least 20 injured.

    2017 Westminster attack

    On 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack took place outside the Palace of Westminster in London, seat of the British Parliament. The attacker, 52-year-old Briton Khalid Masood, drove a car into pedestrians on the pavement along the south side of Westminster Bridge and Bridge Street, injuring more than 50 people, four of them fatally. He then crashed the car into the perimeter fence of the Palace grounds and ran into New Palace Yard, where he fatally stabbed an unarmed police officer. He was then shot by an armed police officer and died at the scene.

    Police treated the attack as "Islamist-related terrorism". Masood reportedly said in a final text message that he was waging jihad in revenge for Western military action in Muslim countries in the Middle East. Amaq News Agency, which is linked to Islamic State, said the attacker answered the group's calls to target citizens of states that are fighting against it, though the claim was questioned by the UK police and government. Police have found no link with a terrorist organisation and believe Masood acted alone.[1]

    1. ^ a b Sengupta, Kim (27 April 2017). "Last message left by Westminster attacker Khalid Masood uncovered by security agencies". The Independent. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
     
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    23 March 2001 – The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.

    Mir

    Mir (Russian: Мир, IPA: [ˈmʲir]; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station (ISS) after Mir's orbit decayed. The station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space.

    Mir was the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in orbit and held the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at 3,644 days, until it was surpassed by the ISS on 23 October 2010.[13] It holds the record for the longest single human spaceflight, with Valeri Polyakov spending 437 days and 18 hours on the station between 1994 and 1995. Mir was occupied for a total of twelve and a half years out of its fifteen-year lifespan, having the capacity to support a resident crew of three, or larger crews for short visits.

    Following the success of the Salyut programme, Mir represented the next stage in the Soviet Union's space station programme. The first module of the station, known as the core module or base block, was launched in 1986 and followed by six further modules. Proton rockets were used to launch all of its components except for the docking module, which was installed by US Space Shuttle mission STS-74 in 1995. When complete, the station consisted of seven pressurised modules and several unpressurised components. Power was provided by several photovoltaic arrays attached directly to the modules. The station was maintained at an orbit between 296 km (184 mi) and 421 km (262 mi) altitude and travelled at an average speed of 27,700 km/h (17,200 mph), completing 15.7 orbits per day.[6][7][8]

    The station was launched as part of the Soviet Union's manned spaceflight programme effort to maintain a long-term research outpost in space, and following the collapse of the USSR, was operated by the new Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA). As a result, most of the station's occupants were Soviet; through international collaborations such as the Intercosmos, Euromir and Shuttle–Mir programmes, the station was made accessible to space travellers from several Asian, European and North American nations. Mir was deorbited in March 2001 after funding was cut off. The cost of the Mir programme was estimated by former RKA General Director Yuri Koptev in 2001 as $4.2 billion over its lifetime (including development, assembly and orbital operation).[14]

    1. ^ "Mir-Orbit Data". Heavens-Above.com. 23 March 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
    2. ^ "Mir FAQ – Facts and history". European Space Agency. 21 February 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
    3. ^ "Mir Space Station – Mission Status Center". Spaceflight Now. 23 March 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
    4. ^ "NASA – NSSDC – Spacecraft – Details – Mir". NASA. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
    5. ^ "Soviet/Russian space programmes Q&A". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
    6. ^ a b Hall, R., ed. (2000). The History of Mir 1986–2000. British Interplanetary Society. ISBN 978-0-9506597-4-9.
    7. ^ a b Hall, R., ed. (2001). Mir: The Final Year. British Interplanetary Society. ISBN 978-0-9506597-5-6.
    8. ^ a b "Orbital period of a planet". CalcTool. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
    9. ^ "Mir Space Station Observing". Satobs.org. 28 March 2001. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
    10. ^ Mark Wade (4 September 2010). "Baikonur LC200/39". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
    11. ^ Mark Wade (4 September 2010). "Baikonur LC81/23". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
    12. ^ Macatangay A.V. & Perry J.L. (22 January 2007). "Cabin Air Quality On Board Mir and the International Space Station—A Comparison" (PDF). Johnson Space Center & Marshall Spaceflight Center: NASA: 2. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    13. ^ Jackman, Frank (29 October 2010). "ISS Passing Old Russian Mir In Crewed Time". Aviation Week.
    14. ^ Patrick E. Tyler (24 March 2001). "Russians Find Pride, and Regret, in Mir's Splashdown". New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
     
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    24 March 1989 – In Prince William Sound in Alaska, the Exxon Valdez spills 240,000 barrels (38,000 m3) of crude oil after running aground.

    Exxon Valdez oil spill

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef, 1.5 mi (2.4 km) west of Tatitlek, Alaska, at 12:04 a.m. and spilled 10.8 million US gallons (260,000 bbl) (or 37,000 metric tonnes)[1] of crude oil over the next few days.[2] It is considered the worst oil spill worldwide in terms of damage to the environment.[3] The Valdez spill is the second largest in US waters, after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released.[4][5] Prince William Sound's remote location, accessible only by helicopter, plane, or boat, made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing response plans. The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, eventually affected 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of coastline, of which 200 miles (320 km) were heavily or moderately oiled.[2][6][7]

    1. ^ "Properties of Prudhoe Bay (2004) (ESTS #679)" (PDF). Environment and Climate Change Canada. Government of Canada. 2004. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference faq was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference AUTOREF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference histories was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Leahy, Stephen (March 22, 2019). "Exxon Valdez changed the oil industry forever—but new threats emerge". National Geographic. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference SpillAroundUs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Shigenaka, Gary (2014). "Twenty-Five Years After the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: NOAA's Scientific Support, Monitoring, and Research" (PDF). Office of Response and Restoration. Seattle: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
     
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    25 March 1931 – The Scottsboro Boys are arrested in Alabama and charged with rape.

    Scottsboro Boys

    The Scottsboro Boys, with attorney Samuel Leibowitz, under guard by the state militia, 1932

    The Scottsboro Boys were nine African American teenagers, ages 13 to 19, falsely accused in Alabama of raping two white women on a train in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The cases included a lynch mob before the suspects had been indicted, all-white juries, rushed trials, and disruptive mobs. It is commonly cited as an example of a miscarriage of justice in the United States legal system.

    On March 25, 1931, two dozen people were 'hoboing' on a freight train traveling between Chattanooga and Memphis, Tennessee, the hoboes being an equal mix of African-Americans and Caucasians. A group of white teenage boys saw 18-year-old Haywood Patterson on the train and attempted to push him off the train, claiming that it was "a white man's train".[1] A group of whites gathered rocks and attempted to force all of the black men from the train. Patterson and the other black passengers were able to ward off the group. The humiliated white teenagers jumped or were forced off the train and reported to the city's sheriff that they had been attacked by a group of black teenagers. The sheriff deputized a posse comitatus, stopped and searched the train at Paint Rock, Alabama and arrested the black Americans. Two young white women also got off the train and accused the African American teenagers of rape. The case was first heard in Scottsboro, Alabama, in three rushed trials, in which the defendants received poor legal representation. All but 13-year-old Roy Wright were convicted of rape and sentenced to death (the common sentence in Alabama at the time for black men convicted of raping white women),[2] even though there was medical evidence to suggest that they had not committed the crime.[3]

    With help from the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the case was appealed. The Alabama Supreme Court affirmed seven of the eight convictions, and granted 13-year-old Eugene Williams a new trial because he was a minor. Chief Justice John C. Anderson dissented, ruling that the defendants had been denied an impartial jury, fair trial, fair sentencing, and effective counsel. While waiting for their trials, eight of the nine defendants were held in Kilby Prison. The cases were twice appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which led to landmark decisions on the conduct of trials. In Powell v. Alabama (1932), it ordered new trials.[4]

    The case was first returned to the lower court and the judge allowed a change of venue, moving the retrials to Decatur, Alabama. Judge Horton was appointed. During the retrials, one of the alleged victims admitted to fabricating the rape story and asserted that none of the Scottsboro Boys touched either of the white women. The jury found the defendants guilty, but the judge set aside the verdict and granted a new trial.

    The judge was replaced and the case tried under a judge who ruled frequently against the defense. For the third time a jury—now with one African-American member—returned a guilty verdict. The case was sent to the US Supreme Court on appeal. It ruled that African-Americans had to be included on juries, and ordered retrials.[5] Charges were finally dropped for four of the nine defendants. Sentences for the rest ranged from 75 years to death. All but two served prison sentences; all were released or escaped by 1946. One was shot while being escorted to prison by a Sheriff's Deputy and permanently disabled. Two escaped, were later charged with other crimes, convicted, and sent back to prison. Clarence Norris, the oldest defendant and the only one sentenced to death in the final trial, "jumped parole" in 1946 and went into hiding. He was found in 1976 and pardoned by Governor George Wallace, by which time the case had been thoroughly analyzed and shown to be an injustice. Norris later wrote a book about his experiences. He died in 1989 as the last surviving defendant.

    "The Scottsboro Boys", as they became known, were defended by many in the North and attacked by many in the South. The case is now widely considered a miscarriage of justice, highlighted by the use of all-white juries. Black Americans in Alabama had been disenfranchised since the late 19th century and were likewise not allowed on juries. The case has been explored in many works of literature, music, theatre, film and television. On November 21, 2013, Alabama's parole board voted to grant posthumous pardons to the three Scottsboro Boys who had not been pardoned or had their convictions overturned.[6]

    1. ^ "Scottsboro: An American Tragedy Transcript". PBS. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference UMKC-SB_acct was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Powers, Rachael; Poynton, Holly. To Kill A Mockingbird, The Text Guide. Coordination Group Publications Ltd. ISBN 978 1 84762 023 1. Even though there was medical evidence that indicated the women hadn't been raped, the all-white jury sentenced all the men except the youngest to death.
    4. ^ Powell v. Alabama, 1932, 287 U.S. 45.
    5. ^ Norris v. Alabama (1935), 294 U.S. 587, 595–596. (PDF)
    6. ^ Bentley, Robert J. (November 21, 2013). "Governor Bentley's Statement on the Pardoning of the Scottsboro Boys". Office of Alabama Governor. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
     
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    26 March 1839 – The first Henley Royal Regatta is held.

    Henley Royal Regatta

    Coordinates: 51°32′55″N 0°53′39″W / 51.5487°N 0.8941°W / 51.5487; -0.8941

    Henley Royal Regatta (or Henley Regatta, its original name pre-dating Royal patronage) is a rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839. It differs from the three other regattas rowed over approximately the same course, Henley Women's Regatta, Henley Masters Regatta and Henley Town and Visitors' Regatta, each of which is an entirely separate event.

    The regatta lasts for five days (Wednesday to Sunday) ending on the first weekend in July. Races are head-to-head knock out competitions, raced over a course of 1 mile 550 yards (2,112 m).[1] The regatta regularly attracts international crews to race. The most prestigious event at the regatta is the Grand Challenge Cup for Men's Eights, which has been awarded since the regatta was first staged.[2]

    As the regatta pre-dates any national or international rowing organisation, it has its own rules and organisation, although it is recognised by both British Rowing (the governing body of rowing in England and Wales) and FISA (the International Federation of Rowing Associations).[3] The regatta is organised by a self-perpetuating body of Stewards, who are largely former rowers themselves.[3] One Exception to this rule is that the Mayor of Henley-on Thames Council is an ex-officio Steward. Pierre de Coubertin modelled elements of the organisation of the International Olympic Committee on the Henley Stewards.[4]

    The regatta is regarded as part of the English social season.[5] As with other events in the season, certain enclosures at the regatta have strict dress codes.[6] The Stewards’ Enclosure has a strict dress code of lounge suits for men;[7] women are to wear dresses or skirts with hemlines below the knee and hats are encouraged.[8]

    1. ^ "Henley Royal Regatta – History and organisation – The Course". Retrieved 4 June 2011.
    2. ^ "Henley Royal Regatta – History and organisation – Trophies". Retrieved 4 June 2011.
    3. ^ a b "Henley Royal Regatta – History and organisation". Retrieved 4 June 2011.
    4. ^ "COUBERTIN, BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH A CHRONOLOGY" (MS Word). Dr Don Anthony. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
    5. ^ "Debretts – the traditional season". Retrieved 4 June 2011.
    6. ^ [1] Archived 13 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine | What to wear to Henley Royal Regatta
    7. ^ "Pamper your hamper: essential accessories for a summer picnic". Financial Times. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
    8. ^ "5 Things to Know About the Henley Royal Regatta in England". Vogue.com. 1 July 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
     
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    27 March 1915Typhoid Mary, the first healthy carrier of disease ever identified in the United States is put in quarantine for the second time, where she would remain for the rest of her life.

    Mary Mallon

    Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was an Irish-born cook believed to have infected 53 people, three of whom died, with typhoid fever, and the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the disease.[1] Because she persisted in working as a cook, by which she exposed others to the disease, she was twice forcibly quarantined by authorities, and died after a total of nearly three decades in isolation.[2][3] Presumably, she was born with typhoid because her mother was infected during pregnancy.[4][5][6]

    1. ^ "'Typhoid Mary' Dies Of A Stroke At 68. Carrier of Disease, Blamed for 51 Cases and 3 Deaths, but Immune". The New York Times. November 12, 1938. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2010. Mary Mallon, the first carrier of typhoid bacilli identified in America and consequently known as Typhoid Mary, died yesterday in Riverside Hospital on North Brother Island.
    2. ^ The Gospel of Germs: Men, Women, and the Microbe in American Life, ISBN 0674357086
    3. ^ Typhoid Mary: An Urban Historical, ISBN 160819518X
    4. ^ Adler & Mara 2016, pp. 137—145.
    5. ^ Walzer Leavitt 1996, p. 14.
    6. ^ Elsevier 2013, p. 189.
     
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    28 March 1999Kosovo War: Serb paramilitary and military forces kill 146 Kosovo Albanians in Izbica.

    Kosovo War

    The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February 1998[50][51] and lasted until 11 June 1999.[52] It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (i.e. Serbia and Montenegro), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from 24 March 1999, and ground support from the Albanian army.[53]

    The KLA, formed in the early 1990s to fight against Serbian persecution of Kosovo Albanians,[54] initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks against Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo. In June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations. In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. In early 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents;[55] this campaign killed 1,500 to 2,000 civilians and KLA combatants.[56][57]

    After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign in Kosovo as a "humanitarian war".[58] This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of Yugoslavia (March–June 1999).[59][60] By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of almost three thousand victims of all ethnicities,[61] and in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population.[62]

    The war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces[63] agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence.[64][65] The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley[66] and others joining the National Liberation Army (NLA) and Albanian National Army (ANA) during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia,[67] while others went on to form the Kosovo Police.[68] After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict.[69] The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million[70] to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians.[71] After the war, around 200,000 Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse.[72] Serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons in Europe.[73][74]

    The NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths,[75] including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees.[76][77]

    1. ^ "The Balkans/Allied Force: Statistics". planken.org. Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    2. ^ Thomas (2006), p. 47
    3. ^ Daniszewski, John (1999-04-14). "Yugoslav Troops Said to Cross Into Albania". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    4. ^ Daly, Emma (1999-04-14). "War In The Balkans: Serbs enter Albania and burn village". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    5. ^ https://fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/sup6.pdf
    6. ^ http://www.wrmea.com/backissues/0799/9907060.html
    7. ^ Reitman, Valerie; Richter, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (1999-06-10). "Yugoslav, NATO Generals Sign Peace Agreement for Kosovo / Alliance will end air campaign when Serbian troops pull out". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    8. ^ "Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo". Human Rights Watch. August 1999.
    9. ^ Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn (2012). After Yugoslavia: Identities and Politics Within the Successor States. p. 30. ISBN 9780230201316.
    10. ^ "Kosovo Crisis Update". UNHCR. August 4, 1999.
    11. ^ "Forced Expulsion of Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians from OSCE Participated state to Kosovo". OSCE. October 6, 2006.
    12. ^ Siobhán Wills (26 February 2009). Protecting Civilians: The Obligations of Peacekeepers. Oxford University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-19-953387-9. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
    13. ^ Katamaj, Halil (2002), Kudusi Lama, War General of division of Kukes, during the Kosovo war, Tiranë: Mokra, ISBN 978-99927-781-0-4[page needed]
    14. ^ "BBC News – Serbian Vlastimir Djordjevic jailed over Kosovo murders". BBC News. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    15. ^ "Serbia charges police officers with 1999 Kosovo murders". SETimes.com. 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    16. ^ John Pike. "Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA / UCK]". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    17. ^ 12 mal bewertet (24 March 1999). "Die Bundeswehr zieht in den Krieg". 60xdeutschland.de. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    18. ^ John Pike. "Kosovo Order of Battle". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    19. ^ a b c d e f "NATO Operation Allied Force". Defense.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-02-28. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    20. ^ Kosovo Map The Guardian
    21. ^ "Fighting for a foreign land". BBC News. 1999-05-20. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    22. ^ "Russian volunteer's account of Kosovo". The Russia Journal. 1999-07-05. Archived from the original on 2011-12-26. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    23. ^ Daalder & O'Hanlon 2000, p. 151
    24. ^ a b c d e f "Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Evaluation" (PDF). Humanitarian Law Center. 4 February 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
    25. ^ "Two die in Apache crash". BBC News. 1999-05-05. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference John Pike was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "How to Take Down an F-117". Strategypage.com. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    28. ^ "Holloman commander recalls being shot down in Serbia". F-16.net. February 7, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference ejection-history1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "F-117 damage said attributed to full moon". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 1999-05-06. p. A14. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    31. ^ "Nato loses two planes". BBC News. 1999-05-02. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    32. ^ Andrei Kislyakov (October 9, 2007). "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Increase In Numbers". Radardaily.com. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    33. ^ Alleged connections between top Kosovo politicians and assassin investigated | World news | The Guardian
    34. ^ Robert Fisk (21 June 1999). "Serb army 'unscathed by Nato', KLA 'killed more Serbs than Nato did'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
    35. ^ "NATO nam ubio 1.008 vojnika i policajaca". Mondo. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
    36. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. Routledge. p. 558. ISBN 978-0-203-96911-3.
    37. ^ Chambers II, John Whiteclay (1999). The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-507198-6.
    38. ^ Coopersmith, Jonathan; Launius, Roger D. (2003). Taking Off: A Century of Manned Flight. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-56347-610-5.
    39. ^ Andrew Cockburn (3 April 2011). "The limits of air power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
    40. ^ Macdonald 2007, pp. 99.
    41. ^ Bacevich & Cohen 2001, p. 22
    42. ^ a b "Facts and Figurues - War in Europe". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
    43. ^ "Serbia: 13,000 killed and missing from Kosovo war – rights group". Relief Web. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
    44. ^ Judah, Tim (2009). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
    45. ^ Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen. pp. Part III, Chap 14.
    46. ^ a b "Serbia marks anniversary of NATO bombing". B92. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    47. ^ Judah, Tim (2008-09-29). Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-974103-8.
    48. ^ "Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign – The Crisis In Kosovo". HRW. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
    49. ^ "Kosovo Memory Book". HLC. Archived from the original on 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
    50. ^ Independent International Commission on Kosovo (2000). The Kosovo Report (PDF). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0199243099.
    51. ^ Quackenbush, Stephen L. (2015). International Conflict: Logic and Evidence. Los Angeles: Sage. p. 202. ISBN 9781452240985.
    52. ^ Boyle, Michael J. (2014). Violence After War: Explaining Instability in Post-Conflict States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9781421412573.
    53. ^ Benjamin S. Lambeth. NATOs Air War for Kosovo A Strategic and Operational Assessment, Page 53. ...KLA [Kosovo Liberation Army], estimated to have been equipped with up to 30,000 automatic weapons, including heavy machine guns, sniper rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, and antitank weapons, launched a counter-offensive on May 26 against [Serbian] VI troops in Kosovo. That thrust, called Operation Arrow, involved more than 4,000 guerrillas of the 137th and 138th Brigades and drew artillery support from the Albanian army...
    54. ^ Reveron, 2006, pages 68–69
    55. ^ Mincheva & Gurr 2013, p. 27–28
    56. ^ "Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo (March–June 1999)". Human Rights Watch. 12 June 1999. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    57. ^ Judah (2009). The Serbs. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
    58. ^ "Endgame in Kosovo". The New York Times. December 9, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    59. ^ A Review of NATO's War over Kosovo
    60. ^ Tanner, Marcus (20 April 1999). "War in the Balkans: The day the men of Bela Crkva died – Anatomy Of A Massacre". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    61. ^ Pilger, John (4 September 2000). "US and British officials told us that at least 100,000 were murdered in Kosovo. A year later, fewer than 3,000 bodies have been found". www.newstatesman.com.
    62. ^ "Kosovo assault 'was not genocide'". BBC. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
    63. ^ BBC News | Europe | K-For: The task ahead
    64. ^ "Kosovo war chronology". Human Rights Watch.
    65. ^ "The Balkan wars: Reshaping the map of south-eastern Europe". The Economist. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
    66. ^ "Kosovo one year on". BBC. 16 March 2000. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
    67. ^ Huggler, Justin (12 March 2001). "KLA veterans linked to latest bout of violence in Macedonia". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
    68. ^ Kosovo Liberation Army: the inside story of an insurgency, By Henry H. Perritt[page needed]
    69. ^ List of Kosovo War Victims Published
    70. ^ Heike Krieger, ed. (2001). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780521800716.
    71. ^ "KOSOVO / KOSOVA: As Seen, As Told". OSCE. 5 November 1999. p. 13. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
    72. ^ Abrahams, Fred (2001). Under Orders:War Crimes in Kosovo. Human Rights Watch. pp. 454–456. ISBN 978-1-56432-264-7.
    73. ^ "Serbia home to highest number of refugees and IDPs in Europe". B92. 20 June 2010.
    74. ^ "Serbia: Europe's largest proctracted refugee situation". OSCE. 2008.
    75. ^ "The Civilian Deaths". Civilian deaths in the NATO air campaign. Human Rights Watch. February 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    76. ^ "Case Studies of Civilian Deaths". Civilian deaths in the NATO air campaign. Human Rights Watch. February 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    77. ^ Massa, Anne-Sophie (2006). "NATO's Intervention in Kosovo and the Decision of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Not to Investigate". Berkeley Journal of International Law. 24 (2). Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    Articles:
    1
    28 March 1999Kosovo War: Serb paramilitary and military forces kill 146 Kosovo Albanians in Izbica.

    Kosovo War

    The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February 1998[50][51] and lasted until 11 June 1999.[52] It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (i.e. Serbia and Montenegro), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from 24 March 1999, and ground support from the Albanian army.[53]

    The KLA, formed in the early 1990s to fight against Serbian persecution of Kosovo Albanians,[54] initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks against Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo. In June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations. In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. In early 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents;[55] this campaign killed 1,500 to 2,000 civilians and KLA combatants.[56][57]

    After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign in Kosovo as a "humanitarian war".[58] This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of Yugoslavia (March–June 1999).[59][60] By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of almost three thousand victims of all ethnicities,[61] and in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population.[62]

    The war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces[63] agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence.[64][65] The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley[66] and others joining the National Liberation Army (NLA) and Albanian National Army (ANA) during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia,[67] while others went on to form the Kosovo Police.[68] After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict.[69] The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million[70] to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians.[71] After the war, around 200,000 Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse.[72] Serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons in Europe.[73][74]

    The NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths,[75] including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees.[76][77]

    1. ^ "The Balkans/Allied Force: Statistics". planken.org. Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    2. ^ Thomas (2006), p. 47
    3. ^ Daniszewski, John (1999-04-14). "Yugoslav Troops Said to Cross Into Albania". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    4. ^ Daly, Emma (1999-04-14). "War In The Balkans: Serbs enter Albania and burn village". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    5. ^ https://fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/sup6.pdf
    6. ^ http://www.wrmea.com/backissues/0799/9907060.html
    7. ^ Reitman, Valerie; Richter, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (1999-06-10). "Yugoslav, NATO Generals Sign Peace Agreement for Kosovo / Alliance will end air campaign when Serbian troops pull out". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    8. ^ "Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo". Human Rights Watch. August 1999.
    9. ^ Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn (2012). After Yugoslavia: Identities and Politics Within the Successor States. p. 30. ISBN 9780230201316.
    10. ^ "Kosovo Crisis Update". UNHCR. August 4, 1999.
    11. ^ "Forced Expulsion of Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians from OSCE Participated state to Kosovo". OSCE. October 6, 2006.
    12. ^ Siobhán Wills (26 February 2009). Protecting Civilians: The Obligations of Peacekeepers. Oxford University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-19-953387-9. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
    13. ^ Katamaj, Halil (2002), Kudusi Lama, War General of division of Kukes, during the Kosovo war, Tiranë: Mokra, ISBN 978-99927-781-0-4[page needed]
    14. ^ "BBC News – Serbian Vlastimir Djordjevic jailed over Kosovo murders". BBC News. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    15. ^ "Serbia charges police officers with 1999 Kosovo murders". SETimes.com. 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    16. ^ John Pike. "Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA / UCK]". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    17. ^ 12 mal bewertet (24 March 1999). "Die Bundeswehr zieht in den Krieg". 60xdeutschland.de. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    18. ^ John Pike. "Kosovo Order of Battle". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    19. ^ a b c d e f "NATO Operation Allied Force". Defense.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-02-28. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    20. ^ Kosovo Map The Guardian
    21. ^ "Fighting for a foreign land". BBC News. 1999-05-20. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    22. ^ "Russian volunteer's account of Kosovo". The Russia Journal. 1999-07-05. Archived from the original on 2011-12-26. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    23. ^ Daalder & O'Hanlon 2000, p. 151
    24. ^ a b c d e f "Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Evaluation" (PDF). Humanitarian Law Center. 4 February 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
    25. ^ "Two die in Apache crash". BBC News. 1999-05-05. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference John Pike was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "How to Take Down an F-117". Strategypage.com. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    28. ^ "Holloman commander recalls being shot down in Serbia". F-16.net. February 7, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference ejection-history1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "F-117 damage said attributed to full moon". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 1999-05-06. p. A14. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
    31. ^ "Nato loses two planes". BBC News. 1999-05-02. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    32. ^ Andrei Kislyakov (October 9, 2007). "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Increase In Numbers". Radardaily.com. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
    33. ^ Alleged connections between top Kosovo politicians and assassin investigated | World news | The Guardian
    34. ^ Robert Fisk (21 June 1999). "Serb army 'unscathed by Nato', KLA 'killed more Serbs than Nato did'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
    35. ^ "NATO nam ubio 1.008 vojnika i policajaca". Mondo. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
    36. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. Routledge. p. 558. ISBN 978-0-203-96911-3.
    37. ^ Chambers II, John Whiteclay (1999). The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-507198-6.
    38. ^ Coopersmith, Jonathan; Launius, Roger D. (2003). Taking Off: A Century of Manned Flight. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-56347-610-5.
    39. ^ Andrew Cockburn (3 April 2011). "The limits of air power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
    40. ^ Macdonald 2007, pp. 99.
    41. ^ Bacevich & Cohen 2001, p. 22
    42. ^ a b "Facts and Figurues - War in Europe". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
    43. ^ "Serbia: 13,000 killed and missing from Kosovo war – rights group". Relief Web. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
    44. ^ Judah, Tim (2009). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
    45. ^ Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen. pp. Part III, Chap 14.
    46. ^ a b "Serbia marks anniversary of NATO bombing". B92. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    47. ^ Judah, Tim (2008-09-29). Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-974103-8.
    48. ^ "Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign – The Crisis In Kosovo". HRW. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
    49. ^ "Kosovo Memory Book". HLC. Archived from the original on 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
    50. ^ Independent International Commission on Kosovo (2000). The Kosovo Report (PDF). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0199243099.
    51. ^ Quackenbush, Stephen L. (2015). International Conflict: Logic and Evidence. Los Angeles: Sage. p. 202. ISBN 9781452240985.
    52. ^ Boyle, Michael J. (2014). Violence After War: Explaining Instability in Post-Conflict States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9781421412573.
    53. ^ Benjamin S. Lambeth. NATOs Air War for Kosovo A Strategic and Operational Assessment, Page 53. ...KLA [Kosovo Liberation Army], estimated to have been equipped with up to 30,000 automatic weapons, including heavy machine guns, sniper rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, and antitank weapons, launched a counter-offensive on May 26 against [Serbian] VI troops in Kosovo. That thrust, called Operation Arrow, involved more than 4,000 guerrillas of the 137th and 138th Brigades and drew artillery support from the Albanian army...
    54. ^ Reveron, 2006, pages 68–69
    55. ^ Mincheva & Gurr 2013, p. 27–28
    56. ^ "Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo (March–June 1999)". Human Rights Watch. 12 June 1999. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    57. ^ Judah (2009). The Serbs. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
    58. ^ "Endgame in Kosovo". The New York Times. December 9, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
    59. ^ A Review of NATO's War over Kosovo
    60. ^ Tanner, Marcus (20 April 1999). "War in the Balkans: The day the men of Bela Crkva died – Anatomy Of A Massacre". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    61. ^ Pilger, John (4 September 2000). "US and British officials told us that at least 100,000 were murdered in Kosovo. A year later, fewer than 3,000 bodies have been found". www.newstatesman.com.
    62. ^ "Kosovo assault 'was not genocide'". BBC. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
    63. ^ BBC News | Europe | K-For: The task ahead
    64. ^ "Kosovo war chronology". Human Rights Watch.
    65. ^ "The Balkan wars: Reshaping the map of south-eastern Europe". The Economist. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
    66. ^ "Kosovo one year on". BBC. 16 March 2000. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
    67. ^ Huggler, Justin (12 March 2001). "KLA veterans linked to latest bout of violence in Macedonia". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
    68. ^ Kosovo Liberation Army: the inside story of an insurgency, By Henry H. Perritt[page needed]
    69. ^ List of Kosovo War Victims Published
    70. ^ Heike Krieger, ed. (2001). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780521800716.
    71. ^ "KOSOVO / KOSOVA: As Seen, As Told". OSCE. 5 November 1999. p. 13. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
    72. ^ Abrahams, Fred (2001). Under Orders:War Crimes in Kosovo. Human Rights Watch. pp. 454–456. ISBN 978-1-56432-264-7.
    73. ^ "Serbia home to highest number of refugees and IDPs in Europe". B92. 20 June 2010.
    74. ^ "Serbia: Europe's largest proctracted refugee situation". OSCE. 2008.
    75. ^ "The Civilian Deaths". Civilian deaths in the NATO air campaign. Human Rights Watch. February 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    76. ^ "Case Studies of Civilian Deaths". Civilian deaths in the NATO air campaign. Human Rights Watch. February 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    77. ^ Massa, Anne-Sophie (2006). "NATO's Intervention in Kosovo and the Decision of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Not to Investigate". Berkeley Journal of International Law. 24 (2). Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    Articles:
    1
    29 March 1973 – Operation Barrel Roll, a covert American bombing campaign in Laos to stop communist infiltration of South Vietnam, ends.

    Operation Barrel Roll

    Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and close air support campaign conducted in the Kingdom of Laos between 14 December 1964 and 29 March 1973 concurrent with the Vietnam War.

    The original purpose of the operation was to serve as a signal to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to cease its support for the insurgency then taking place in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). This action was taken within Laos due to the location of North Vietnam's expanding logistical corridor known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese), which ran from southwestern North Vietnam, through southeastern Laos, and into South Vietnam. The campaign then centered on the interdiction of that logistical system. Beginning during the same time frame (and expanding throughout the conflict) the operation became increasingly involved in providing close air support missions for Royal Lao Armed Forces, CIA-backed tribal mercenaries, and Thai Volunteer Defense Corps in a covert ground war in northern and northeastern Laos. Barrel Roll and the "Secret Army" attempted to stem an increasing tide of People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Pathet Lao offensives.

    Barrel Roll was one of the most closely held secrets and one of the most unknown components of the American military commitment in Southeast Asia. Due to the ostensible neutrality of Laos, guaranteed by the Geneva Conference of 1954 and 1962, both the U.S. and North Vietnam strove to maintain the secrecy of their operations and only slowly escalated military actions there. As much as both parties would have liked to have publicized their enemy's own alleged violation of the accords, both had more to gain by keeping their own roles quiet.[1] Regardless, by the end of the conflict in 1975, Laos emerged from nine years of war just as devastated as any of the other Asian participants in the Vietnam War.

    1. ^ Warner, Roger (1996). Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America's Clandestine War in Laos. Steerforth Press. p. 135. ISBN 9781883642365.
     
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    30 March 1981 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C., hotel by John Hinckley, Jr.; three others are wounded in the same incident.

    Attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan

    On March 30, 1981, United States President Ronald Reagan was shot and wounded by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C. as he was returning to his limousine after a speaking engagement at the Washington Hilton Hotel. Hinckley believed the attack would impress actress Jodie Foster, with whom he had become obsessed.

    Reagan was seriously wounded by a .22 Long Rifle bullet that ricocheted off the side of the presidential limousine and hit him in the left underarm, breaking a rib, puncturing a lung, and causing serious internal bleeding. He was close to death upon arrival at George Washington University Hospital but was stabilized in the emergency room, then underwent emergency exploratory surgery.[4] He recovered and was released from the hospital on April 11. No formal invocation of presidential succession took place, although Secretary of State Alexander Haig stated that he was "in control here" while Vice President George H. W. Bush returned to Washington from Fort Worth, Texas.

    White House Press Secretary James Brady, Secret Service agent Tim McCarthy, and police officer Thomas Delahanty were also wounded. All three survived, but Brady suffered brain damage and was permanently disabled. His death in 2014 was considered a homicide because it was ultimately caused by this injury.[5][6][7]

    A federal judge subpoenaed Foster to testify at Hinckley's trial, and he was found not guilty by reason of insanity on charges of attempting to assassinate the president. Hinckley remained confined to a psychiatric facility. In January 2015, federal prosecutors announced that they would not charge Hinckley with Brady's death, despite the medical examiner's classification of his death as a homicide.[8] He was released from institutional psychiatric care on September 10, 2016.[9]

    1. ^ "James Brady's death ruled a homicide, police say". CNN.com. August 9, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
    2. ^ Hermann, Peter (August 8, 2014). "Medical examiner rules James Brady's death a homicide". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
    3. ^ "James Brady's Death Was a Homicide, Medical Examiner Rules". NBCWashington.com. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
    4. ^ "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
    5. ^ "Medical examiner rules James Brady's death a homicide". Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
    6. ^ Corasaniti, Nick (August 8, 2014). "Coroner Is Said to Rule James Brady's Death a Homicide, 33 Years After a Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
    7. ^ Hermann, Peter; Ruane, Michael E. (August 8, 2014). "Medical examiner rules James Brady's death a homicide". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
    8. ^ Hermann, Peter (January 2, 2015). "Hinckley won't face murder charge in death of James Brady, prosecutors say". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
    9. ^ ABC News, "Ronald Reagan: Former US president's would-be assassin John Hinckley Jr to be freed after 35 years". Retrieved 28 July 2016
     
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    31 March 1990 – Approximately 200,000 protesters take to the streets of London to protest against the newly introduced Poll Tax.

    Poll tax riots

    The poll tax riots were a series of riots in British towns and cities during protests against the Community Charge (colloquially known as the "poll tax"), introduced by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. The largest protest occurred in central London on Saturday 31 March 1990, shortly before the tax was due to come into force in England and Wales.

     
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    1 April 2004Google announces Gmail to the public.

    Gmail

    Gmail is a free email service developed by Google. Users can access Gmail on the web and using third-party programs that synchronize email content through POP or IMAP protocols. Gmail started as a limited beta release on April 1, 2004 and ended its testing phase on July 7, 2009.

    At launch, Gmail had an initial storage capacity offer of one gigabyte per user, a significantly higher amount than competitors offered at the time. Today, the service comes with 15 gigabytes of storage. Users can receive emails up to 50 megabytes in size, including attachments, while they can send emails up to 25 megabytes. In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message. Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a "conversation view" similar to an Internet forum. The service is notable among website developers for its early adoption of Ajax.

    Google's mail servers automatically scan emails for multiple purposes, including to filter spam and malware, and to add context-sensitive advertisements next to emails. This advertising practice has been significantly criticized by privacy advocates due to concerns over unlimited data retention, ease of monitoring by third parties, users of other email providers not having agreed to the policy upon sending emails to Gmail addresses, and the potential for Google to change its policies to further decrease privacy by combining information with other Google data usage. The company has been the subject of lawsuits concerning the issues. Google has stated that email users must "necessarily expect" their emails to be subject to automated processing and claims that the service refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those mentioning race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements. In June 2017, Google announced the end to the use of contextual Gmail content for advertising purposes, relying instead on data gathered from the use of its other services.[3]

    By 2018, Gmail had 1.5 billion active users worldwide.[1]

    1. ^ a b Petrova (October 26, 2019). "Gmail dominates consumer email with 1.5 billion users". CNBC.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
    2. ^ Siegler, MG (March 14, 2010). "The Key To Gmail: Sh*t Umbrellas". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on October 22, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference No contextual ads was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    2 April 2014 – A spree shooting occurs at the Fort Hood army base in Texas, with four dead, including the gunman, and 16 others injured.

    2014 Fort Hood shooting

    On April 2, 2014, a shooting spree was perpetrated at several locations on the Fort Hood military base near Killeen, Texas. Four people, including the gunman, were killed while 14 additional people were injured; 12 by gunshot wounds.[6][8][9] The shooter, 34-year-old Army Specialist Ivan Lopez, died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

    1. ^ Welch, William M. (April 7, 2014). "Fort Hood gunman fired 35 shots, including from car". USA Today. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
    2. ^ Chandrasekaran, Rajiv; Goldman, Adam; Horwitz, Sari (April 3, 2014). "Gunman in Fort Hood shooting had behavioral issues, authorities say". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
    3. ^ "Shooter reported dead at Fort Hood, 14 others injured". KVUE. April 2, 2014. Archived from the original on April 5, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
    4. ^ Berman, Mark (April 2, 2014). "Fort Hood locked down after shooting; at least one dead multiple injuries". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
    5. ^ Cooper, Mex (April 2, 2014). "Fort Hood shooter reportedly dead". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ShootingReport was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Stableford, Dylan; Pfeiffer, Eric (April 3, 2014). "Fort Hood shooting leaves 4 dead, including gunman; 16 injured". Yahoo News. Yahoo!. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
    8. ^ Herskovitz, Jon (April 2014). "Shooter at Fort Hood Army base in Texas, injuries reported – police". Reuters. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
    9. ^ "Fort Hood shooter snapped over denial of request for leave, Army confirms". Fox News Channel. April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
     
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    3 April 1997 – The Thalit massacre begins in Algeria; all but one of the 53 inhabitants of Thalit are killed by guerrillas.

    Thalit massacre

    The Thalit massacre took place in Thalit village (Médéa, near Ksar el Boukhari),[1] some 70 km from Algiers, on April 3–4, 1997. Fifty-two out of the 53 inhabitants were killed by having their throats cut. The homes of the villagers were burned down afterward. The attack was attributed to Islamist guerrillas.[2]

    Location of massacres in Algeria 1997-1998 showing Thalit near the centre of the map.
    1. ^ Ksar el Boukhari, Algeria Page, retrieved 11 February 2010
    2. ^ "More than 80 Algerians killed in weekend massacres", CNN, 6 April 1997, retrieved 11 February 2010
     
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    4 April 1979 – Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan is executed.

    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀٽو‎; Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani barrister and politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.[4]

    Born in modern-day Sindh and educated at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Oxford, Bhutto trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn, before entering politics as one of President Iskander Mirza's cabinet members, and was assigned several ministries during President Ayub Khan's military rule from 1958. Appointed Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was a proponent of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, leading to war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement ended hostilities, Bhutto fell out with Ayub Khan and was sacked from government.

    Bhutto founded the PPP in 1967 on a socialist platform, and contested general elections held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a majority of seats overall, the PPP won a majority of seats in West Pakistan; the two parties were unable to agree on a new constitution in particular on the issue of Six Point Movement which many in West Pakistan saw as a way to break up the country.[5] Subsequent uprisings led to the secession of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-allied India in 1971. Bhutto was handed over the presidency in December 1971 and emergency rule was imposed. When Bhutto set about rebuilding Pakistan, he stated his intention was to "rebuild confidence and rebuild hope for the future".[6]

    By July 1972, Bhutto recovered 43,600 prisoners of war and 5,000 sq mi of Indian-held territory after signing the Simla Agreement.[7][8] He strengthened ties with China and Saudi Arabia, recognised Bangladesh, and hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974.[7] Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament unanimously approve a new constitution in 1973, upon which he appointed Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and switched to the newly empowered office of Prime Minister. He also played an integral role in initiating the country's nuclear programme.[9] However, Bhutto's nationalisation of much of Pakistan's fledgling industries, healthcare, and educational institutions led to economic stagnation. After dissolving provincial feudal governments in Balochistan was met with unrest, Bhutto also ordered an army operation in the province in 1973, causing thousands of civilian casualties.[10]

    Despite civil disorder, the PPP won parliamentary elections in 1977 by a wide margin. However, the opposition alleged widespread vote rigging, and violence escalated across the country. On 5 July that same year, Bhutto was deposed in a military coup by his appointed army chief Zia-ul-Haq, before being controversially tried and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for authorising the murder of a political opponent.[8][11][12]

    Bhutto remains a contentious figure, being hailed for his nationalism and secular internationalist agenda, yet, is criticized for intimidating his political opponents and for human rights violations. He is often considered one of Pakistan's greatest leaders,[13] and his party, the PPP, remains among Pakistan's largest, with his daughter Benazir Bhutto being twice elected Prime Minister,[4] while his son-in-law and Benazir's husband, Asif Ali Zardari, served as president.

    1. ^ "Shirin Begum passes away". DAWN.COM. 20 January 2003.
    2. ^ Chitkara, M.G. (1996). Benazir – a profile. New Delhi: APH Publ. Corp. p. 69. ISBN 978-8170247524. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
    3. ^ Outubuddin (31 December 1977). "Husna Sheikh: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's secret wife". India Today. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
    4. ^ a b Pakistan Peoples Party (2011). "Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)". PPP. PPP medial Cell. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2001.
    5. ^ "Six-point Programme - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
    6. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (16 September 2014). The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics. ISBN 9780674744998.
    7. ^ a b Sharmila Farooqi, Member of PAS (2011). "ZA Bhutto – architect of a new Pakistan". Sharmila Farooqi, member of Sindh Provincial Assembly of Pakistan. Sharmila Faruqui. Retrieved 15 April 2001. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the maker of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the architect of Pakistan.
    8. ^ a b "Deposed Pakistani PM is executed". BBC On This Day. British Broadcasting Corporation. 4 April 1979. Retrieved 28 December 2007. sentenced to death for the murder of a political opponent
    9. ^ Hoodbhoy, Pervez Amerali (23 January 2011). "Pakistan's nuclear bayonet". The Herald. Dawn Group of Newspapers. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
    10. ^ Global Security.org (2011). "Balochistan Insurgency – Fourth conflict 1973–77". Global Security.org. Global Security.org. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
    11. ^ Pakistan, Zia and after. Abhinav Publications. 1989. pp. 20–35. ISBN 978-81-7017-253-6.
    12. ^ Blood, Peter (1994). "Pakistan – Zia-ul-Haq". Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 28 December 2007. ... hanging ... Bhutto for complicity in the murder of a political opponent...
    13. ^ Hassan, Nadir (14 April 2011). "In memorian: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". The Dawn News Group. The Dawn Media Group. Retrieved 8 August 2011. The one person in Pakistan's recent history whose death transcends symbolism is Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Bhutto gave the country its last and best constitution and by inspiring millions through force of rhetoric....Dawn
     
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    4 April 1979 – Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan is executed.

    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀٽو‎; Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو‎‎; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani barrister and politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.[4]

    Born in modern-day Sindh and educated at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Oxford, Bhutto trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn, before entering politics as one of President Iskander Mirza's cabinet members, and was assigned several ministries during President Ayub Khan's military rule from 1958. Appointed Foreign Minister in 1963, Bhutto was a proponent of Operation Gibraltar in Kashmir, leading to war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement ended hostilities, Bhutto fell out with Ayub Khan and was sacked from government.

    Bhutto founded the PPP in 1967 on a socialist platform, and contested general elections held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. While the Awami League won a majority of seats overall, the PPP won a majority of seats in West Pakistan; the two parties were unable to agree on a new constitution in particular on the issue of Six Point Movement which many in West Pakistan saw as a way to break up the country.[5] Subsequent uprisings led to the secession of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-allied India in 1971. Bhutto was handed over the presidency in December 1971 and emergency rule was imposed. When Bhutto set about rebuilding Pakistan, he stated his intention was to "rebuild confidence and rebuild hope for the future".[6]

    By July 1972, Bhutto recovered 43,600 prisoners of war and 5,000 sq mi of Indian-held territory after signing the Simla Agreement.[7][8] He strengthened ties with China and Saudi Arabia, recognised Bangladesh, and hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974.[7] Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament unanimously approve a new constitution in 1973, upon which he appointed Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry President and switched to the newly empowered office of Prime Minister. He also played an integral role in initiating the country's nuclear programme.[9] However, Bhutto's nationalisation of much of Pakistan's fledgling industries, healthcare, and educational institutions led to economic stagnation. After dissolving provincial feudal governments in Balochistan was met with unrest, Bhutto also ordered an army operation in the province in 1973, causing thousands of civilian casualties.[10]

    Despite civil disorder, the PPP won parliamentary elections in 1977 by a wide margin. However, the opposition alleged widespread vote rigging, and violence escalated across the country. On 5 July that same year, Bhutto was deposed in a military coup by his appointed army chief Zia-ul-Haq, before being controversially tried and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for authorising the murder of a political opponent.[8][11][12]

    Bhutto remains a contentious figure, being hailed for his nationalism and secular internationalist agenda, yet, is criticized for intimidating his political opponents and for human rights violations. He is often considered one of Pakistan's greatest leaders,[13] and his party, the PPP, remains among Pakistan's largest, with his daughter Benazir Bhutto being twice elected Prime Minister,[4] while his son-in-law and Benazir's husband, Asif Ali Zardari, served as president.

    1. ^ "Shirin Begum passes away". DAWN.COM. 20 January 2003.
    2. ^ Chitkara, M.G. (1996). Benazir – a profile. New Delhi: APH Publ. Corp. p. 69. ISBN 978-8170247524. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
    3. ^ Outubuddin (31 December 1977). "Husna Sheikh: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's secret wife". India Today. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
    4. ^ a b Pakistan Peoples Party (2011). "Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)". PPP. PPP medial Cell. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2001.
    5. ^ "Six-point Programme - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
    6. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (16 September 2014). The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics. ISBN 9780674744998.
    7. ^ a b Sharmila Farooqi, Member of PAS (2011). "ZA Bhutto – architect of a new Pakistan". Sharmila Farooqi, member of Sindh Provincial Assembly of Pakistan. Sharmila Faruqui. Retrieved 15 April 2001. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the maker of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the architect of Pakistan.
    8. ^ a b "Deposed Pakistani PM is executed". BBC On This Day. British Broadcasting Corporation. 4 April 1979. Retrieved 28 December 2007. sentenced to death for the murder of a political opponent
    9. ^ Hoodbhoy, Pervez Amerali (23 January 2011). "Pakistan's nuclear bayonet". The Herald. Dawn Group of Newspapers. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
    10. ^ Global Security.org (2011). "Balochistan Insurgency – Fourth conflict 1973–77". Global Security.org. Global Security.org. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
    11. ^ Pakistan, Zia and after. Abhinav Publications. 1989. pp. 20–35. ISBN 978-81-7017-253-6.
    12. ^ Blood, Peter (1994). "Pakistan – Zia-ul-Haq". Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 28 December 2007. ... hanging ... Bhutto for complicity in the murder of a political opponent...
    13. ^ Hassan, Nadir (14 April 2011). "In memorian: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". The Dawn News Group. The Dawn Media Group. Retrieved 8 August 2011. The one person in Pakistan's recent history whose death transcends symbolism is Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Bhutto gave the country its last and best constitution and by inspiring millions through force of rhetoric....Dawn
     
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    5 April 1976 – In China, the April Fifth Movement leads to the Tiananmen Incident

    Tiananmen Incident

    The Tiananmen Incident (Chinese: 四五天安门事件; pinyin: sìwǔ tiān'ānmén shìjiàn or the April 5 Tiananmen Incident) was a mass gathering and protest that took place on 5 April 1976, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. The incident occurred on the traditional day of mourning, the Qingming Festival, after the Nanjing Incident, and was triggered by the death of Premier Zhou Enlai earlier that year. Some people strongly disapproved of the removal of the displays of mourning, and began gathering in the Square to protest against the central authorities, then largely under the auspices of the Gang of Four, who ordered the Square to be cleared.

    The event was labeled as counterrevolutionary immediately after its occurrence by the Communist Party's Central Committee and served as a gateway to the dismissal and house arrest of then–Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping, who was accused of planning the event, while he insisted that he came to Tiananmen Square only for a haircut. The Central Committee's decision on the event was reversed after the Cultural Revolution ended, as it would later be officially hailed as a display of patriotism.

     
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    6 April 1992 – The Bosnian War begins.

    Bosnian War

    The Bosnian War (Serbo-Croatian: Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini, Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April 1992. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, proto-states led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively.[10][11]

    The war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina – which was inhabited by mainly Muslim Bosniaks (44 percent), as well as Orthodox Serbs (32.5 percent) and Catholic Croats (17 percent) – passed a referendum for independence on 29 February 1992. This was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum. Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence (which gained international recognition) and following the withdrawal of Alija Izetbegović from the previously signed Cutileiro Plan [12] (which proposed a division of Bosnia into ethnic cantons), the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory, then war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing.

    The conflict was initially between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which later transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) on the one side, and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) which was largely composed of Bosniaks, and the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) on the other side. Tensions between Croats and Bosniaks increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War that escalated in early 1993.[13] The Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape, mainly perpetrated by Serb,[14] and to a lesser extent, Croat[15] and Bosniak[16] forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre later became iconic of the conflict.

    The Serbs, although initially militarily superior due to the weapons and resources provided by the JNA, eventually lost momentum as the Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against the Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Pakistan defied the UN's ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnian Muslims, while after the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war.[17][18][better source needed] The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio and were finalised on 21 November 1995.[19]

    By early 2008, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia.[20][needs update] The most recent estimates suggest that around 100,000 people were killed during the war.[21][22][23] Over 2.2 million people were displaced,[24] making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II.[25][26] In addition, an estimated 12,000–50,000 women were raped, mainly carried out by Serb forces with most of the victims being Bosnian Muslims.[27][28]

    1. ^ Ramet 2010, p. 130.
    2. ^ Christia 2012, p. 154.
    3. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 450.
    4. ^ Mulaj 2008, p. 53.
    5. ^ Finlan 2004, p. 21
    6. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 451.
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference RDC 2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b c "Spolna i nacionalna struktura žrtava i ljudski gubitci vojnih formacija (1991–1996)". Prometej.
    9. ^ After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead
    10. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
    11. ^ "ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia – See Part VI – Entities involved in the events 235–241" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2015.
    12. ^ "From Lisbon to Dayton: International Mediation and the Bosnia Crisis" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
    13. ^ Christia 2012, p. 172.
    14. ^ Wood 2013, pp. 140, 343.
    15. ^ Forsythe 2009, p. 145
    16. ^ CIA Report – "Ethnic Cleansing" and Atrocities in Bosnia
    17. ^ Cohen, Roger (31 August 1995). "Conflict in the Balkans: The overview; NATO presses Bosnia bombing, vowing to make Sarajevo safe". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
    18. ^ Holbrooke, Richard (1999). To End a War. New York: Modern Library. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-375-75360-2. OCLC 40545454.
    19. ^ "Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia". US Department of State. 30 March 1996. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
    20. ^ "Karadzic Sent to Hague for Trial Despite Violent Protest by Loyalists", The New York Times, 30 July 2008.
    21. ^ "Bosnia war dead figure announced". BBC. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
    22. ^ "Bosnia's dark days – a cameraman reflects on war of 1990s". CBC. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
    23. ^ Logos 2019, p. 265, 412.
    24. ^ "Jolie highlights the continuing suffering of the displaced in Bosnia". UNHCR. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
    25. ^ Hartmann, Florence. "Bosnia". Crimes of War. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
    26. ^ Harsch, Michael F. (2015). The Power of Dependence: NATO-UN Cooperation in Crisis Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-19-872231-1.
    27. ^ Burg & Shoup 2015, p. 222.
    28. ^ Crowe, David M. (2013). War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-230-62224-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
     
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    6 April 1992 – The Bosnian War begins.

    Bosnian War

    The Bosnian War (Serbo-Croatian: Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini, Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April 1992. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, proto-states led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively.[10][11]

    The war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina – which was inhabited by mainly Muslim Bosniaks (44 percent), as well as Orthodox Serbs (32.5 percent) and Catholic Croats (17 percent) – passed a referendum for independence on 29 February 1992. This was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum. Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence (which gained international recognition) and following the withdrawal of Alija Izetbegović from the previously signed Cutileiro Plan [12] (which proposed a division of Bosnia into ethnic cantons), the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory, then war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing.

    The conflict was initially between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which later transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) on the one side, and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) which was largely composed of Bosniaks, and the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) on the other side. Tensions between Croats and Bosniaks increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War that escalated in early 1993.[13] The Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape, mainly perpetrated by Serb,[14] and to a lesser extent, Croat[15] and Bosniak[16] forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre later became iconic of the conflict.

    The Serbs, although initially militarily superior due to the weapons and resources provided by the JNA, eventually lost momentum as the Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against the Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Pakistan defied the UN's ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnian Muslims, while after the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war.[17][18][better source needed] The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio and were finalised on 21 November 1995.[19]

    By early 2008, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia.[20][needs update] The most recent estimates suggest that around 100,000 people were killed during the war.[21][22][23] Over 2.2 million people were displaced,[24] making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II.[25][26] In addition, an estimated 12,000–50,000 women were raped, mainly carried out by Serb forces with most of the victims being Bosnian Muslims.[27][28]

    1. ^ Ramet 2010, p. 130.
    2. ^ Christia 2012, p. 154.
    3. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 450.
    4. ^ Mulaj 2008, p. 53.
    5. ^ Finlan 2004, p. 21
    6. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 451.
    7. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference RDC 2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b c "Spolna i nacionalna struktura žrtava i ljudski gubitci vojnih formacija (1991–1996)". Prometej.
    9. ^ After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead
    10. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
    11. ^ "ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia – See Part VI – Entities involved in the events 235–241" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2015.
    12. ^ "From Lisbon to Dayton: International Mediation and the Bosnia Crisis" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
    13. ^ Christia 2012, p. 172.
    14. ^ Wood 2013, pp. 140, 343.
    15. ^ Forsythe 2009, p. 145
    16. ^ CIA Report – "Ethnic Cleansing" and Atrocities in Bosnia
    17. ^ Cohen, Roger (31 August 1995). "Conflict in the Balkans: The overview; NATO presses Bosnia bombing, vowing to make Sarajevo safe". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
    18. ^ Holbrooke, Richard (1999). To End a War. New York: Modern Library. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-375-75360-2. OCLC 40545454.
    19. ^ "Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia". US Department of State. 30 March 1996. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
    20. ^ "Karadzic Sent to Hague for Trial Despite Violent Protest by Loyalists", The New York Times, 30 July 2008.
    21. ^ "Bosnia war dead figure announced". BBC. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
    22. ^ "Bosnia's dark days – a cameraman reflects on war of 1990s". CBC. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
    23. ^ Logos 2019, p. 265, 412.
    24. ^ "Jolie highlights the continuing suffering of the displaced in Bosnia". UNHCR. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
    25. ^ Hartmann, Florence. "Bosnia". Crimes of War. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
    26. ^ Harsch, Michael F. (2015). The Power of Dependence: NATO-UN Cooperation in Crisis Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-19-872231-1.
    27. ^ Burg & Shoup 2015, p. 222.
    28. ^ Crowe, David M. (2013). War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-230-62224-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
     
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    7 April 1906Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.

    Mount Vesuvius

    Mount Vesuvius (/vɪˈsviəs/ viss-OO-vee-əs; Italian: Monte Vesuvio Italian pronunciation: [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo; -suː]; Neapolitan: Muntagna Vesuvio [munˈdaɲːə vəˈsuːvjə]; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources)[1] is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

    The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km (21 mi), erupting molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres (7.8×105 cu yd) per second,[2] ultimately releasing 100,000 times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings.[3] More than 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus.[4]

    Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living near enough to be affected, with 600,000 in the danger zone, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type.[5]

    1. ^ "Definition - Numen - The Latin Lexicon - An Online Latin Dictionary - A Dictionary of the Latin Language". The Latin Lexicon. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
    2. ^ Woods, Andrew W. (2013). "Sustained explosive activity: volcanic eruption columns and hawaiian fountains". In Fagents, Sarah A.; Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C. (eds.). Modeling Volcanic Processes: The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0521895439.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference sciencepompeii was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference epistularum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGuire, Bill (16 October 2003). "In the shadow of the volcano". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
     
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    7 April 1906Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.

    Mount Vesuvius

    Mount Vesuvius (/vɪˈsviəs/ viss-OO-vee-əs; Italian: Monte Vesuvio Italian pronunciation: [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo; -suː]; Neapolitan: Muntagna Vesuvio [munˈdaɲːə vəˈsuːvjə]; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources)[1] is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

    The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km (21 mi), erupting molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres (7.8×105 cu yd) per second,[2] ultimately releasing 100,000 times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings.[3] More than 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus.[4]

    Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living near enough to be affected, with 600,000 in the danger zone, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type.[5]

    1. ^ "Definition - Numen - The Latin Lexicon - An Online Latin Dictionary - A Dictionary of the Latin Language". The Latin Lexicon. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
    2. ^ Woods, Andrew W. (2013). "Sustained explosive activity: volcanic eruption columns and hawaiian fountains". In Fagents, Sarah A.; Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C. (eds.). Modeling Volcanic Processes: The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0521895439.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference sciencepompeii was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference epistularum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGuire, Bill (16 October 2003). "In the shadow of the volcano". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
     
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    8 April 1943Otto and Elise Hampel are executed in Berlin for their anti-Nazi activities.

    Otto and Elise Hampel

    Elise and Otto Hampel

    Otto and Elise Hampel were a working-class German couple who created a simple method of protest against Nazism in Berlin during the early years of World War II. They wrote postcards denouncing Hitler's government and left them in public places around the city. They were eventually caught, tried, and beheaded in Berlin's Plötzensee Prison in April 1943. Shortly after the end of the war, their Gestapo file was given to German novelist Hans Fallada, and their story inspired his 1947 novel, translated into English and published in 2009 as Every Man Dies Alone (Alone in Berlin in the UK). The story was filmed in 2016 as Alone in Berlin.

     
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    9 April 2003Iraq War: Baghdad falls to American forces.

    Battle of Baghdad (2003)

    The Battle of Baghdad, also known as the Fall of Baghdad, was a military invasion of Baghdad that took place in early April 2003, as part of the invasion of Iraq.

    Three weeks into the invasion of Iraq, Coalition Forces Land Component Command elements, led by the U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division moved into Baghdad. The United States declared victory on 14 April, and President George W. Bush gave his Mission Accomplished Speech on 1 May.

    Baghdad suffered serious damage to its civilian infrastructure, economy, and cultural inheritance from the fighting, as well as looting and arson. During the invasion, the Al-Yarmouk Hospital in south Baghdad saw a steady rate of about 100 new patients an hour.[7]

    Over 2,000 Iraqi soldiers as well as 34 coalition troops were killed in the battle. After the fall of Baghdad, Coalition forces entered the city of Kirkuk on 10 April and Tikrit on 15 April 2003.

    1. ^ Woods, Kevin M. (2009). Iraqi Perspectives Project: A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam's Senior Leadership (PDF). p. 145; 210. ISBN 0-9762550-1-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2010.
    2. ^ "Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War". www.comw.org. Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
    3. ^ Iraqi Death Toll, Health Perils Assessed by Medical Group Archived June 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^ Iraq Coalition Casualties: Military Fatalities Archived March 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^ "On April 4, 5th RCT ran into several hundred fedayeen from Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The result was wholesale slaughter, but the cost was considerable: two Abrams tanks were destroyed by the attackers, while numerous vehicles sustained damage from RPG fire. The marines killed a senior general from the Republican Guard ... In addition, marine tankers destroyed twelve to fifteen T-72s and T-55s as well as numerous 37mm anti-aircraft guns, which the Iraqis attempted to use against advancing marines." The Iraq War, Wiiliamson Murray, Robert Scales, p.225, Harvard University Press, 2005
    6. ^ Myers, Steven Lee (April 7, 2003). "Iraqi Missile Hits Army Base". Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference usa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    10 April 1939Alcoholics Anonymous, A.A.'s "Big Book", is first published.

    Alcoholics Anonymous

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international mutual aid fellowship[1] with the stated purpose of enabling its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety."[1][2][3] AA is nonprofessional, self-supporting, and apolitical. Its only membership requirement is a desire to stop drinking.[4][1][2] The AA program of recovery is set forth in the Twelve Steps.[4]

    AA was founded in 1935 in Akron, Ohio when one alcoholic, Bill Wilson, talked to another alcoholic, Bob Smith, about the nature of alcoholism and a possible solution. With the help of other early members, the book Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered From Alcoholism was written in 1939. Its title became the name of the organization and is now usually referred to as "The Big Book".[5] AA's initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from "outside issues" and influences.[5]

    The Traditions recommend that members remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics, and that AA groups avoid official affiliations with other organizations. They also advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies. Subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes.[6][7]

    AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements.[8] Close to two million people worldwide are estimated to be members of AA as of 2016.[9]

    1. ^ a b c AA Grapevine (15 May 2013), A.A. Preamble (PDF), AA General Service Office, retrieved 13 May 2017
    2. ^ a b Michael Gross (1 December 2010). "Alcoholics Anonymous: Still Sober After 75 Years". American Journal of Public Health. 100 (12): 2361–2363. doi:10.2105/ajph.2010.199349. PMC 2978172. PMID 21068418.
    3. ^ Mäkelä 1996, p. 3
    4. ^ a b "Information on A.A." aa.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
    5. ^ a b AA, "Historical Data: The Birth of A.A. and Its Growth in the U.S./Canada", aa.org, retrieved 18 April 2019
    6. ^ "The Twelve Traditions". The AA Grapevine. Alcoholics Anonymous. 6 (6). November 1949. ISSN 0362-2584. OCLC 50379271.
    7. ^ Chappel, JN; Dupont, RL (1999). "Twelve-Step and Mutual-Help Programs for Addictive Disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 22 (2): 425–46. doi:10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70085-X. PMID 10385942.
    8. ^ Tonigan, Scott J; Connors, Gerard J; Miller, William R (December 2000). "Special Populations in Alcoholics Anonymous" (PDF). Alcohol Health and Research World. 22 (4): 281–285. PMC 6761892. PMID 15706756.
    9. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous (April 2016). "ESTIMATES OF A.A. GROUPS AND MEMBERS AS OF JANUARY 1, 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2016. cf. Alcoholics Anonymous (2001). Alcoholics Anonymous (PDF) (4th ed.). Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. p. xxiii. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
     
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    11 April 1970Apollo 13 is launched.

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17. The mission was commanded by Jim Lovell with Jack Swigert as command module (CM) pilot and Fred Haise as lunar module (LM) pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for Ken Mattingly, who was grounded after exposure to rubella.

    A routine stir of an oxygen tank ignited damaged wire insulation inside it, causing an explosion that vented the contents of both of the SM's oxygen tanks to space. Without oxygen, needed for breathing and for generating electric power, the SM's propulsion and life support systems could not operate. The CM's systems had to be shut down to conserve its remaining resources for reentry, forcing the crew to transfer to the LM as a lifeboat. With the lunar landing canceled, mission controllers worked to bring the crew home alive.

    Although the LM was designed to support two men on the lunar surface for two days, Mission Control in Houston improvised new procedures so it could support three men for four days. The crew experienced great hardship caused by limited power, a chilly and wet cabin and a shortage of potable water. There was a critical need to adapt the CM's cartridges for the carbon dioxide removal system to work in the LM; the crew and mission controllers were successful in improvising a solution. The astronauts' peril briefly renewed public interest in the Apollo program; tens of millions watched the splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean on television.

    An investigative review board found fault with preflight testing of the oxygen tank and the fact that Teflon was placed inside it. The board recommended changes, including minimizing the use of potentially combustible items inside the tank; this was done for Apollo 14. The story of Apollo 13 has been dramatized several times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13 – based on a memoir co-authored by Lovell titled Lost Moon – and an episode of the 1998 miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.

    1. ^ "Apollo 13 CM". N2YO.com. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
    2. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 309.
    3. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 284.
    4. ^ Orloff 2000, p. 307.
     
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    12 April 1955 – The polio vaccine, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is declared safe and effective.

    Polio vaccine

    Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).[2] Two types are used: an inactivated poliovirus given by injection (IPV) and a weakened poliovirus given by mouth (OPV).[2] The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all children be fully vaccinated against polio.[2] The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world,[3][4] and reduced the number of cases reported each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 33 in 2018.[5][6]

    The inactivated polio vaccines are very safe.[2] Mild redness or pain may occur at the site of injection.[2] Oral polio vaccines cause about three cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis per million doses given.[2] This compares with 5,000 cases per million who are paralysed following a polio infection.[7] Both are generally safe to give during pregnancy and in those who have HIV/AIDS but are otherwise well.[2]

    The first successful demonstration of a polio vaccine was by Hilary Koprowski in 1950, with a live attenuated virus which people drank.[8] This vaccine, however, was not approved in the United States.[8] An inactivated polio vaccine, developed a few years later by Jonas Salk, came into use in 1955.[2][9] A different, oral polio vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin and came into commercial use in 1961.[2][10] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[11] The wholesale cost per dose for the oral vaccine in the developing world is about US$0.25 as of 2014.[12] In the United States, the inactivated form costs between $25 and $50.[13]

    1. ^ a b Use During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i World Health Organization (March 2016). "Polio vaccines: WHO position paper". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 91 (12): 145–68. hdl:10665/254399. PMID 27039410. Lay summary (PDF).
    3. ^ Aylward RB (2006). "Eradicating polio: today's challenges and tomorrow's legacy". Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 100 (5–6): 401–13. doi:10.1179/136485906X97354. PMID 16899145.
    4. ^ Schonberger LB, Kaplan J, Kim-Farley R, Moore M, Eddins DL, Hatch M (1984). "Control of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States". Reviews of Infectious Diseases. 6 Suppl 2: S424–26. doi:10.1093/clinids/6.Supplement_2.S424. PMID 6740085.
    5. ^ "Global Wild Poliovirus 2014–2019" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2019.
    6. ^ "Does polio still exist? Is it curable?". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 21 May 2018.
    7. ^ "Poliomyelitis". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
    8. ^ a b Fox M (20 April 2013). "Hilary Koprowski, Who Developed First Live-Virus Polio Vaccine, Dies at 96". The New York Times.
    9. ^ Bazin H (2011). Vaccination: A History. John Libbey Eurotext. p. 395. ISBN 978-2742007752. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
    10. ^ Smith DR, Leggat PA (2005). "Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin – inventor of the oral polio vaccine". The Kurume Medical Journal. 52 (3): 111–16. doi:10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111. PMID 16422178.
    11. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
    12. ^ "Vaccine, Polio". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
    13. ^ Hamilton R (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 316. ISBN 978-1-284-05756-0.
     
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    13 April 1997Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament.

    Tiger Woods

    Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He is tied for first in PGA Tour wins and ranks second in men's major championships and also holds numerous golf records.[5] Woods is widely regarded as one of the greatest golfers, and one of the most famous athletes of all time. He will be inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2021.[6]

    Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur golf career, Woods turned professional in 1996 at the age of 20. By the end of April 1997, he had won three PGA Tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters, which he won by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance. He reached number one in the world rankings for the first time in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the first decade of the 21st century, Woods was the dominant force in golf. He was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 weeks). During this time, he won 13 of golf's major championships.

    The next decade of Woods' career was marked by comebacks from personal problems and injuries. He took a self-imposed hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in an attempt to resolve marital issues with his then-wife, Elin. Woods admitted to multiple infidelities, and the couple eventually divorced.[7] Woods fell to number 58 in the world rankings in November 2011 before ascending again to the No.1 ranking between March 2013 and May 2014.[8][9] However, injuries led him to undergo four back surgeries between 2014 and 2017.[10] Woods competed in only one tournament between August 2015 and January 2018, and he dropped off the list of the world's top 1,000 golfers.[11][12] On his return to regular competition, Woods made steady progress to the top of the game, winning his first tournament in five years at the Tour Championship in September 2018 and his first major in 11 years at the 2019 Masters.

    Woods has held numerous golf records. He has been the number one player in the world for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer in history. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record 11 times[13] and has won the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times. Woods has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 15 professional major golf championships (trailing only Jack Nicklaus, who leads with 18) and 82 PGA Tour events (tied for first all time with Sam Snead).[14] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and the second golfer (after Nicklaus) to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships. He was also part of the American winning team for the 1999 Ryder Cup. In May 2019, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the fourth golfer to receive the honor.[15]

    1. ^ a b "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
    2. ^ This is calculated by adding Woods' 82 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 17 other wins in his career.
    3. ^ "Week 24 1997 Ending 15 Jun 1997" (pdf). OWGR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
    4. ^ 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^
    6. ^ Harig, Bob (March 11, 2020). "Tiger Woods to be inducted into World Golf Hall of Fame in 2021". ESPN.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference legend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010.
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference chevron was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ "Complete list of Tiger Woods' injuries". PGA Tour.
    11. ^ "With game on point, Tiger Woods is in perfect place to win again at Firestone". USA Today. August 1, 2018.
    12. ^ Reid, Philip (August 14, 2018). "For the new Tiger Woods, second place is far from first loser". The Irish Times. Dublin.
    13. ^ Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
    14. ^ "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
    15. ^ Rogers, Katie (May 6, 2019). "'I've Battled,' Tiger Woods Says as He Accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=notes> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=notes}} template (see the help page).

     
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    14 April 1927 – The first Volvo car premieres in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Volvo

    The Volvo Group (Swedish: Volvokoncernen; legally Aktiebolaget Volvo, shortened to AB Volvo, stylized as VOLVO) is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg. While its core activity is the production, distribution and sale of trucks, buses and construction equipment, Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems and financial services. In 2016, it was the world's second largest manufacturer of heavy-duty trucks.[3]

    Automobile manufacturer Volvo Cars, also based in Gothenburg, was part of AB Volvo until 1999, when it was sold to the Ford Motor Company. Since 2010 it has been owned by the Chinese multinational automotive company Geely Holding Group. Both AB Volvo and Volvo Cars share the Volvo logo and cooperate in running the Volvo Museum in Sweden.

    The company was first listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1935, and was on the NASDAQ indices from 1985 to 2007.[4]

    Volvo was established in 1915 as a subsidiary of SKF, a ball bearing manufacturer; however both the Volvo Group and Volvo Cars regard the rollout of the company's first car series, the Volvo ÖV 4, on 14 April 1927, as their beginning.[5] The building remains (57°42′50″N 11°55′19″E / 57.71389°N 11.92194°E / 57.71389; 11.92194).

    1. ^ a b c d e "Report on the fourth quarter and full year 2019" (PDF). Volvo. pp. 16–17. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
    2. ^ "Annual and Sustainability Report 2018" (PDF). Volvo. p. 1. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
    3. ^ "Annual and Sustainability Report 2016" (PDF). Volvo. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
    4. ^ "Volvo to quit Nasdaq". Toronto Star. 14 June 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
    5. ^ "Volvo's founders : Volvo Group – Global". Volvo. 14 April 1927. Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
     
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    15 April 1952 – First flight of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress.

    Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

    The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) since the 1950s. The bomber is capable of carrying up to 70,000 pounds (32,000 kg) of weapons,[5] and has a typical combat range of more than 8,800 miles (14,080 km) without aerial refueling.[6]

    Beginning with the successful contract bid in June 1946, the B-52 design evolved from a straight wing aircraft powered by six turboprop engines to the final prototype YB-52 with eight turbojet engines and swept wings. The B-52 took its maiden flight in April 1952. Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War-era deterrence missions, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36. A veteran of several wars, the B-52 has dropped only conventional munitions in combat. The B-52's official name Stratofortress is rarely used; informally, the aircraft has become commonly referred to as the BUFF (Big Ugly Fat Fucker/Fella).[7][8][9][Note 1]

    The B-52 has been in active service with the USAF since 1955. As of June 2019, 58 are in active service, 18 in reserve, and approximately 12 more aircraft in long term storage.[11][12] The bombers flew under the Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was disestablished in 1992 and its aircraft absorbed into the Air Combat Command (ACC); in 2010, all B-52 Stratofortresses were transferred from the ACC to the newly created Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). Superior performance at high subsonic speeds and relatively low operating costs have kept them in service despite the advent of later, more advanced strategic bombers, including the Mach 2+ B-58 Hustler, the canceled Mach 3 B-70 Valkyrie, the variable-geometry B-1 Lancer, and the stealth B-2 Spirit. The B-52 completed sixty years of continuous service with its original operator in 2015. After being upgraded between 2013 and 2015, the last airframes are expected to serve into the 2050s.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Total_built was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference knaack_p241 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2019). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 April 2019. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
    4. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 289.
    5. ^ "Fact Sheet: B-52 Superfortress." Archived 18 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine Minot Air Force Base, United States Air Force, October 2005. Retrieved: 12 January 2009.
    6. ^ "B-52 Stratofortress". U.S. Air Force. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
    7. ^ "The Incredible 50-year-old Plane on the Front Lines of the North Korea Standoff". POLITICO Magazine.
    8. ^ "BUF." Wordorigins.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
    9. ^ Discovery Channel, Wings, episode Instant Thunder (B-52 Stratofortress)
    10. ^ Flynn 1997, p. 138.
    11. ^ "B-52 Stratofortress – U.S. Air Force – Fact Sheet Display". af.mil.
    12. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (19 February 2015). "I'll Be Damned, These Boneyard B-52s Can Still Fly". Medium.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=Note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    16 April 1912Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel.

    Harriet Quimby

    Harriet Quimby (May 11, 1875 – July 1, 1912) was an early American aviator and a movie screenwriter. In 1911, she was awarded a U.S. pilot's certificate by the Aero Club of America, becoming the first woman to gain a pilot's license in the United States.[1] In 1912, she became the first woman to fly across the English Channel. Although Quimby lived only to the age of 37, she influenced the role of women in aviation.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference obit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    17 April 2006 – A Palestinian suicide bomber detonates an explosive device in a Tel Aviv restaurant, killing 11 people and injuring 70.

    2006 Tel Aviv shawarma restaurant bombing

    The 2006 Tel Aviv shawarma restaurant bombing was a suicide bombing on April 17, 2006 at "Rosh Ha'ir" shawarma restaurant in Tel Aviv, Israel. Eleven Israeli civilians were killed in the attack and 70 were injured. The Palestinian militant organization Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the terror attack.

     
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    18 April 1923Yankee Stadium: "The House that Ruth Built" opens.

    Yankee Stadium (1923)

    The original Yankee Stadium was a stadium located in the Bronx, New York City. It was the home ballpark of the New York Yankees, the city's American League franchise, from 1923 to 1973 and then from 1976 to 2008. The stadium hosted 6,581 Yankees regular season home games during its 85-year history. It was also the home of the New York Giants National Football League (NFL) team from 1956 through the first part of the 1973–74 NFL season. The stadium's nickname, "The House That Ruth Built",[3] is derived from Babe Ruth, the baseball superstar whose prime years coincided with the stadium's opening and the beginning of the Yankees' winning history. It has often been referred to as "The Cathedral of Baseball".

    The stadium was built from 1922 to 1923 for $2.4 million ($345 million in 2019 dollars). Its construction was paid for entirely by Yankees owner Jacob Ruppert, who was eager to have his own stadium after sharing the Polo Grounds with the New York Giants baseball team the previous 10 years. Yankee Stadium opened for the 1923 MLB season and was hailed at the time as a one-of-a-kind facility in the country for its size. Over the course of its history, Yankee Stadium became one of the most famous venues in the United States, having hosted a variety of events and historic moments during its existence. While many of these moments were baseball-related—including World Series games, no-hitters, perfect games and historic home runs—the stadium also hosted boxing matches, the 1958 NFL Championship Game (referred to as The Greatest Game Ever Played), concerts, Jehovah's Witnesses conventions (see record attendance), and three Papal Masses. The stadium went through many alterations and playing surface configurations over the years. The condition of the facility worsened in the 1960s and 1970s, prompting its closure for renovation from 1974 to 1975. The renovation significantly altered the appearance of the venue and reduced the distance of the outfield fences.[4]

    In 2006, the Yankees began building a new $2.3 billion stadium in public parkland adjacent to the stadium. The price included $1.2 billion in public subsidies.[5] The design includes a replica of the frieze along the roof that had been part of the original Yankee Stadium. Monument Park, a Hall of Fame for prominent former Yankees, was relocated to the new stadium. Yankee Stadium closed following the 2008 baseball season and the new stadium opened in 2009, adopting the "Yankee Stadium" moniker. The original Yankee Stadium was demolished in 2010, two years after it closed, and the 8-acre (3.2 ha) site was converted into a public park called Heritage Field.[6]

    1. ^ "8/3/1958 JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES CONVENTION - LARGEST CROWD Old Yankee Stadium Historical Plaque, Ruppert Plaza, Bronx, New York City" (Photo). flickr. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
    2. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 1, 2020.
    3. ^ "Yankee Stadium History – New York Yankees". newyork.yankees.mlb.com. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
    4. ^ "Call it Yankee Stadium - but just isn't same". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. March 7, 1976. p. D8.
    5. ^ Neil deMause (January 15, 2009). "PRIVATE/PUBLIC COST BREAKDOWN FOR NEW YANKEES/METS STADIUMS, BY NEIL DEMAUSE, FIELDOFSCHEMES.COM, LAST UPDATE JANUARY 2009" (PDF). Retrieved September 17, 2015.
    6. ^ "The Yankee Stadium Redevelopment Project". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved May 16, 2010.
     
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    19 April 2013Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar is later captured hiding in a boat inside a backyard in the suburb of Watertown.

    Boston Marathon bombing

    During the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two homemade pressure cooker bombs detonated 14 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the race, killing 3 people and injuring several hundred others, including 17 who lost limbs.[1][6][7]

    Three days later, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) released images of two suspects,[8][9][10] who were later identified as Chechen Kyrgyzstani-American brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. They killed an MIT policeman, kidnapped a man in his car, and had a shootout with the police in nearby Watertown, during which two officers were severely injured, one of whom died a year later. Tamerlan was shot several times, and his brother Dzhokhar ran him over while escaping in the stolen car; Tamerlan died soon after.

    An unprecedented manhunt for Dzhokhar ensued on April 19, with thousands of law enforcement officers searching a 20-block area of Watertown;[11] residents of Watertown and surrounding communities were asked to stay indoors, and the transportation system and most businesses and public places closed.[12][13] Around 6:00 p.m., a Watertown resident discovered Dzhokhar hiding in a boat in his backyard.[14] He was shot and wounded by police before being taken into custody.[15]

    During questioning, Dzhokhar said that he and his brother were motivated by extremist Islamist beliefs and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, that they were self-radicalized and unconnected to any outside terrorist groups, and that he was following his brother's lead. He said they learned to build explosive devices from the online magazine of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.[16] He also said they had intended to travel to New York City to bomb Times Square. On April 8, 2015, he was convicted of 30 charges, including use of a weapon of mass destruction and malicious destruction of property resulting in death.[2][17][18] Two months later, he was sentenced to death.[19]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NYDN-5/15 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference DOJ affidavit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Clark Estes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    14. ^ "Two unnamed officials say Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, 19, did not have a gun when he was captured Friday in a Watertown, Mass. backyard. Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis said earlier that shots were fired from inside the boat." The Associated Press Wednesday, April 24, 2013, 8:42 PM.
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference NY Times Standoff was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-9 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev: Boston Marathon bomber found guilty". BBC News. April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
    19. ^ "What Happened To Dzhokhar Tsarnaev? Update On Boston Marathon Bomber Sentenced To Death". International Business Times. April 16, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
     
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    19 April 2013Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar is later captured hiding in a boat inside a backyard in the suburb of Watertown.

    Boston Marathon bombing

    During the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two homemade pressure cooker bombs detonated 14 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the race, killing 3 people and injuring several hundred others, including 17 who lost limbs.[1][6][7]

    Three days later, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) released images of two suspects,[8][9][10] who were later identified as Chechen Kyrgyzstani-American brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. They killed an MIT policeman, kidnapped a man in his car, and had a shootout with the police in nearby Watertown, during which two officers were severely injured, one of whom died a year later. Tamerlan was shot several times, and his brother Dzhokhar ran him over while escaping in the stolen car; Tamerlan died soon after.

    An unprecedented manhunt for Dzhokhar ensued on April 19, with thousands of law enforcement officers searching a 20-block area of Watertown;[11] residents of Watertown and surrounding communities were asked to stay indoors, and the transportation system and most businesses and public places closed.[12][13] Around 6:00 p.m., a Watertown resident discovered Dzhokhar hiding in a boat in his backyard.[14] He was shot and wounded by police before being taken into custody.[15]

    During questioning, Dzhokhar said that he and his brother were motivated by extremist Islamist beliefs and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, that they were self-radicalized and unconnected to any outside terrorist groups, and that he was following his brother's lead. He said they learned to build explosive devices from the online magazine of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.[16] He also said they had intended to travel to New York City to bomb Times Square. On April 8, 2015, he was convicted of 30 charges, including use of a weapon of mass destruction and malicious destruction of property resulting in death.[2][17][18] Two months later, he was sentenced to death.[19]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NYDN-5/15 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference DOJ affidavit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoQU-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference consortium_mcgovern was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn-what-we-know was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Clark Estes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    14. ^ "Two unnamed officials say Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, 19, did not have a gun when he was captured Friday in a Watertown, Mass. backyard. Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis said earlier that shots were fired from inside the boat." The Associated Press Wednesday, April 24, 2013, 8:42 PM.
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference NY Times Standoff was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoLC-9 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev: Boston Marathon bomber found guilty". BBC News. April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
    19. ^ "What Happened To Dzhokhar Tsarnaev? Update On Boston Marathon Bomber Sentenced To Death". International Business Times. April 16, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
     
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    20 April 1968 – English politician Enoch Powell makes his controversial "Rivers of Blood" speech.

    Rivers of Blood speech

    Enoch Powell (1912–1998)

    The "Rivers of Blood" speech was made by British Member of Parliament Enoch Powell on 20 April 1968, to a meeting of the Conservative Political Centre in Birmingham, United Kingdom. His speech strongly criticised mass immigration, especially Commonwealth immigration to the United Kingdom and the proposed race relations bill. It became known as the "Rivers of Blood" speech, although Powell always referred to it as "the Birmingham speech".

    The expression "rivers of blood" did not appear in the speech but is an allusion to a line from Virgil's Aeneid which he quoted: "as I look ahead, I am filled with foreboding; like the Roman, I seem to see 'the River Tiber foaming with much blood'."[1]

    The speech caused a political storm, making Powell one of the most talked about and divisive politicians in the country, and leading to his controversial dismissal from the Shadow Cabinet by Conservative Party leader Edward Heath.[2] According to most accounts, the popularity of Powell's perspective on immigration may have played a decisive factor in the Conservatives' surprise victory in the 1970 general election, and he became one of the most persistent rebels opposing the subsequent Heath government.[2][3]

    1. ^ Heffer 1999, p. 449
    2. ^ a b McLean 2001, pp. 129–30
    3. ^ Heffer 1999, p. 568
     
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    21 April 1977Annie opens on Broadway.

    Annie (musical)

    Annie is a Broadway musical based upon the popular Harold Gray comic strip Little Orphan Annie, with music by Charles Strouse, lyrics by Martin Charnin, and book by Thomas Meehan. The original Broadway production opened in 1977 and ran for nearly six years, setting a record for the Alvin Theatre (now the Neil Simon Theatre).[1] It spawned numerous productions in many countries, as well as national tours, and won 7 Tony Awards, including the Tony Award for Best Musical. The musical's songs "Tomorrow" and "It's the Hard Knock Life" are among its most popular musical numbers.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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