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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    22 September 1979 – A bright flash, resembling the detonation of a nuclear weapon, is observed near the Prince Edward Islands. Its cause is never determined.

    Vela incident

    Vela incident is located in 100x100
    Prince Edward Islands
    Prince Edward Islands
    Vela incident
    Crozet Islands
    Crozet Islands
    Vela incident
    Estimated location

    The Vela incident, also known as the South Atlantic Flash, was an unidentified double flash of light detected by an American Vela Hotel satellite on 22 September 1979 near the Prince Edward Islands in the Indian Ocean.

    The cause of the flash remains officially unknown, and some information about the event remains classified by the U.S. government.[1] While it has been suggested that the signal could have been caused by a meteoroid hitting the satellite, the previous 41 double flashes detected by the Vela satellites were caused by nuclear weapons tests.[2][3][4] Today, most independent researchers believe that the 1979 flash was caused by a nuclear explosion[1][5][6][7] – perhaps an undeclared nuclear test carried out by South Africa and Israel.[8]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NSArchive was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Albright 1994, p. 42.
    3. ^ Ruina 1980.
    4. ^ Richelson 2006.
    5. ^ "Declassified documents indicate Israel and South Africa conducted nuclear test in 1979". 9 December 2016.
    6. ^ Johnston, Martin (13 August 2018). "Researchers: Radioactive Australian sheep bolster nuclear weapon test claim against Israel". NZ Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
    7. ^ De Geer, Lars-Erik; Wright, Christopher M. (2018). "The 22 September 1979 Vela Incident: Radionuclide and Hydroacoustic Evidence for a Nuclear Explosion" (PDF). Science & Global Security. 26 (1): 20–54. Bibcode:2018S&GS...26...20D. doi:10.1080/08929882.2018.1451050. ISSN 0892-9882. S2CID 126082091.
    8. ^ Von Wielligh, Nic; Von Wielligh-Steyn, Lydia (2015). The Bomb – South Africa's Nuclear Weapons Programme. Pretoria, ZA: Litera. ISBN 978-1-920188-48-1. OCLC 930598649.
     
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    23 September 1459 – The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists

    Battle of Blore Heath

    The Battle of Blore Heath was a battle in the English Wars of the Roses. It was fought on 23 September 1459, at Blore Heath in Staffordshire. Blore Heath is a sparsely populated area of farmland, two miles east of the town of Market Drayton in Shropshire, and close to the towns of Market Drayton and Loggerheads, Staffordshire.

    1. ^ Trevor Royle, Lancaster Against York: The Wars of the Roses and the Foundation of Modern Britain, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 161.
    2. ^ Anthony Goodman, The Wars of the Roses:Military Activity and English Society, 1452-97, (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981), 27.
    3. ^ Michael Hicks, The Wars of the Roses, (Yale University Press, 2010), 143.
    4. ^ Ralph A. Griffiths, The Reign of King Henry VI, (University of California Press, 1981), 820.
    5. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 346.
    6. ^ Trevor Royle, Lancaster Against York: The Wars of the Roses and the Foundation of Modern Britain, 161.
     
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    24 September 2015 – At least 1,100 people are killed and another 934 wounded after a stampede during the Hajj in Saudi Arabia.

    2015 Mina stampede

    On 24 September 2015, an event described as a "crush and stampede"[5] caused deaths estimated at well over 2000 pilgrims, suffocated or crushed during the annual Hajj pilgrimage in Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, making it the deadliest Hajj disaster in history.[5][6][7] Estimates of the number of dead vary; the Associated Press reported 2,411 dead,[1][8] while Agence France-Presse reported 2,236 killed.[3] Based on the total of the individual national reports cited in the table below (nationalities of victims), at least 2,431 people died.[note 1] The government of Saudi Arabia officially reported two days after the event that there had been 769 deaths and 934 injured.[1][9][10] These figures remained official at the time of the following year's Hajj and were never updated.[4] The largest number of victims was from Iran, followed by Mali and Nigeria.[11]

    The crush took place in Mina at the intersection of streets 204 and 223 leading up to Jamaraat Bridge.[12] The cause of the disaster remains in dispute.[13][14] The Mina disaster inflamed tensions between regional rivals Saudi Arabia and Iran, which were already elevated due to the wider turmoil in the Middle East, such as the Syrian Civil War and Yemeni Civil War.[15][16][17] In a press conference held on the day of the incident, Saudi Ministry of Interior spokesman Mansour Al-Turki attempted to address most issues regarding the incident. He said in September 2015 that an investigation was ongoing, and that the exact cause of the overcrowding that led to the deadly crush had not yet been ascertained.[18][19]

    1. ^ a b c d Gambrell, Jon; Ahmed, Baba (9 December 2015). "Hajj Stampede in September Killed Over 2,400, New Count Finds". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
    2. ^ "رویترز: شمار قربانیان منا سه برابر آمار ادعایی عربستان است" [Reuters: MINA: three times the number of victims claimed by Saudi Arabia's statistics]. Deutsche Welle. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
    3. ^ a b "Iran says tests will show cause of diplomat's death in Saudi". Agence France-Presse. 27 November 2015. Archived from the original on 29 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
    4. ^ a b "As hajj nears, questions about deadly 2015 stampede remain". Associated Press. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
    5. ^ a b Gambrell, Jon; Ahmed, Munir; Osman, Mohamed; Batrawy, Aya; Mazen, Maram (9 October 2015). "Saudi crush was deadliest hajj tragedy ever". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
    6. ^ "Foreign toll figures show hajj tragedy deadliest in history". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
    7. ^ Gambrell, Jon; Batrawy, Aya (14 October 2015). "New tally shows at least 1,621 killed in Saudi hajj tragedy". Business Insider. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
    8. ^ "Iran holds funeral for diplomat killed in Saudi hajj crush". Associated Press. 27 November 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
    9. ^ "Hajj stampede: Saudi officials clarify toll after questions". BBC News. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    10. ^ Piggott, Mark (26 September 2015). "Hajj stampede death toll 'rises up to 1,100' as Saudi Arabia faces criticism over safety record". International Business Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    11. ^ "2015 disaster looms large as Muslims descend on Saudi Arabia for hajj". The Guardian. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
    12. ^ "Hundreds killed in stampede at Muslim hajj pilgrimage". CBS News. Associated Press. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    13. ^ Morello, Carol (27 September 2015). "Iran demands Saudi Arabia apologize for disaster near Mecca". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    14. ^ "Tehran: Mina crush was 'beyond human control'". Arab News. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
    15. ^ Hubbard, Ben (25 September 2015). "Hajj Tragedy Inflames Schisms During a Pilgrimage Designed for Unity". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    16. ^ Black, Ian; Weaver, Matthew (25 September 2015). "Iran blames Saudi leaders for hajj disaster as investigation begins". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    17. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (24 September 2015). "How the deadly hajj stampede feeds into old Middle East rivalries". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Naar was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Siddique, Haroon (24 September 2015). "Mecca: hajj crush kills hundreds near holy city–as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    25 September 1977 – About 4,200 people take part in the first running of the Chicago Marathon.

    Chicago Marathon

    The Chicago Marathon is a marathon (long-distance foot race) held every October in Chicago, Illinois. It is one of the six World Marathon Majors.[1] Thus, it is also a World Athletics Label Road Race. The Chicago Marathon is the fourth-largest race by number of finishers worldwide.[2]

    Annual Chicago marathons were held from 1905 to the 1920s, but the first race in the present series occurred on September 25, 1977, under the original name the Mayor Daley Marathon, which drew a field of 4,200 runners. The race has been held every year since, except in 1987 when only a half-marathon was run, and in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.[3][4][5] It became among the fastest-growing modern-marathon road races in the world, due in part to its largely fast and flat course which facilitates the pursuit of personal records and world record performances.[6] The race has achieved its elite status among marathons by developing relationships with sponsors who provide prize money to lure elite runners who have produced American and world record performances. Since 2008, the race has been owned and organized by Bank of America, and is officially known as the Bank of America Chicago Marathon.

    The race is limited to 45,000 runners and only runners who finish within 612 hours are officially timed.[6][7] Those wishing to participate can register after either meeting a time qualifying standard or being selected through a general lottery.[8] Although the race has limited registration, exceptions include elite runners, legacy finishers, and charity representatives.[9] Increasingly, local, national and global charities as well as humanitarian organizations encourage sponsored participation in the event as a means of fund raising.[10][11]

    1. ^ "World Marathon Majors". World Marathon Majors. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
    2. ^ Zumbach, Lauren. "On Chicago Marathon weekend, some businesses can't lose".
    3. ^ Suozzo, p. 6.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference CS1007 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "Chicago Marathon at a Glance". Runners World. September 23, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
    6. ^ a b Suozzo, p. 10.
    7. ^ Bannon, Tim; Rumore, Kori (October 11, 2019). "Chicago Marathon 2019". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
    8. ^ Douglas, Scott (January 16, 2014). "Chicago Marathon Switches to Lottery for Registration". RunnersWorld.com. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
    9. ^ "Frequently asked application questions – Bank of America Chicago Marathon". Bank of America Chicago Marathon. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
    10. ^ "Marathon raises record amount". Chicago Sun-Times. December 21, 2006. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
    11. ^ "Team World Vision". Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved February 18, 2008.
     
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    26 September 1969Abbey Road, the last recorded album by the Beatles, is released.

    Abbey Road

    Abbey Road is the eleventh studio album by the English rock band the Beatles, released on 26 September 1969 by Apple Records. Named after the location of EMI Studios in London, the cover features the group walking across the street's zebra crossing, an image that became one of the most famous and imitated in popular music. The album's initially mixed reviews were contrasted by its immediate commercial success, topping record charts in the UK and US. The lead single "Something" / "Come Together" was released in October and topped the US charts.

    The album incorporates genres such as blues, rock and pop, and makes prominent use of Moog synthesizer, sounds filtered through a Leslie speaker, and tom-tom drums. It is the Beatles' only album recorded exclusively through a solid-state transistor mixing desk, which afforded a clearer and brighter sound than the group's previous records. Side two contains a medley of shorter song fragments. The sessions also produced a non-album single, "The Ballad of John and Yoko" backed with "Old Brown Shoe".

    Producer George Martin returned on the condition that the Beatles adhere to the discipline of their earlier records. They found the album's recording more enjoyable than the preceding Get Back sessions, but personal issues still permeated the band. Production lasted from February to August 1969, and the closing track "The End" marked the final occasion that all four members recorded together. John Lennon privately left the group six days before the album's release; Paul McCartney publicly declared the band's break-up the following April.

    Upon release, detractors found Abbey Road to be inauthentic and bemoaned the production's artificial effects. Since then, many critics have hailed the album as the Beatles' finest and a contender for the greatest album of all time; in particular, "Something" and "Here Comes the Sun" are considered among the best songs George Harrison wrote for the group. The album has also been ranked as one of the Beatles' best-selling, including a multi-platinum certification by the RIAA. Shortly after its release, the cover photograph fuelled rumours of McCartney's purported death. EMI Studios was also renamed Abbey Road Studios in honour of the album. In 2020, it was ranked fifth in Rolling Stone's list of the greatest albums of all time.

     
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    27 September 1938 – The ocean liner Queen Elizabeth is launched in Glasgow.

    RMS Queen Elizabeth

    The RMS Queen Elizabeth was an ocean liner operated by Cunard Line. With Queen Mary she provided weekly luxury liner service between Southampton in the United Kingdom and New York City in the United States, via Cherbourg in France.

    While being constructed in the mid-1930s by John Brown and Company at Clydebank, Scotland, the build was known as Hull 552.[5] She was launched on 27 September 1938 and named in honour of Queen Elizabeth, who was later known as the Queen Mother. With a design that improved upon that of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth was a slightly larger ship, the largest passenger liner ever built at that time and for 56 years thereafter. She also has the distinction of being the largest-ever riveted ship by gross tonnage. She first entered service in February 1940 as a troopship in the Second World War, and it was not until October 1946 that she served in her intended role as an ocean liner.

    With the decline in popularity of the transatlantic route, both ships were replaced by the smaller, more economical Queen Elizabeth 2 in 1969. Queen Mary was retired from service on 9 December 1967, and was sold to the city of Long Beach, California. Queen Elizabeth was sold to a succession of buyers, most of whom had unsuccessful plans for her. Finally Queen Elizabeth was sold to Hong Kong businessman Tung Chao Yung, who intended to convert her into a floating university cruise ship called Seawise University. In 1972, whilst she was undergoing refurbishment in Hong Kong harbour, a fire broke out aboard under unexplained circumstances, and the ship was capsized by the water used to fight the fire. The following year the wreck was deemed an obstruction to shipping in the area, and in 1974 and 1975 was partially scrapped on site.[6]

    1. ^ Pride of the North Atlantic, A Maritime Trilogy, David F. Hutchings. Waterfront 2003
    2. ^ John Shephard, The Cunard – White Star liner Queen Elizabeth
    3. ^ RMS Queen Elizabeth – Maiden Voyage after War – Cunard – Original footage, British Movietone News via youtube
    4. ^ "RMS Queen Elizabeth".
    5. ^ "Big Liners Steel Frame Work Rises as Workers Speed Up" Popular Mechanics, left-side pg 346. Hearst Magazines. September 1937.
    6. ^ "Classic Liners and Cruise Ships – Queen Elizabeth". Cruiseserver.net. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
     
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    28 September 1889 – The General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) defines the length of a meter.

    History of the metre

    An early definition of the metre was one ten-millionth of the Earth quadrant, the distance from the North Pole to the Equator, measured along a meridian through Paris.

    The history of the metre starts with the Scientific Revolution that is considered to have begun with Nicolaus Copernicus's publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543. Increasingly accurate measurements were required, and scientists looked for measures that were universal and could be based on natural phenomena rather than royal decree or physical prototypes. Rather than the various complex systems of subdivision in use, they also preferred a decimal system to ease their calculations.

    With the French Revolution (1789) came a desire to replace many features of the Ancien Régime, including the traditional units of measure. As a base unit of length, many scientists had favoured the seconds pendulum (a pendulum with a half-period of one second) one century earlier, but this was rejected as it had been discovered that it varied from place to place with local gravity and that it could complement meridian arc measurements in determining the figure of the Earth. A new unit of length, the metre was introduced – defined as one ten-millionth of the shortest distance from the North Pole to the equator passing through Paris, assuming an Earth's flattening of 1/334.

    For practical purposes however, the standard metre was made available in the form of a platinum bar held in Paris. This in turn was replaced in 1889 at the initiative of the International Geodetic Association by thirty platinum-iridium bars kept across the globe.[1] The comparison of the new prototypes of the metre with each other and with the Committee metre (French: Mètre des Archives) involved the development of a special measuring equipment and the definition of a reproducible temperature scale.[2] Progress in science finally allowed to dematerialize the definition of the metre, so in 1960 a new definition based on a specific number of wavelengths of light from a specific transition in krypton-86 allowed the standard to be universally available by measurement. In 1983 this was updated to a length defined in terms of the speed of light, which was reworded in 2019:[3]

    The metre, symbol m, is the SI unit of length. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the speed of light in vacuum c to be 299792458 when expressed in the unit m⋅s−1, where the second is defined in terms of the caesium frequency ΔνCs.

    During the mid nineteenth century the metre gained adoption worldwide, particularly in scientific usage, and was officially established as an international measurement unit by the Metre Convention of 1875. Where older traditional length measures are still used, they are now defined in terms of the metre – for example the yard has since 1959 officially been defined as exactly 0.9144 metre.[4]

    1. ^ "BIPM - Commission internationale du mètre". www.bipm.org. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference la définition du mètre was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ 9th edition of the SI Brochure, BIPM, 2019, p. 131
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nelson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    29 September 1364 – English forces defeat the French in Brittany, ending the War of the Breton Succession.

    Battle of Auray

    The Battle of Auray took place on 29 September 1364 at the French town of Auray. This battle was the decisive confrontation of the Breton War of Succession, a part of the Hundred Years' War.

    In the battle, which began as a siege, an Breton army, led by Duke John de Montfort, assisted by English forces commanded by John Chandos, opposed a Breton army led by his rival Charles of Blois and assisted by French forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin.

     
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    20 September 1973 – Billie Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in the Battle of the Sexes tennis match at the Houston Astrodome.

    Battle of the Sexes (tennis)

    In tennis, "Battle of the Sexes" describes various exhibition matches played between a man and a woman, or a doubles match between two men and two women in one case. The term is most famously used for an internationally televised match in 1973 held at the Houston Astrodome between 55 year-old Bobby Riggs and 29 year-old Billie Jean King,[4] which King won in three sets.[2][5] The match was viewed by an estimated fifty million people in the United States and ninety million worldwide.[6] King's win is considered a milestone in public acceptance of women's tennis.

    Two other matches commonly referred to as a "battle of the sexes" include one held four months earlier in 1973 between Riggs and Margaret Court over the best of three sets,[1][7] and one in 1992 between Jimmy Connors and Martina Navratilova over the best of three sets, with hybrid rules favoring the female player dubbed "The Battle of Champions".[3] These matches were won by Riggs and Connors, respectively.

    At least eight other exhibition matches have been played between notable male and female tennis players starting in 1888, though only some of them were referred to at the time as a "battle of the sexes".

    1. ^ a b "Riggs "Courts" Margaret - then hustles a victory". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. May 14, 1973. p. 28.
    2. ^ a b "Billie Jean slam-bangs Riggs to defeat". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. September 21, 1973. p. 1, sec. 1.
    3. ^ a b "Martina's miscues aid Connors' win". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. September 26, 1992. p. 1B.
    4. ^ Jares, Joe (September 10, 1973). "Riggs to riches - take two". p. 24. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
    5. ^ Kirkpatrick, Curry (October 1, 1973). "There she is, Ms. America". Sports Illustrated. p. 30.
    6. ^ JuliaKate E. Culpepper (September 20, 2017). "On This Day: Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in Battle of the Sexes". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
    7. ^ Kirkpatrick, Curry (May 21, 1973). "Mother's Day Ms. match". Sports Illustrated. p. 34.
     
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    1 October 1971Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida.

    Walt Disney World

    Coordinates: 28°22′20″N 81°32′58″W / 28.37222°N 81.54944°W / 28.37222; -81.54944[4]

    The Walt Disney World Resort, also called Walt Disney World or Disney World, is an entertainment resort complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, United States, near the cities of Orlando and Kissimmee. Opened on October 1, 1971, the resort is owned and operated by Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The property covers nearly 25,000 acres (39 sq mi; 101 km2), of which half has been used.[5] The resort comprises four theme parks (Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney's Hollywood Studios, and Disney's Animal Kingdom), two water parks (Disney's Blizzard Beach and Disney's Typhoon Lagoon), 27 themed resort hotels, nine non-Disney hotels, several golf courses, a camping resort, and other entertainment venues, including the outdoor shopping center Disney Springs.

    Designed to supplement Disneyland in Anaheim, California, which had opened in 1955, the complex was developed by Walt Disney in the 1960s. "The Florida Project", as it was known, was intended to present a distinct vision with its own diverse set of attractions. Walt Disney's original plans also called for the inclusion of an "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT), a planned community intended to serve as a testbed for new city-living innovations. Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966, during the initial planning of the complex. After his death, the company wrestled with the idea of whether to bring the Disney World project to fruition. However, Walt's older brother, Roy, came out of retirement to make sure Walt's biggest dream was realized. Construction started in 1967, with the company instead building a resort similar to Disneyland, abandoning the experimental concepts for a planned community. The Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex, in 1971, followed by Epcot (1982), Disney's Hollywood Studios (1989), and Disney's Animal Kingdom (1998). It was Roy who insisted the name of the entire complex be changed from Disney World to Walt Disney World, ensuring that people would remember that the project was Walt's dream.

    In 2018, Walt Disney World was the most visited vacation resort in the world, with an average annual attendance of more than 58 million.[6] The resort is the flagship destination of Disney's worldwide corporate enterprise and has become a popular staple in American culture. In 2020, Walt Disney World was chosen to host the NBA Bubble for play of the 2019–20 season of the National Basketball Association to resume at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex. Walt Disney World (as well as Disneyland) is also covered by an FAA prohibited airspace zone that restricts all airspace activities without approval from the Federal government of the United States, including usage of drones; this level of protection is otherwise only offered to American critical infrastructure (like the Pantex plant), military bases, the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area, official presidential travels, and Camp David.[7]

    In 2020, Disney World began laying off 6,500 employees and only operated at 25% capacity after reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic.[8][9]

    1. ^ Schoolfield, Jeremy (October 26, 202). "Look for Some Fresh Pixie Dust at the Entrances to Walt Disney World Resort". disney.com. The Walt Disney Company. Archived from the original on May 21, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
    2. ^ "New Leadership Team Announced At Disney Parks, Experiences And Products" (Press release). The Walt Disney Company. May 18, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
    3. ^ "Fact Sheet" (PDF). Disney Parks, Experiences and Products. February 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
    4. ^ Walt Disney World Resort in Geonames.org (cc-by)
    5. ^ "Walt Disney World Fun Facts" (PDF). Walt Disney World News. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2018 Report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "4/3634 NOTAM Details". tfr.faa.gov. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
    8. ^ "6,700 non-union Disney employees in Central Florida among those being laid off". WESH. September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
    9. ^ Deerwester, Jayme (October 13, 2020). "Disney World attendance to stay capped; Disneyland reopening 'not much of a negotiation,' CEO says". USA Today. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
     
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    1 October 1971Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida.

    Walt Disney World

    Coordinates: 28°22′20″N 81°32′58″W / 28.37222°N 81.54944°W / 28.37222; -81.54944[4]

    The Walt Disney World Resort, also called Walt Disney World or Disney World, is an entertainment resort complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, United States, near the cities of Orlando and Kissimmee. Opened on October 1, 1971, the resort is owned and operated by Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The property covers nearly 25,000 acres (39 sq mi; 101 km2), of which half has been used.[5] The resort comprises four theme parks (Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney's Hollywood Studios, and Disney's Animal Kingdom), two water parks (Disney's Blizzard Beach and Disney's Typhoon Lagoon), 27 themed resort hotels, nine non-Disney hotels, several golf courses, a camping resort, and other entertainment venues, including the outdoor shopping center Disney Springs.

    Designed to supplement Disneyland in Anaheim, California, which had opened in 1955, the complex was developed by Walt Disney in the 1960s. "The Florida Project", as it was known, was intended to present a distinct vision with its own diverse set of attractions. Walt Disney's original plans also called for the inclusion of an "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT), a planned community intended to serve as a testbed for new city-living innovations. Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966, during the initial planning of the complex. After his death, the company wrestled with the idea of whether to bring the Disney World project to fruition. However, Walt's older brother, Roy, came out of retirement to make sure Walt's biggest dream was realized. Construction started in 1967, with the company instead building a resort similar to Disneyland, abandoning the experimental concepts for a planned community. The Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex, in 1971, followed by Epcot (1982), Disney's Hollywood Studios (1989), and Disney's Animal Kingdom (1998). It was Roy who insisted the name of the entire complex be changed from Disney World to Walt Disney World, ensuring that people would remember that the project was Walt's dream.

    In 2018, Walt Disney World was the most visited vacation resort in the world, with an average annual attendance of more than 58 million.[6] The resort is the flagship destination of Disney's worldwide corporate enterprise and has become a popular staple in American culture. In 2020, Walt Disney World was chosen to host the NBA Bubble for play of the 2019–20 season of the National Basketball Association to resume at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex. Walt Disney World (as well as Disneyland) is also covered by an FAA prohibited airspace zone that restricts all airspace activities without approval from the Federal government of the United States, including usage of drones; this level of protection is otherwise only offered to American critical infrastructure (like the Pantex plant), military bases, the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area, official presidential travels, and Camp David.[7]

    In 2020, Disney World began laying off 6,500 employees and only operated at 25% capacity after reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic.[8][9]

    1. ^ Schoolfield, Jeremy (October 26, 202). "Look for Some Fresh Pixie Dust at the Entrances to Walt Disney World Resort". disney.com. The Walt Disney Company. Archived from the original on May 21, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
    2. ^ "New Leadership Team Announced At Disney Parks, Experiences And Products" (Press release). The Walt Disney Company. May 18, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
    3. ^ "Fact Sheet" (PDF). Disney Parks, Experiences and Products. February 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
    4. ^ Walt Disney World Resort in Geonames.org (cc-by)
    5. ^ "Walt Disney World Fun Facts" (PDF). Walt Disney World News. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2018 Report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "4/3634 NOTAM Details". tfr.faa.gov. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
    8. ^ "6,700 non-union Disney employees in Central Florida among those being laid off". WESH. September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
    9. ^ Deerwester, Jayme (October 13, 2020). "Disney World attendance to stay capped; Disneyland reopening 'not much of a negotiation,' CEO says". USA Today. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
     
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    2 October 1928 – The "Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God", commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded

    Opus Dei

    Opus Dei, formally known as the Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei (Latin: Praelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), is an institution of the Catholic Church.

    The majority of its membership are lay people; the remainder are secular priests under the governance of a so-called prelate elected by specific members and appointed by the Pope.[3] Opus Dei is Latin for "Work of God"; hence the organization is often referred to by members and supporters as the Work.[4][5]

    Opus Dei was founded in Spain in 1928 by Catholic priest Josemaría Escrivá and was given final Catholic Church approval in 1950 by Pope Pius XII.[6] John Paul II made it a personal prelature in 1982 by the apostolic constitution Ut sit; that is, the jurisdiction of its own bishop covers the persons in Opus Dei wherever they are, rather than geographical dioceses.[6] While Opus Dei has met controversies, they remain influential within the Roman Church.[7][8]

    As of 2018, there were 95,318 members of the Prelature: 93,203 lay persons and 2,115 priests.[1] These figures do not include the diocesan priest members of Opus Dei's Priestly Society of the Holy Cross, estimated to number 2,000 in the year 2005.[9] Members are in more than 90 countries.[10] About 70% of Opus Dei members live in their private homes, leading family lives with secular careers,[11][12] while the other 30% are celibate, of whom the majority live in Opus Dei centers. Aside from their personal charity and social work, Opus Dei members organize training in Catholic spirituality applied to daily life; members are involved in running universities, university residences, schools, publishing houses, hospitals, and technical and agricultural training centers.

    1. ^ a b "Opus Dei (Personal Prelature) [Catholic-Hierarchy]". www.catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
    2. ^ "Opus dei sitting on fortune".
    3. ^ Upon whom does the prelate of Opus Dei depend? Who appoints him? Opus Dei website.
    4. ^ "Decoding secret world of Opus Dei". BBC News. 16 September 2005. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
    5. ^ Bill Tammeus (19 October 2005). "Bishop confirms connection to group". Kansas City Star.
    6. ^ a b Peter Berglar (1994). "Opus Dei: Life and Works of its Founder". EWTN. Scepter. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
    7. ^ "Comments by the Popes on Blessed Josemaria and Opus dei".
    8. ^ "Declarations on the Upcoming Canonization - Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer".
    9. ^ John Allen (2005). Opus Dei: An Objective Look Behind the Myths and Reality of the Most Controversial Force in the Catholic Church. Doubleday Religion. ISBN 0-385-51449-2.
    10. ^ "Opus Dei to produce Italian cartoon and mini-series on St. Josemaria Escriva". Retrieved 11 December 2016.
    11. ^ "Opus Dei". BBC Religion and Ethics. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
    12. ^ Terry Mattingly. "'Da Vinci Code' mania opened up Opus Dei". Alburquerque Tribune. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
     
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    3 October 1995 – The O. J. Simpson murder case ends with a verdict of not guilty.

    O. J. Simpson murder case

    The People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson was a criminal trial in Los Angeles County Superior Court in which former National Football League (NFL) player, broadcaster and actor O. J. Simpson was tried and acquitted for the murders of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman. The pair were stabbed to death outside Brown's condominium in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles on the night of June 12, 1994. The trial spanned eleven months, from the jury's swearing-in on November 9, 1994.[1] Opening statements were made on January 24, 1995,[2] and Simpson was acquitted of both counts of murder on October 3 of the same year.[3][4] The trial is often characterized as the trial of the century because of its international publicity and has been described as the "most publicized" criminal trial in history.[5]

    Following perfunctory questioning by police detectives, Simpson was formally charged with the murders on June 17, 1994, after investigators found a blood-stained glove on his property. After he did not turn himself in at the agreed time, he became the object of a low-speed pursuit in a white 1993 Ford Bronco SUV owned and driven by his friend Al Cowlings.[6] TV stations interrupted coverage of the 1994 NBA Finals to broadcast live coverage of the pursuit, which was watched by an estimated 95 million people.[7] The pursuit and Simpson's subsequent arrest were among the most widely publicized events in American history.

    Simpson was represented by a high-profile defense team, referred to as the "Dream Team," which was initially led by Robert Shapiro[8][9][10] and subsequently directed by Johnnie Cochran. The team also included F. Lee Bailey, Alan Dershowitz, Robert Kardashian, Shawn Holley, Carl E. Douglas, and Gerald Uelmen. Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld were two additional attorneys who specialized in DNA evidence. While Deputy District Attorneys Marcia Clark, William Hodgman and Christopher Darden believed they had a strong case against Simpson, Cochran was able to convince the jury that there was reasonable doubt concerning the DNA evidence in this case, which was a relatively new form of evidence in trials at that time.[11] The reasonable doubt theory included evidence that the blood sample had allegedly been mishandled by lab scientists and technicians, and there were questionable circumstances that surrounded other court exhibits.[12] Cochran and the defense team also alleged other misconduct by the LAPD related to systemic racism and incompetence, in particular actions and comments of Detective Mark Fuhrman.

    The trial became historically significant because of the reaction to the verdict.[13] Although the nation observed the same evidence presented at trial, a division along racial lines emerged in observers' opinions of the verdict, which the media dubbed the "racial gap."[14] A poll of Los Angeles County residents showed that most African-Americans thought that justice had been served by the "not guilty" verdict, while the majority of whites and Latinos thought it was a racially motivated jury nullification[15][16] by a mostly African-American jury.[17] More recent polling shows the "gap" has narrowed since the trial, with over half of polled black respondents in 2013 stating they believed Simpson was guilty.[18]

    After the trial, Goldman's father filed a civil suit against Simpson. On February 4, 1997, the jury unanimously found Simpson responsible for the deaths of both Goldman and Brown.[19] The Goldman family was awarded compensatory and punitive damages totaling $33.5 million ($54 million in 2020 dollars), but have received only a small portion of that monetary figure. In 2000, Simpson left California for Florida, one of the few states where personal assets such as homes and pensions cannot be seized to cover liabilities that were incurred in other states.

    1. ^ Ford, Andrea; Newton, Jim (November 4, 1994). "12 Simpson Jurors Are Sworn In : Trial: The eight-woman, four-man panel is predominantly black. Fifteen alternates will be added in coming months ". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
    2. ^ "THE O. J. SIMPSON MURDER TRIAL : Excerpts of Opening Statements by Simpson Prosecutors". Los Angeles Times. January 25, 1995. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
    3. ^ Thomas L. Jones. "O. J. SIMPSON". truTV. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
    4. ^ "1995: OJ Simpson verdict: 'Not guilty'". On This Day: 3 October. BBC. October 3, 1995. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
    5. ^ "Confusion for Simpson kids 'far from over'". USA Today. February 12, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    6. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 18, 1994). "The Simpson Case: The Fugitive; Simpson Is Charged, Chased, Arrested". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    7. ^ Gilbert, Geis; Bienen, Leigh B. (1988). Crimes of the century: from Leopold and Loeb to O.J. Simpson. Northeastern University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-55553-360-1 – via Google Books.
    8. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 16, 1994). "Lawyer for O. J. Simpson Quits Case". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    9. ^ Newton, Jim (September 9, 1994). "Power Struggle in the Simpson Camp, Sources Say – Shapiro, Cochran Increasingly Compete For Limelight In Case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    10. ^ "Simpson Expected To Shuffle Legal Team, Demote Lead Attorney". Daily News. January 2, 1995. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
    11. ^ Meier, Barry (September 7, 1994). "Simpson Team Taking Aim at DNA Laboratory". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    12. ^ "List of the evidence in the O. J. Simpson double-murder trial". USA Today. October 18, 1996. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
    13. ^ "the o.j. verdict: Toobin". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    14. ^ "the o.j. verdict: Dershowitz". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    15. ^ Chakravarti, Sonali (August 5, 2014). "The OJ Simpson Verdict, Jury Nullification and Black Lives Matter: The Power to Acquit". Public Seminar. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    16. ^ Monroe, Sylvester (June 16, 2014). "Black America was cheering for Cochran, not O.J." The Undefeated. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
    17. ^ Decker, Cathleen (October 8, 1995). "THE TIMES POLL : Most in County Disagree With Simpson Verdicts". Retrieved January 16, 2014.
    18. ^ "Most Black People Now Think O.J. Was Guilty". FiveThirtyEight. June 9, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
    19. ^ "Jury unanimous: Simpson is liable". CNN. February 4, 1997. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
     
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    4 October 1963Hurricane Flora kills 6,000 in Cuba and Haiti.

    Hurricane Flora

    Hurricane Flora is among the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes in recorded history, with a death total of at least 7,193. The seventh tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the 1963 Atlantic hurricane season, Flora developed from a disturbance in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on September 26 while located 755 miles (1,215 km) southwest of the Cape Verde islands. After remaining a weak depression for several days, it rapidly organized on September 29 to attain tropical storm status. Flora continued to quickly strengthen to reach Category 3 hurricane status before moving through the Windward Islands and passing over Tobago, and it reached maximum sustained winds of 145 miles per hour (233 km/h) in the Caribbean.

    The storm struck southwestern Haiti near peak intensity, turned to the west, and drifted over Cuba for four days before turning to the northeast. Flora passed over the Bahamas and accelerated northeastward, becoming an extratropical cyclone on October 12. Due to its slow movement across Cuba, Flora is the wettest known tropical cyclone for Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.[1] The significant casualties caused by Flora were the most for a tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Basin since the 1900 Galveston Hurricane.[2]

    1. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (2008). Hurricane Flora — September 29 – October 8, 1963. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
    2. ^ Dunn, Gordon E; Moore, Paul L; Clark Gilbert B; Frank, Neil L; Hill, Elbert C; Kraft, Raymond H; Sugg, Arnold L (1964). "The Hurricane Season of 1963" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. American Meteorological Society. 92 (3): 136. Bibcode:1964MWRv...92..128D. doi:10.1175/1520-0493-92.3.128. ISSN 0027-0644. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
     
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    5 October 1962 – The first of the James Bond film series, based on the novels by Ian Fleming, Dr. No, is released in Britain.

    Dr. No (film)

    Dr. No is a 1962 spy film directed by Terence Young. It is based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. Starring Sean Connery, Ursula Andress, Joseph Wiseman, and Jack Lord, it is the first film in the James Bond series, and was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood, and Berkely Mather. The film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, a partnership that continued until 1975.

    In the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent. The trail leads him to the underground base of Dr. No, who is plotting to disrupt an early American space launch from Cape Canaveral with a radio beam weapon. Although it was the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, Dr. No was not the first of Fleming's novels. Casino Royale was the debut for the character; however, the film makes a few references to threads from earlier books. This film makes reference to later books in the series as well, such as the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which was not introduced until the 1961 novel Thunderball.

    Produced on a low budget, Dr. No was a financial success. While the film received a mixed critical reaction upon release, it has gained a reputation over time as one of the series' best instalments. Dr. No also launched a genre of "secret agent" films that flourished in the 1960s. The film also spawned a comic book adaptation and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing.

    Many aspects of a typical James Bond film were established in Dr. No: the film begins with an introduction to the character through the view of a gun barrel and a highly stylised main title sequence, both of which were created by Maurice Binder.[3] It also established the iconic "James Bond" theme music. Production designer Ken Adam established an elaborate visual style that is one of the hallmarks of the film series.

    1. ^ "Dr. No". Lumiere. European Audiovisual Observatory. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
    2. ^ "AFI|Catalog".
    3. ^ "Spies". Mark Kermode's Secrets of Cinema. Series 2. Episode 3. 2 April 2020. Event occurs at 13:26. BBC. BBC Four. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
     
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    6 October 1995 – The first planet orbiting another sun, 51 Pegasi b, is discovered.

    51 Pegasi b

    51 Pegasi b (abbreviated 51 Peg b), unofficially dubbed Bellerophon /bɛˈlɛrəfɒn/, later formally named Dimidium /dɪˈmɪdiəm/, is an extrasolar planet approximately 50 light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus. It was the first exoplanet to be discovered orbiting a main-sequence star,[1] the Sun-like 51 Pegasi, and marked a breakthrough in astronomical research. It is the prototype for a class of planets called hot Jupiters.

    In 2017, traces of water were discovered in the planet's atmosphere.[2] In 2019, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in part for the discovery of 51 Pegasi b.[3]

    1. ^ How the Universe Works 3. Jupiter: Destroyer or Savior?. Discovery Channel. 2014.
    2. ^ "Water detected in the atmosphere of hot Jupiter exoplanet 51 Pegasi b". phys.org. February 1, 2017.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference nobel was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    7 October 1919KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

    KLM

    KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V. (literal translation: Royal Aviation Company, Inc.),[6] is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands.[7] KLM is headquartered in Amstelveen, with its hub at nearby Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. It is part of the Air France–KLM group and a member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. Founded in 1919, KLM is the oldest operating airline in the world, and has 35,488 employees with a fleet of 149 (excluding subsidiaries) as of 2021.[8] KLM operates scheduled passenger and cargo services to 145 destinations.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference FI founder 1959 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference FI founder 1971 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference elbersceo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b https://www.klm.com/travel/fi_en/images/KLM-Jaarverslag-2019_tcm589-1063986.pdf
    5. ^ "KLM – Overview, News & Competitors". Missing or empty |url= (help)
    6. ^ klm.com – Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V. retrieved 6 December 2016.
    7. ^ "Air France: Strikers against reality". The Economist. Paris. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
    8. ^ "About KLM — Facts & Figures". KLM. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
     
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    8 October 1982 – After its London premiere, Cats opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000.

    Cats (musical)

    Cats is a sung-through musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the 1939 poetry collection Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot. It tells the story of a tribe of cats called the Jellicles and the night they make the "Jellicle choice" by deciding which cat will ascend to the Heaviside layer and come back to a new life. The musical includes the well-known song "Memory" as sung by Grizabella. As of 2019, Cats remains the fourth-longest-running Broadway show and the sixth-longest-running West End show.

    Lloyd Webber began setting Eliot's poems to music in 1977, and the compositions were first presented as a song cycle in 1980. Producer Cameron Mackintosh then recruited director Trevor Nunn and choreographer Gillian Lynne to turn the songs into a complete musical. Cats opened to positive reviews at the New London Theatre in the West End in 1981 and then to mixed reviews at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway in 1982. It won numerous awards including Best Musical at both the Laurence Olivier and Tony Awards. Despite its unusual premise that deterred investors initially, the musical turned out to be an unprecedented commercial success, with a worldwide gross of US$3.5 billion by 2012.

    The London production ran for 21 years and 8,949 performances, while the Broadway production ran for 18 years and 7,485 performances, making Cats the longest-running musical in both theatre districts for a number of years. Cats has since been revived in the West End twice and on Broadway once. It has also been translated into multiple languages and performed around the world many times. Long-running foreign productions include a 15-year run at the Operettenhaus in Hamburg that played over 6,100 performances, as well as an ongoing run in a purpose-built theatre in Japan that has played over 10,000 performances since it opened in 1983.

    Cats started the megamusical phenomenon, establishing a global market for musical theatre and directing the industry's focus to big-budget blockbusters, as well as family- and tourist-friendly shows. The musical's profound but polarising influence also reshaped the aesthetic, technology, and marketing of the medium. Cats was adapted into a direct-to-video film in 1998, and a feature film directed by Tom Hooper in 2019.

     
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    9 October 1238James I of Aragon founds the Kingdom of Valencia.

    Kingdom of Valencia

    Christian conquest of the Emirates of Valencia and Dénia (brown shades); 19th century additions to the present day Valencian Community (green) do not belong to the historic kingdom; the Biar-Busot line formed the southern border of the kingdom until 1296

    The Kingdom of Valencia (Valencian: Regne de València, IPA: [ˈreŋne ðe vaˈlensia]; Spanish: Reino de Valencia; Latin: Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. When the Crown of Aragon merged by dynastic union with the Crown of Castile to form the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Valencia became a component realm of the Spanish monarchy.

    The Kingdom of Valencia was formally created in 1238 when the Moorish taifa of Valencia was taken in the course of the Reconquista. It was dissolved, along the other components of the old crown of Aragon, by Philip V of Spain in 1707, by means of the Nueva Planta decrees, as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.

    During its existence, the Kingdom of Valencia was ruled by the laws and institutions stated in the Furs (charters) of Valencia which granted it wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon and, later on, under the Spanish Kingdom.

    The boundaries and identity of the present Spanish autonomous community of the Valencian Community are essentially those of the former Kingdom of Valencia.

    1. ^ Presidència de la Generalitat Valenciana, La memoria del reino. 600 años de la Generalitat Valenciana, Presidència de la Generalitat
     
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    10 October 1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000–30,000 in the Caribbean.

    Great Hurricane of 1780

    The Great Hurricane of 1780, also known as Huracán San Calixto, the Great Hurricane of the Antilles, the Great Hurricane of the West Indies, and the 1780 Disaster,[1][2] was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. An estimated 22,000 people died throughout the Lesser Antilles when the storm passed through the islands from October 10–16.[3] Specifics on the hurricane's track and strength are unknown, as the official Atlantic hurricane database only goes back to 1851.[4]

    The hurricane struck Barbados likely as a Category 5 hurricane, with at least one estimate of wind speeds as high as 200 mph (320 km/h)[5] (greater than any in recorded Atlantic basin history) before moving past Martinique, Saint Lucia, and Sint Eustatius, and causing thousands of deaths on those islands. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to the British fleet contesting for control of the area, largely weakening British control over the Atlantic. The hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of Hispaniola, causing heavy damage near the coastlines. It ultimately turned to the northeast and was last observed on October 20 southeast of Atlantic Canada.

    The death toll from the Great Hurricane alone exceeds that of many entire decades of Atlantic hurricanes. Estimates are marginally higher than for Hurricane Mitch, the second-deadliest Atlantic storm, for which figures are likely more precise. The hurricane was part of the disastrous 1780 Atlantic hurricane season, with two other deadly storms occurring in October.[3]

    1. ^ a b c Mújica-Baker, Frank. Huracanes y tormentas que han afectado a Puerto Rico (PDF). Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el Manejo de Emergencias y Administración de Desastres. pp. 4, 7–10, 12–14. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
    2. ^ Orlando Pérez (1970). "Notes on the Tropical Cyclones of Puerto Rico" (PDF). San Juan, Puerto Rico National Weather Service. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
    3. ^ a b Edward N. Rappaport; Jose Fernandez-Partagas; Jack Beven (1997). "The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492–1996". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
    4. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2006). "Re-Analysis Project". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
    5. ^ Withington, John (December 12, 2016). Storm: Nature and Culture. Islington, England.: Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781780237084.
     
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    11 October 1899 – The Second Boer War erupts in South Africa between the British-ruled Cape Colony, and the Boer-ruled Transvaal and Orange Free State.

    Second Boer War

    The Second Boer War (Afrikaans: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo-Boer War, or the South African War, was fought between the British Empire and two independent Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. The trigger of the war was the discovery of diamonds and gold in the Boer states.[9] Initial Boer attacks were successful, and although British reinforcements later reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures including a scorched earth policy brought the Boers to terms.[10]

    A few British colonies existed nearby. The Boer War can be understood to have formally started with well-armed Boer irregulars and militia striking first, against towns in those colonies. They besieged Ladysmith, Kimberley, and Mafeking in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso, Magersfontein and Stormberg. Surprised, under-prepared, and overconfident,[11] the British responded bringing in modest numbers of soldiers and fought back with little initial success. Leadership and tactics changed when General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener. They relieved the three besieged cities and invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army, well over 400,000 men, were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defence of their homelands.[12]

    A typical British soldier Corporal Alexander Duncan Turnbull of Kitchener's Fighting Scouts

    The British army seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as Kruger and others in the Boer government went into hiding or fled the country. In conventional terms, the war was over. The British officially annexed the two countries in 1900. Back home, Britain's Conservative government wanted to capitalize on this success to call an early general election, dubbed by some the "khaki election".[13] British military efforts were aided by Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal, Rhodesia,[14] and some native African allies, and further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada, India and New Zealand. Other nations remained neutral with opinion often being hostile to the British.[15] Inside the British Empire there also was significant opposition to the Second Boer War. As a result, the Boer cause attracted volunteers from neutral countries as well as from parts of the British Empire such as Ireland.[16]

    The Boers refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare, under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet, and Koos de la Rey, in a campaign of surprise attacks and quick escapes lasting almost two years before defeat.[17]

    As guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters easily blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places, supplies, and horses. The British response to guerrilla warfare was to set up complex nets of blockhouses, strongpoints, and barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. In addition, civilian farms and livestock were destroyed as part of a scorched earth policy. Survivors were forced into concentration camps. Very large proportions of these civilians died of hunger and disease, especially the children.[18]

    British-mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the highly mobile Boer guerrilla units. The battles at this stage were small operations. Few died during combat, though many perished of disease. The war ended when the Boer leadership surrendered and accepted British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902. The former republics were turned into the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, and shortly thereafter merged with aforementioned Cape and Natal Colonies into the Union of South Africa in 1910, as part of the British Empire.[19]

    The war marked the beginning of the British Empire's power and level of prosperity being brought into question, with the long duration of the war and the early losses to the "cobbled-together army" of Boers being unforeseen and discouraging.[20]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Jones 1999.
    2. ^ Grattan 2009, pp. 147–58.
    3. ^ Haydon 1964, p. [page needed].
    4. ^ a b sahoboss (31 March 2011). "Role of Black people in the South African War".
    5. ^ Scholtz, Leopold (2005). Why the Boers Lost the War. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 2–5, 119. ISBN 978-1-4039-4880-9.
    6. ^ a b EB 1911.
    7. ^ (Eveleigh Nash 1914, p. 309)
    8. ^ a b c Wessels 2011, p. 79.
    9. ^ Editors, History com. "Boer War begins in South Africa". HISTORY. Retrieved 23 July 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    10. ^ "BBC – History – The Boer Wars". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
    11. ^ Millard, Candice (2016). Hero of the Empire: The Boer War, a daring escape, and the making of Winston Churchill. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-53573-1.
    12. ^ "The South African War 1899–1902 | South African History Online". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
    13. ^ Biggins, David. "Khaki Election of 1900". angloboerwar.com. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
    14. ^ "Anglo Boer War – Rhodesia Regiment". www.angloboerwar.com. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
    15. ^ See Opposition to the Second Boer War#Among neutrals
    16. ^ Diver, Luke (2014). "Ireland and the Second Boer , maynoothuniversity.ie Ph.D." (PDF). Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    17. ^ van der Waag, Ian (2005). "Boer Generalship and Politics of Command". War in History. 12 (1): 15–43. doi:10.1191/0968344505wh306oa. JSTOR 26061736.
    18. ^ "Women & Children in White Concentration Camps during the Anglo-Boer War, 1900–1902". South African History Online. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
    19. ^ Editors, History com. "The Boer War ends in South Africa". HISTORY. Retrieved 25 January 2021.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    20. ^ Riches, Christopher; Palmowski, Jan, eds. (2021). "United Kingdom". A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780191890949.013.2400. ISBN 9780191890949. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
     
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    12 October 2002 – Terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300.

    2002 Bali bombings

    The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. The attack killed 202 people (including 88 Australians, 38 Indonesians, 23 Britons, and people of more than 20 other nationalities).[3] A further 209 people were injured.[4]

    Various members of Jemaah Islamiyah, a violent Islamist group, were convicted in relation to the bombings, including three individuals who were sentenced to death. The attack involved the detonation of three bombs: a backpack-mounted device carried by a suicide bomber; a large car bomb, both of which were detonated in or near popular nightclubs in Kuta; and a third much smaller device detonated outside the United States consulate in Denpasar, causing only minor damage. An audio-cassette purportedly carrying a recorded voice message from Osama bin Laden stated that the Bali bombings were in direct retaliation for support of the United States' War on Terror and Australia's role in the liberation of East Timor.[5]

    On 8 November 2008, Imam Samudra, Amrozi Nurhasyim and Huda bin Abdul Haq were executed by firing squad on the island prison of Nusakambangan. On 9 March 2010, Dulmatin, nicknamed "the Genius"—believed to be responsible for setting off one of the Bali bombs with a mobile phone—was killed in a shoot-out with Indonesian police in Jakarta.[6]

    1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    2. ^ AFP (6 October 2003). "'Al-Qaeda financed Bali' claims Hambali report". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    3. ^ "Bali death toll set at 202". BBC News. 19 February 2003. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
    4. ^ "The Sydney Morning Herald". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
    5. ^ " 'Bin Laden' voices new threat to Australia " The Age, 14 November 2002
    6. ^ "Bali bomber mastermind Dulmatin killed in shoot-out". 9 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
     
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    13 October 54 – Roman emperor Claudius dies from poisoning under mysterious circumstances. He is succeeded by his adoptive son Nero, rather than by Britannicus, his son with Messalina.

    Claudius

    Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (/ˈklɔːdiəs/ KLAW-dee-əs; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor, ruling from AD 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, Claudius was born to Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was stationed as a military legate. He was the first Roman emperor to be born outside Italy. Nonetheless, Claudius was an Italic of Sabine origins.[5] Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, he was ostracized by his family and was excluded from public office until his consulship (which was shared with his nephew, Caligula, in 37).

    Claudius's infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges during the reigns of Tiberius and Caligula as potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to him being declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He expanded the imperial bureaucracy to include freedmen, and helped to restore the empire's finances after the excess of Caligula's reign. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire started its successful conquest of Britain.

    Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position, which resulted in the deaths of many senators. Those events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised that opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife, Agrippina the Younger. After his death at the age of 63, Nero, his grand-nephew and legally adopted step-son, succeeded him as emperor.

    1. ^ Simpson, pp. 365–366.
    2. ^ Hurley, p. 68.
    3. ^ Stuart, p. 318 (note 7).
    4. ^ Levick 2015, pp. 11, 21–22.
    5. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xi. 24.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-roman> tags or {{efn-lr}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-roman}} template or {{notelist-lr}} template (see the help page).

     
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    14 October 1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba.

    Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Spanish: Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис, tr. Karibsky krizis, IPA: [kɐˈrʲipskʲɪj ˈkrʲizʲɪs]), or the Missile Scare, was a 1-month, 4 day (16 October – 20 November 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union which escalated into an international crisis when American deployments of missiles in Italy and Turkey were matched by Soviet deployments of similar ballistic missiles in Cuba. Despite the short time frame, the Cuban Missile Crisis remains a defining moment in U.S. national security and nuclear war preparation. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.[3]

    In response to the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, and the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961, Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro in July 1962, and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer.

    Meanwhile, the 1962 United States elections were under way, and the White House denied charges for months that it was ignoring dangerous Soviet missiles 90 mi (140 km) from Florida. The missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range R-12 (NATO code name SS-4) and intermediate-range R-14 (NATO code name SS-5) ballistic missile facilities.

    When this was reported to President John F. Kennedy, he then convened a meeting of the nine members of the National Security Council and five other key advisers in a group that became known as the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EXCOMM). During this meeting, President Kennedy was originally advised to carry out an air strike on Cuban soil in order to compromise Soviet missile supplies, followed by an invasion of the Cuban mainland. After careful consideration, President Kennedy chose a less aggressive course of action to avoid a declaration of war. After consultation with them, Kennedy ordered a naval "quarantine" on October 22 to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba. By using the term "quarantine" rather than "blockade" (an act of war by legal definition), the United States was able to avoid the implications of a state of war.[4] The US announced it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the weapons already in Cuba be dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union.

    After several days of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between Kennedy and Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement to not invade Cuba again. Secretly, the United States agreed that it would dismantle all of the Jupiter MRBMs, which had been deployed in Turkey against the Soviet Union. There has been debate on whether or not Italy was included in the agreement as well. While the Soviets dismantled their missiles, some Soviet bombers remained in Cuba, and the United States kept the Naval quarantine in place until November 20 of that year.[4]

    When all offensive missiles and the Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 20, 1962. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick, clear, and direct communication line between the two Superpowers. As a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of agreements later reduced US–Soviet tensions for several years until both parties eventually resumed expanding their nuclear arsenals.

    1. ^ Sven G. Holtsmark, Iver B. Neumann, Odd Arne Westad, Springer, 27 iul. 2016, The Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, 1945–89, p. 99
    2. ^ "Milestones: 1961–1968 – The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962". history.state.gov. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019.
    3. ^ Scott, Len; Hughes, R. Gerald (2015). The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Critical Reappraisal. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. ISBN 9781317555414. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
    4. ^ a b Jonathan, Colman (April 1, 2019). "The U.S. Legal Case for the Blockade of Cuba during the Missile Crisis, October-November 1962". Journal of Cold War Studies.
     
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    15 October 1991 – The "Oh-My-God particle", an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray measured at 40,000,000 times that of the highest energy protons produced in a particle accelerator, is observed at the University of Utah HiRes observatory in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.

    Oh-My-God particle

    The Oh-My-God particle (OMG particle) was an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray detected on 15 October 1991 by the Fly's Eye camera in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, U.S. At that time it was the highest-energy cosmic ray that had ever been observed.[1][2][3] Although higher energy cosmic rays have been detected since then, this particle's energy was unexpected, and called into question theories of that era about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

    1. ^ Bird, D.J.; Corbato, S.C.; Dai, H.Y.; Elbert, J.W.; Green, K.D.; Huang, M.A.; Kieda, D.B.; Ko, S.; Larsen, C.G.; Loh, E.C.; Luo, M.Z.; Salamon, M.H.; Smith, J.D.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Tang, J.K.K.; Thomas, S.B. (March 1995). "Detection of a cosmic ray with measured energy well beyond the expected spectral cutoff due to cosmic microwave radiation". The Astrophysical Journal. 441: 144. arXiv:astro-ph/9410067. Bibcode:1995ApJ...441..144B. doi:10.1086/175344. S2CID 119092012.
    2. ^ "The Fly's Eye (1981-1993) – The highest energy particle ever recorded". cosmic-ray.org.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference q was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    16 October 1968 – Tommie Smith and John Carlos are ejected from the US Olympic team for participating in the Olympics Black Power salute.

    1968 Olympics Black Power salute

    Gold medalist Tommie Smith (center) and bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200 m race at the 1968 Summer Olympics; both wear Olympic Project for Human Rights badges. Peter Norman (silver medalist, left) from Australia also wears an OPHR badge in solidarity with Smith and Carlos.

    During their medal ceremony in the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City on October 16, 1968, two African-American athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, each raised a black-gloved fist during the playing of the US national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner". While on the podium, Smith and Carlos, who had won gold and bronze medals respectively in the 200-meter running event of the 1968 Summer Olympics, turned to face the US flag and then kept their hands raised until the anthem had finished. In addition, Smith, Carlos, and Australian silver medalist Peter Norman all wore human-rights badges on their jackets.

    In his autobiography, Silent Gesture, published nearly 30 years later, Smith revised his statement that the gesture was not a "Black Power" salute per se, but rather a "human rights" salute. The demonstration is regarded as one of the most overtly political statements in the history of the modern Olympics.[1]

    1. ^ Lewis, Richard (October 8, 2006). "Caught in Time: Black Power salute, Mexico, 1968". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
     
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    17 October 1931Al Capone is convicted of income tax evasion.

    Al Capone

    Alphonse Gabriel Capone (/kəˈpn/;[1] January 17, 1899 – January 25, 1947), sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American gangster and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as a crime boss ended when he went to prison at the age of 33.

    Capone was born in New York City in 1899 to Italian immigrant parents. He joined the Five Points Gang as a teenager and became a bouncer in organized crime premises such as brothels. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's rise and fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen almost killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through increasingly violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement.

    Capone apparently reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games. He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as a "modern-day Robin Hood".[2] However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged the public image of Chicago and Capone, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No.1".

    The federal authorities became intent on jailing Capone and charged him with 22 counts of tax evasion. He was convicted of five counts in 1931. During a highly publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes, made during prior (and ultimately abortive) negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed. He was convicted and sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, and his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his appeal ultimately failed. Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became increasingly debilitated before being released after almost eight years of incarceration. On January 25, 1947, he died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke.

    1. ^ "the definition of al capone". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference vintage was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    18 October 1016 – The Danes defeat the English in the Battle of Assandun.

    Battle of Assandun

    Ashingdon hill, possible location of the battle.

    The Battle of Assandun (or Essendune)[1] was fought between Danish and English armies on 18 October 1016. There is disagreement whether Assandun may be Ashdon near Saffron Walden in north Essex, England, or, as long supposed, Ashingdon near Rochford in south-east Essex. It ended in victory for the Danes, led by Canute the Great, who triumphed over the English army led by King Edmund Ironside. The battle was the conclusion to the Danish conquest of England.

    1. ^ Smith, Ernest F. Fairbairn, W. H. (ed.). Tewkesbury Abbey. Notes on Famous Churches and Abbeys. [1916]. London: SPCK. p. 2.
     
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    19 October 2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.

    Trial of Saddam Hussein

    The trial of Saddam Hussein was the trial of the deposed President of Iraq Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Interim Government for crimes against humanity during his time in office.

    The Coalition Provisional Authority voted to create the Iraqi Special Tribunal (IST), consisting of five Iraqi judges, on 9 December 2003, to try Saddam Hussein and his aides for charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.[1]

    Saddam Hussein sits before an Iraqi judge at a courthouse in Baghdad, 1 July 2004.

    Saddam was captured by U.S. forces on 13 December 2003.[2] He remained in custody by United States forces at Camp Cropper in Baghdad, along with eleven senior Ba'athist officials. Particular attention was paid during the trial to activities in violent campaigns against the Kurds in the north during the Iran–Iraq War, against the Shiites in the south in 1991 and 1999 to put down revolts, and in Dujail after a failed assassination attempt on 8 July 1982, during the Iran–Iraq War. Saddam asserted in his defense that he had been unlawfully overthrown, and was still the president of Iraq.

    The first trial began before the Iraqi Special Tribunal on 19 October 2005. At this trial Saddam and seven other defendants were tried for crimes against humanity with regard to events that took place after a failed assassination attempt in Dujail in 1982 by members of the Islamic Dawa Party (see also human rights abuses in Iraq under Saddam Hussein). A second and separate trial began on 21 August 2006,[3] trying Saddam and six co-defendants for genocide during the Anfal military campaign against the Kurds of northern Iraq.

    On 5 November 2006, Saddam was sentenced to death by hanging. On 26 December, Saddam's appeal was rejected and the death sentence upheld. No further appeals were taken and Saddam was ordered executed within 30 days of that date. The date and place of the execution were secret until the sentence was carried out.[4] Saddam Hussein was executed by hanging on 30 December 2006.[5] With his death, all other charges were dropped.

    Critics viewed the trial as a show trial that did not meet international standards on the right to a fair trial. Amnesty International stated that the trial was "unfair,"[6] and Human Rights Watch judged that Saddam's execution "follows a flawed trial and marks a significant step away from the rule of law in Iraq."[7] Several months before the trial took place, Salem Chalabi, the former head of the Iraq Special Tribunal (which was established to try Hussein), accused interim Iraqi Prime Minister Iyad Allawi of pushing for a hasty show trial and execution, stating: "Show trials followed by speedy executions may help the interim government politically in the short term but will be counterproductive for the development of democracy and the rule of law in Iraq in the long term."[8]

    1. ^ Sachs, Susan (10 December 2003). "Iraqi Governing Council Sets Up Its Own Court for War Crimes". The New York Times.
    2. ^ Lewis, Neil A. (15 December 2003). "The Capture of Hussein: Legal Process; Iraqis Just Recently Set Rules to Govern Tribunal". The New York Times.
    3. ^ Paley, Amit R. (22 August 2006). "As Genocide Trial Begins, Hussein Is Again Defiant". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
    4. ^ "Death sentence for Saddam upheld". BBC World Service. 26 December 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
    5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    6. ^ Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights
    7. ^ Iraq: Saddam Hussein Put to Death, Human Rights Watch (30-12-2006).
    8. ^ "Iraq PM 'seeks Saddam show trial'". BBC News. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
     
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    20 October 1944 – American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he comes ashore during the Battle of Leyte.

    Douglas MacArthur

    Douglas MacArthur (26 January 1880 – 5 April 1964) was an American military leader who served as General of the Army for the United States, as well as a Field Marshal to the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s, and he played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. Macarthur received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines campaign. This made him and his father Arthur MacArthur Jr. the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only one conferred the rank of field marshal in the Philippine Army.

    Raised in a military family in the American Old West, MacArthur was valedictorian at the West Texas Military Academy where he finished high school, and First Captain at the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated top of the class of 1903. During the 1914 United States occupation of Veracruz, he conducted a reconnaissance mission, for which he was nominated for the Medal of Honor. In 1917, he was promoted from major to colonel and became chief of staff of the 42nd (Rainbow) Division. In the fighting on the Western Front during World War I, he rose to the rank of brigadier general, was again nominated for a Medal of Honor, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross twice and the Silver Star seven times.

    From 1919 to 1922, MacArthur served as Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he attempted a series of reforms. His next assignment was in the Philippines, where in 1924 he was instrumental in quelling the Philippine Scout Mutiny. In 1925, he became the Army's youngest major general. He served on the court-martial of Brigadier General Billy Mitchell and was president of the American Olympic Committee during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. In 1930, he became Chief of Staff of the United States Army. As such, he was involved in the expulsion of the Bonus Army protesters from Washington, D.C., in 1932, and the establishment and organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He retired from the U.S. Army in 1937 and became Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines.

    MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air forces on 8 December 1941 and the Japanese invasion of the Philippines. MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left nearby Corregidor Island in PT boats and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. Upon his arrival, MacArthur gave a speech in which he famously promised "I shall return" to the Philippines. After more than two years of fighting, he fulfilled that promise. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor. He officially accepted the surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945 aboard the USS Missouri, which was anchored in Tokyo Bay, and he oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. As the effective ruler of Japan, he oversaw sweeping economic, political and social changes. He led the United Nations Command in the Korean War with initial success; however, the invasion of North Korea provoked the Chinese, causing a series of major defeats. MacArthur was contentiously removed from command by President Harry S. Truman on 11 April 1951. He later became chairman of the board of Remington Rand. He died in Washington D.C. on 5 April 1964 at the age of 84.

     
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    21 October 1983 – The metre is defined as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.

    Metre

    The metre (Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling; see spelling differences) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). The SI unit symbol is m.

    The metre is currently defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 of a second.

    The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole along a great circle, so the Earth's circumference is approximately 40000 km. In 1799, the metre was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. The current definition was adopted in 1983 and modified slightly in 2002 to clarify that the metre is a measure of proper length.

    1. ^ "Base unit definitions: Meter". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
     
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    22 October 1947 – The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan begins, having started just after the partition of India.

    Kashmir conflict

    India claims the entire erstwhile British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir based on an instrument of accession signed in 1947. Pakistan claims most of the region based on its Muslim-majority population, whereas China claims the largely uninhabited regions of Aksai Chin and the Shaksgam Valley.

    The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict over the Kashmir region, primarily between India and Pakistan, with China playing a third-party role.[1][2] The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a dispute over the region that escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls approximately 55% of the land area of the region that includes Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen Glacier,[3][4] and 70% of its population; Pakistan controls approximately 35% of the land area that includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan; and China controls the remaining 20% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Trans-Karakoram Tract, and part of the Demchok sector.[3][5][6][7][8][9][10] After the partition of India and a rebellion in the western districts of the state, Pakistani tribal militias invaded Kashmir, leading the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir to join India.[11] The resulting Indo-Pakistani War ended with a UN-mediated ceasefire along a line that was eventually named the Line of Control.[12][13] After further fighting in the wars of 1965 and 1971, the Simla Agreement formally established the Line of Control between the two nations' controlled territories.[14][15] In 1999, an armed conflict between India and Pakistan broke out again in Kargil with no effect on the status quo.[16]

    Since 1989, Kashmiri protest movements were created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government in the Indian-controlled Kashmir Valley,[17][18] with some Kashmiri separatists in armed conflict with the Indian government based on the demand for self-determination.[17][18][19][20][21] The 2010s were marked by further unrest erupting within the Kashmir Valley. The 2010 Kashmir unrest began after an alleged fake encounter between local youth and security forces.[22] Thousands of youths pelted security forces with rocks, burned government offices, and attacked railway stations and official vehicles in steadily intensifying violence.[23] The Indian government blamed separatists and Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based militant group, for stoking the 2010 protests.[24] The 2016 Kashmir unrest erupted after killing of a Hizbul Mujahideen militant, Burhan Wani, by Indian security forces.[25] Further unrest in the region erupted after the 2019 Pulwama attack.[26]

    According to scholars, Indian forces have committed many human rights abuses and acts of terror against the Kashmiri civilian population, including extrajudicial killing, rape, torture, and enforced disappearances.[20][27][28] According to Amnesty International, no member of the Indian military deployed in Jammu and Kashmir has been tried for human rights violations in a civilian court as of June 2015, although military courts-martial have been held.[29] Amnesty International has also accused the Indian government of refusing to prosecute perpetrators of abuses in the region.[30]

    1. ^ Yahuda, Michael (2 June 2002). "China and the Kashmir crisis". BBC. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
    2. ^ Chang, I-wei Jennifer (9 February 2017). "China's Kashmir Policies and Crisis Management in South Asia". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
    3. ^ a b Ie Ess Wor Reg Geog W/Cd. Thomson Learning EMEA. 2002. ISBN 9780534168100. India now holds about 55% of the old state of Kashmir, Pakistan 30%, and China 15%.
    4. ^ Malik, V. P. (2010). Kargil from Surprise to Victory (paperback ed.). HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 54. ISBN 9789350293133.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Time was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Kashmir: region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
    7. ^ "Jammu & Kashmir". European Foundation for South Asian Studies. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
    8. ^ Snow, Shawn (19 September 2016). "Analysis: Why Kashmir Matters". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
    9. ^ Hobbs, Joseph J. (13 March 2008). World Regional Geography. CengageBrain. p. 314. ISBN 978-0495389507.
    10. ^ Margolis, Eric (2004). War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and Tibet (paperback ed.). Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 9781135955595.
    11. ^ Copland, Ian (Spring 2003), "War and Diplomacy in Kashmir: 1947-48 by C. Dasgupta (review)", Pacific Affairs, 76 (1): 144–145, JSTOR 40024025: "As is well known, this Hindu-ruled Muslim majority state could conceivably have joined either India or Pakistan, but procrastinated about making a choice until a tribal invasion - the term is not contentious - forced the ruler's hand."
    12. ^ Lyon, Peter (1 January 2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 80. ISBN 9781576077122.
    13. ^ "Kashmir | History, People, & Conflict". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015.
    14. ^ "Simla Agreement". Bilateral/Multilateral Documents. Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
    15. ^ Fortna, Virginia (2004). Peace time: cease-fire agreements and the durability of peace. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11512-2.
    16. ^ MacDonald, Myra (2017). Defeat is an Orphan: How Pakistan Lost the Great South Asian War. Oxford University Press. pp. 27, 53, 64, 66. ISBN 978-1-84904-858-3. p. 27: It was not so much that India won the Great South Asian War but that Pakistan lost it.
      p. 53: The story of the Kargil War—Pakistan's biggest defeat by India since 1971 —is one that goes to the heart of why it lost the Great South Asian War.
      p. 64: Afterwards, Musharraf and his supporters would claim that Pakistan won the war militarily and lost it diplomatically. In reality, the military and diplomatic tides turned against Pakistan in tandem.
      p. 66: For all its bravado, Pakistan had failed to secure even one inch of land.
      Less than a year after declaring itself a nuclear-armed power, Pakistan had been humiliated diplomatically and militarily.
    17. ^ a b Emily Wax (28 August 2008). "Peaceful Protests in Kashmir Alter Equation for India". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
    18. ^ a b Trofimov, Yaroslav (15 December 2008). "A New Tack in Kashmir". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
    19. ^ Shubh Mathur (2016). The Human Toll of the Kashmir Conflict: Grief and Courage in a South Asian Borderland. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-137-54622-7. writers like Baba (2014), Bose (2005), Schofield (2010) and Robinson (2013) see it as an indigenous Kashmiri response to the decades of political repression and the denial of the Kashmiri right to self-determination.
    20. ^ a b Iqbal, Sajid; Hossain, Zoheb; Mathur, Shubh (2014). "Reconciliation and truth in Kashmir: a case study". Race & Class. 56 (2): 51–65. doi:10.1177/0306396814542917. S2CID 147586397.
    21. ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. "Kashmir". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. The origins of the current insurgency in Kashmir relate to latent frustration among the population. Despite Indian promises to the Kashmiri people and the UN that a plebiscite would be held, the Indian government never allowed the Kashmiris to exercise their right of self-determination.
    22. ^ "2010 Kashmir Unrest – A recollection of what happened – The Vox Kashmir". The Vox Kashmir. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
    23. ^ Jason Burke (4 August 2010). "Kashmir unrest continues as more protesters die". the Guardian. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
    24. ^ "U.N. concerned over Kashmir unrest". Reuters. 3 August 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
    25. ^ "Kashmir's most wanted terrorist Burhan Wani killed in Anantnag encounter". India Today. Ist.
    26. ^ "Pakistan warns India against attacking". BBC News. 19 February 2019.
    27. ^ Kazi, Seema (2014), "RAPE, IMPUNITY AND JUSTICE IN KASHMIR" (PDF), Socio-Legal Review, 10: 14–46, archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2016, retrieved 21 July 2017
    28. ^ Kazi, Seema. Gender and Militarization in Kashmir. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Oxford University Press. Sordid and gruesome as the militant record of violence against Kashmiri women and civilians is, it does not compare with the scale and depth of abuse by Indian State forces for which justice has yet to be done.
    29. ^ "India: "Denied": Failures in accountability for human rights violations by security force personnel in Jammu and Kashmir". Amnesty International. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
    30. ^ Essa, Azad (10 September 2015). "India 'covering up abuses' in Kashmir: report". Al Jazeera.
     
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    22 October 1947 – The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan begins, having started just after the partition of India.

    Kashmir conflict

    India claims the entire erstwhile British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir based on an instrument of accession signed in 1947. Pakistan claims most of the region based on its Muslim-majority population, whereas China claims the largely uninhabited regions of Aksai Chin and the Shaksgam Valley.

    The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict over the Kashmir region, primarily between India and Pakistan, with China playing a third-party role.[1][2] The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a dispute over the region that escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls approximately 55% of the land area of the region that includes Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen Glacier,[3][4] and 70% of its population; Pakistan controls approximately 35% of the land area that includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan; and China controls the remaining 20% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Trans-Karakoram Tract, and part of the Demchok sector.[3][5][6][7][8][9][10] After the partition of India and a rebellion in the western districts of the state, Pakistani tribal militias invaded Kashmir, leading the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir to join India.[11] The resulting Indo-Pakistani War ended with a UN-mediated ceasefire along a line that was eventually named the Line of Control.[12][13] After further fighting in the wars of 1965 and 1971, the Simla Agreement formally established the Line of Control between the two nations' controlled territories.[14][15] In 1999, an armed conflict between India and Pakistan broke out again in Kargil with no effect on the status quo.[16]

    Since 1989, Kashmiri protest movements were created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government in the Indian-controlled Kashmir Valley,[17][18] with some Kashmiri separatists in armed conflict with the Indian government based on the demand for self-determination.[17][18][19][20][21] The 2010s were marked by further unrest erupting within the Kashmir Valley. The 2010 Kashmir unrest began after an alleged fake encounter between local youth and security forces.[22] Thousands of youths pelted security forces with rocks, burned government offices, and attacked railway stations and official vehicles in steadily intensifying violence.[23] The Indian government blamed separatists and Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based militant group, for stoking the 2010 protests.[24] The 2016 Kashmir unrest erupted after killing of a Hizbul Mujahideen militant, Burhan Wani, by Indian security forces.[25] Further unrest in the region erupted after the 2019 Pulwama attack.[26]

    According to scholars, Indian forces have committed many human rights abuses and acts of terror against the Kashmiri civilian population, including extrajudicial killing, rape, torture, and enforced disappearances.[20][27][28] According to Amnesty International, no member of the Indian military deployed in Jammu and Kashmir has been tried for human rights violations in a civilian court as of June 2015, although military courts-martial have been held.[29] Amnesty International has also accused the Indian government of refusing to prosecute perpetrators of abuses in the region.[30]

    1. ^ Yahuda, Michael (2 June 2002). "China and the Kashmir crisis". BBC. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
    2. ^ Chang, I-wei Jennifer (9 February 2017). "China's Kashmir Policies and Crisis Management in South Asia". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
    3. ^ a b Ie Ess Wor Reg Geog W/Cd. Thomson Learning EMEA. 2002. ISBN 9780534168100. India now holds about 55% of the old state of Kashmir, Pakistan 30%, and China 15%.
    4. ^ Malik, V. P. (2010). Kargil from Surprise to Victory (paperback ed.). HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 54. ISBN 9789350293133.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Time was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "Kashmir: region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
    7. ^ "Jammu & Kashmir". European Foundation for South Asian Studies. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
    8. ^ Snow, Shawn (19 September 2016). "Analysis: Why Kashmir Matters". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
    9. ^ Hobbs, Joseph J. (13 March 2008). World Regional Geography. CengageBrain. p. 314. ISBN 978-0495389507.
    10. ^ Margolis, Eric (2004). War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and Tibet (paperback ed.). Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 9781135955595.
    11. ^ Copland, Ian (Spring 2003), "War and Diplomacy in Kashmir: 1947-48 by C. Dasgupta (review)", Pacific Affairs, 76 (1): 144–145, JSTOR 40024025: "As is well known, this Hindu-ruled Muslim majority state could conceivably have joined either India or Pakistan, but procrastinated about making a choice until a tribal invasion - the term is not contentious - forced the ruler's hand."
    12. ^ Lyon, Peter (1 January 2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 80. ISBN 9781576077122.
    13. ^ "Kashmir | History, People, & Conflict". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015.
    14. ^ "Simla Agreement". Bilateral/Multilateral Documents. Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
    15. ^ Fortna, Virginia (2004). Peace time: cease-fire agreements and the durability of peace. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11512-2.
    16. ^ MacDonald, Myra (2017). Defeat is an Orphan: How Pakistan Lost the Great South Asian War. Oxford University Press. pp. 27, 53, 64, 66. ISBN 978-1-84904-858-3. p. 27: It was not so much that India won the Great South Asian War but that Pakistan lost it.
      p. 53: The story of the Kargil War—Pakistan's biggest defeat by India since 1971 —is one that goes to the heart of why it lost the Great South Asian War.
      p. 64: Afterwards, Musharraf and his supporters would claim that Pakistan won the war militarily and lost it diplomatically. In reality, the military and diplomatic tides turned against Pakistan in tandem.
      p. 66: For all its bravado, Pakistan had failed to secure even one inch of land.
      Less than a year after declaring itself a nuclear-armed power, Pakistan had been humiliated diplomatically and militarily.
    17. ^ a b Emily Wax (28 August 2008). "Peaceful Protests in Kashmir Alter Equation for India". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
    18. ^ a b Trofimov, Yaroslav (15 December 2008). "A New Tack in Kashmir". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
    19. ^ Shubh Mathur (2016). The Human Toll of the Kashmir Conflict: Grief and Courage in a South Asian Borderland. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-137-54622-7. writers like Baba (2014), Bose (2005), Schofield (2010) and Robinson (2013) see it as an indigenous Kashmiri response to the decades of political repression and the denial of the Kashmiri right to self-determination.
    20. ^ a b Iqbal, Sajid; Hossain, Zoheb; Mathur, Shubh (2014). "Reconciliation and truth in Kashmir: a case study". Race & Class. 56 (2): 51–65. doi:10.1177/0306396814542917. S2CID 147586397.
    21. ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. "Kashmir". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. The origins of the current insurgency in Kashmir relate to latent frustration among the population. Despite Indian promises to the Kashmiri people and the UN that a plebiscite would be held, the Indian government never allowed the Kashmiris to exercise their right of self-determination.
    22. ^ "2010 Kashmir Unrest – A recollection of what happened – The Vox Kashmir". The Vox Kashmir. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
    23. ^ Jason Burke (4 August 2010). "Kashmir unrest continues as more protesters die". the Guardian. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
    24. ^ "U.N. concerned over Kashmir unrest". Reuters. 3 August 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
    25. ^ "Kashmir's most wanted terrorist Burhan Wani killed in Anantnag encounter". India Today. Ist.
    26. ^ "Pakistan warns India against attacking". BBC News. 19 February 2019.
    27. ^ Kazi, Seema (2014), "RAPE, IMPUNITY AND JUSTICE IN KASHMIR" (PDF), Socio-Legal Review, 10: 14–46, archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2016, retrieved 21 July 2017
    28. ^ Kazi, Seema. Gender and Militarization in Kashmir. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Oxford University Press. Sordid and gruesome as the militant record of violence against Kashmiri women and civilians is, it does not compare with the scale and depth of abuse by Indian State forces for which justice has yet to be done.
    29. ^ "India: "Denied": Failures in accountability for human rights violations by security force personnel in Jammu and Kashmir". Amnesty International. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
    30. ^ Essa, Azad (10 September 2015). "India 'covering up abuses' in Kashmir: report". Al Jazeera.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    23 October 1642 – The Battle of Edgehill is the first major battle of the English Civil War.

    Battle of Edgehill

    The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642.

    All attempts at constitutional compromise between King Charles and Parliament broke down early in 1642. Both the King and Parliament raised large armies to gain their way by force of arms. In October, at his temporary base near Shrewsbury, the King decided to march to London in order to force a decisive confrontation with Parliament's main army, commanded by the Earl of Essex.

    Late on 22 October, both armies unexpectedly found the enemy to be close by. The next day, the Royalist army descended from Edge Hill to force battle. After the Parliamentarian artillery opened a cannonade, the Royalists attacked. Both armies consisted mostly of inexperienced and sometimes ill-equipped troops. Many men from both sides fled or fell out to loot enemy baggage, and neither army was able to gain a decisive advantage.

    After the battle, the King resumed his march on London, but was not strong enough to overcome the defending militia before Essex's army could reinforce them. The inconclusive result of the Battle of Edgehill prevented either faction from gaining a quick victory in the war, which eventually lasted four years.

    1. ^ a b Battle of Edgehill (1642).
    2. ^ Battle of Edgehill 23rd October 1642.
     

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