Welcome to the Podiatry Arena forums

You are currently viewing our podiatry forum as a guest which gives you limited access to view all podiatry discussions and access our other features. By joining our free global community of Podiatrists and other interested foot health care professionals you will have access to post podiatry topics (answer and ask questions), communicate privately with other members, upload content, view attachments, receive a weekly email update of new discussions, access other special features. Registered users do not get displayed the advertisements in posted messages. Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our global Podiatry community today!

  1. Everything that you are ever going to want to know about running shoes: Running Shoes Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  2. Have you considered the Critical Thinking and Skeptical Boot Camp, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
  3. Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
    Dismiss Notice
Dismiss Notice
Have you considered the Clinical Biomechanics Boot Camp Online, for taking it to the next level? See here for more.
Dismiss Notice
Have you liked us on Facebook to get our updates? Please do. Click here for our Facebook page.
Dismiss Notice
Do you get the weekly newsletter that Podiatry Arena sends out to update everybody? If not, click here to organise this.

Foot orthoses and rearfoot/tibia coupling patterns

Discussion in 'Biomechanics, Sports and Foot orthoses' started by admin, Jan 19, 2005.

  1. admin

    admin Administrator Staff Member

    Members do not see these Ads. Sign Up.
    Effect of foot orthotics on rearfoot and tibia joint coupling patterns and variability.

    J Biomech. 2005 Mar;38(3):477-83
    Ferber R, Davis IM, Williams DS

  2. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Forefoot, rearfoot and shank coupling

    Forefoot, rearfoot and shank coupling: Effect of variations in speed and mode of gait.
    Gait Posture. 2006 Jun 4;
  3. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Discrete and continuous joint coupling relationships in uninjured recreational runners.
    Dierks TA, Davis I.
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2007 Mar 14
  4. efuller

    efuller MVP

    INTERPRETATION: With a better understanding of joint coupling in uninjured runners, these data will help to serve as a reference for future studies investigating the relationship between running injuries and abnormal joint coupling.

    It's hard to call the idea that coupling of tibia and calcaneus motion are related to injuries a full fledged theory. It is more of simple research question without a guiding theory. Why would movement coupling be related to injuries? We could also look to see if toe nail length is related to injuries as well. It seems like a shot in the dark to research this question. Maybe there is more theory in the full paper.

    It is easier to look at motion instead of forces and moments, but we may just find out that motion does not correlate with injuries. That would be my prediction based on the tissue stress approach. This research is also trying to establish a normal. Does being normal prevent injury? Hopefully, we can get research showing that motion doesn't correlate with injury so we can move on to looking at forces and moments. I would predict that forces on anatomical structures will correlate wtih injury.


    Eric Fuller
  5. I was thinking the same thing when I read this research, Eric. Why is coupling or "non-coupling" such an important idea?? I don't have a clue.

    I can see that coupling is an interesting kinematic phenomenom to study but my guess is also that coupling will not correlate to injury production, like nearly all the other foot and lower extremity kinematic patterns studied by researchers.

    Probably the reason that many things are studied in biomechanics is because they are easy to study given the equipment the researchers have at their disposal.

    I would think that if researchers are truly interested in understanding the etiology of injury better, they should focus on external and internal forces and moments, not strictly on kinematics. I believe that the literature to date bears this out quite nicely.

    However, knowing Irene Davis's body of research to date, she has probably contributed about as much to our knowledge regarding kinetics of foot and lower extremity function as anyone has. So maybe this is just an interesting subject for her and her coworkers to look at to see if anything significant is occurring....like throwing a line in the water to see if you get a bite?
  6. David Smith

    David Smith Well-Known Member

    Kevin and Eric

    What is meant by the terms - Joint coupling, non coupling, continuous coupling, In and ou of phase coupling, discreet coupling?

    Thanks Dave
  7. David Smith

    David Smith Well-Known Member


    Hear hear!

    It does not seem a very difficult concept to understand that motion of a joint does not indicate potential to injury, unless the range is beyond the maximum physiological range.

    EG If I arm lock the right arm of a person in a wrestling bout then I attempt to move their elbow joint beyond its physiological range, submission or injury will result. The moments about the joint are = to X and force on the olecranon process is quite high with the straight arm but if the arm is bent then there is no force on the OP even though there may still be the same moments of X magnitude about the joint. However there now will be much higher stress in the flexion mucles, which may be strained / traumatised at some point. If the opponent now takes hold of the right arm with his left hand and adds an external flexion force about the right elbow then he can reduce the internal stress in the right flexors. The position of the right arm can remain the same however.

    The same applies to the foot by adding a FFO we can apply additional external forces and thereby reduce internal forces without changing joint position. Not only that but since the external forces are finite then by designing the FFO to apply more force at one point of interest it must decrease the force applied at another.

    If we were to look at injuries to passive tissues such as bone and ligament that occcur when the joint reaches its physiologcal max range then it may be we need to consider the accuracy of the measuring devices.
    The ligamnets of a joint are very stiff as is the bone and cartilage and therefore very small changes in length will equal large changes in internal stress. I do not believe it is possible to reliably measure, in vivo, such small differences in joint position that might be neccesary to reduce injury to the passive structures such as ligamnets. Do you agree?

    All the best Dave Smith
  8. The basic idea of "coupling", as it applies to the tibia and rearfoot, is that tibial internal rotation should occur with rearfoot eversion and tibial external rotation should occur with rearfoot inversion during weightbearing activities. This is related back to the old idea that the STJ is a fixed hinge that should allow constant ratios tibial internal-external rotation/rearfoot eversion-inversion during these activities. However, we know now that the STJ is not a fixed hinge, that the STJ axis is polyaxial changing in spatial location continously during gait and that the tibia may rotate on the talus within the transverse plane up to 10 degrees without the talus moving.

    If tibial internal-external rotation/rearfoot inversion-eversion occurs in a pattern that has a fairly constant ratio of tibial to rearfoot movement, then those motions are said to be "coupled". However, if rearfoot inversion-eversion occurs without corresponding tibial internal-external rotation, or if tibial internal-external rotation occurs without corresponding rearfoot inversion-eversion then these motions are said to be "non-coupled". "Continuous coupling" probably refers to coupling occurring over a certain period of time during gait. I am not sure what "in and out of phase" or "discrete coupling" are.

    Hope this helps.
  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running
    Michael B. Pohla, John G. Buckley
    Clinical Biomechanics (Articles in press)
  10. Bruce Williams

    Bruce Williams Well-Known Member


    I think the motion of a joint below maximum phsyiological range can make a determination towards potential injury. Problably not so much at the joint measured, but potentially to any joint immediately proximal or distal to the joint with the limited ROM.

    I find that many knee problems are related to a decrease ROM in DFion at the AJ causing early heel off and early knee flexion.

  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    The effect of arch height on kinematic coupling during walking.
    Wilken J, Rao S, Saltzman C, Yack HJ.
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2010 Nov 11. [Epub ahead of print]
  12. Really I thought this had been put to bed the whole midtarsal joint locking myth
  13. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Influence of Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention on Lower Extremity Intralimb Coupling During a 30-Minute Run
    Christopher L. MacLean, Richard van Emmerik, and Joseph Hamill
    Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2010, 26, 390-399
  14. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Can orthoses and navicular drop affect on foot motion patterns during running?
    Mansour Eslami, Reed Ferber
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (in press)

Share This Page