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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 September 1987 – The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion.

    Montreal Protocol

    Retrospective video on the Montreal Protocol and the collaboration between policy-makers, scientists, and industry leaders to regulate CFCs.
    The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on 26 August 1987, and entered into force on 16 September 1989, following a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone nine revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998 (Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali)[1][2][3] As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering.[4] Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070.[5][6] Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol".[7][8] In comparison, effective burden sharing and solution proposals mitigating regional conflicts of interest have been among the success factors for the ozone depletion challenge, where global regulation based on the Kyoto Protocol has failed to do so.[9] In this case of the ozone depletion challenge, there was global regulation already being installed before a scientific consensus was established. Also, overall public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks.[10][11]

    The two ozone treaties have been ratified by 197 parties (196 states and the European Union),[12] making them the first universally ratified treaties in United Nations history.[13]

    These truly universal treaties have also been remarkable in the expedience of the policy-making process at the global scale, where only 14 years lapsed between a basic scientific research discovery (1973) and the international agreement signed (1985 and 1987).

    1. ^ Hub, IISD's SDG Knowledge. "Kigali Amendment Enters into Force, Bringing Promise of Reduced Global Warming | News | SDG Knowledge Hub | IISD". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
    2. ^ McGrath, Matt (15 October 2016). "Deal reached on HFC greenhouse gases" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
    3. ^ "Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol". United Nations Environment Programme Ozone Secretariat. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
    4. ^ Ewenfeldt B, "Ozonlagret mår bättre", Arbetarbladet 12-9-2014, p. 10.
    5. ^ "Ozone Layer on Track to Recovery: Success Story Should Encourage Action on Climate". UNEP. UNEP. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
    6. ^ Susan Solomon; Anne R. Douglass; Paul A. Newman (July 2014). "The Antarctic ozone hole: An update". Physics Today. 67 (7): 42–48. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2449.
    7. ^ "The Ozone Hole-The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer". Theozonehole.com. 16 September 1987.
    8. ^ "Background for International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer - 16 September". www.un.org. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
    9. ^ Of Montreal and Kyoto: A Tale of Two Protocols by Cass R. Sunstein 38 ELR 10566 8/2008
    10. ^ Environmental Politics Climate Change and Knowledge Politics Archived 26 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine Reiner Grundmann, Vol. 16, No. 3, 414–432, June 2007
    11. ^ Technische Problemlösung, Verhandeln und umfassende Problemlösung, (eng. technical trouble shooting, negotiating and generic problem solving capability) in Gesellschaftliche Komplexität und kollektive Handlungsfähigkeit (Societys complexity and collective ability to act), ed. Schimank, U. (2000). Frankfurt/Main: Campus, p.154-182 book summary at the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archived 12 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
    12. ^ "Status of Ratification – The Ozone Secretariat". Ozone.unep.org. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
    13. ^ "UNEP press release: "South Sudan Joins Montreal Protocol and Commits to Phasing Out Ozone-Damaging Substances"". Unep.org.
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 September 1954 – The novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding is first published.

    Lord of the Flies

    Lord of the Flies is a 1954 novel by Nobel Prize–winning British author William Golding. The book focuses on a group of British boys stranded on an uninhabited island and their disastrous attempt to govern themselves.

    The novel has been generally well received. It was named in the Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 41 on the editor's list, and 25 on the reader's list. In 2003 it was listed at number 70 on the BBC's The Big Read poll, and in 2005 Time magazine named it as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.

    1. ^ "Bound books – a set on Flickr". Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
    2. ^ Amazon, "Lord of the Flies: Amazon.ca", Amazon
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 September 1988 – The 8888 Uprising in Myanmar comes to an end.

    8888 Uprising

    The 8888 Nationwide Popular Pro-Democracy Protests (MLCTS: hrac le: lum:), also known as the 8-8-88 Uprisings, or the People Power Uprising,[6] the People's Democracy Movement and the 1988 Uprising, were a series of nationwide protests,[7] marches and civil unrest[8] in Burma (Myanmar) that peaked in August 1988. Key events occurred on 8 August 1988 and therefore it is known as the 8888 Uprising.[9] The protests began as a student movement and were organised largely by university students at the Rangoon Arts and Sciences University and the Rangoon Institute of Technology (RIT).

    Since 1962, the Burma Socialist Programme Party had ruled the country as a totalitarian one-party state, headed by General Ne Win. Under the government agenda, called the Burmese Way to Socialism, which involved economic isolation and strengthening the military, Burma became one of the world's most impoverished countries.[10][11][12] Many firms in the formal sector of the economy were nationalised, and the government combined Soviet-style central planning with Buddhist and traditional beliefs.[12]

    The 8888 uprising was started by students in Yangon (Rangoon) on 8 August 1988. Student protests spread throughout the country.[3][10] Hundreds of thousands of monks, children, university students, housewives, doctors and common people protested against the government.[13][14] The uprising ended on 18 September after a bloody military coup by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Thousands of deaths have been attributed to the military during this uprising,[3][4][5] while authorities in Myanmar put the figure at around 350 people killed.[15][16]

    During the crisis, Aung San Suu Kyi emerged as a national icon. When the military junta arranged an election in 1990, her party, the National League for Democracy, won 81% of the seats in the government (392 out of 492).[17] However, the military junta refused to recognise the results and continued ruling the country as the State Law and Order Restoration Council. Aung San Suu Kyi was also put under house arrest. The State Law and Order Restoration Council would be a cosmetic change from the Burma Socialist Programme Party.[13] Suu Kyi's house arrest was lifted in 2010, when worldwide attention for her peaked again during the making of the biographical film The Lady.

    1. ^ Neeraj Gautam (2009). Buddha, his life & teachings. Mahavir & Sons Publisher. ISBN 81-8377-247-1.
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference f3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b c Ferrara (2003), pp. 313
    4. ^ a b Fogarty, Phillipa (7 August 2008). Was Burma's 1988 uprising worth it? Archived 12 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News.
    5. ^ a b Wintle (2007)
    6. ^ Yawnghwe (1995), pp. 170
    7. ^ Ferrara 302–3
    8. ^ "Hunger for food, leadership sparked Burma riots". Houston Chronicle. 11 August 1988.
    9. ^ Tweedie, Penny. (2008). Junta oppression remembered Archived 2 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters.
    10. ^ a b Burma Watcher (1989)
    11. ^ *Tallentire, Mark (28 September 2007). The Burma road to ruin Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian.
    12. ^ a b Woodsome, Kate. (7 October 2007). 'Burmese Way to Socialism' Drives Country into Poverty. Voice of America.
    13. ^ a b Steinberg (2002)
    14. ^ Aung-Thwin, Maureen. (1989). Burmese Days Archived 23 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Foreign Affairs.
    15. ^ Ottawa Citizen. 24 September 1988. pg. A.16
    16. ^ Associated Press. Chicago Tribune. 26 September 1988.
    17. ^ Wintle, p. 338.
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 September 1985A strong earthquake kills thousands and destroys about 400 buildings in Mexico City.

    1985 Mexico City earthquake

    The 1985 Mexico City earthquake struck in the early morning of 19 September at 07:17:50 (CST) with a moment magnitude of 8.0 and a Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The event caused serious damage to the Greater Mexico City area and the deaths of at least 5,000 people. The sequence of events included a foreshock of magnitude 5.2 that occurred the prior May, the main shock on 19 September, and two large aftershocks. The first of these occurred on 20 September with a magnitude of 7.5 and the second occurred seven months later on 30 April 1986 with a magnitude of 7.0. They were located off the coast along the Middle America Trench, more than 350 kilometres (220 mi) away, but the city suffered major damage due to its large magnitude and the ancient lake bed that Mexico City sits on. The event caused between three and four billion USD in damage as 412 buildings collapsed and another 3,124 were seriously damaged in the city.

    1. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference ISC-GEM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Ordaz, M.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Iglesias, A. (December 2017). "The deadly Morelos-Puebla, Mexico Intraslab Earthquake of 19 September 2017 (Mw7.1): Was the Earthquake Unexpected and Were the Ground Motions and Damage Pattern in Mexico City Abnormal?". American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2017, abstract #S33G-2950.
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NGDC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Moreno was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 September 1984 – A suicide bomber in a car attacks the U.S. embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing twenty-two people.

    1984 United States embassy annex bombing in Beirut

    On September 20, 1984, the Shi'a Islamic militant group Hezbollah, with support and direction from the Islamic Republic of Iran, carried out a suicide car bombing targeting the U.S. embassy annex in East Beirut, Lebanon. The attack killed 24 people.

    Hezbollah had also used suicide car or truck bombs in the April 1983 U.S. embassy bombing and the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings.

  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 September 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is published.

    The Hobbit

    The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature.

    The Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving Bilbo Baggins, the titular hobbit, to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.

    The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense. The story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

    Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are often noted as influences.

    The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.

    The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits.

  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 September 1499 – The Treaty of Basel concludes the Swabian War.

    Treaty of Basel (1499)

    Negotiations for the Treaty of Basel in 1499 at the end of the Swabian War. The Milanese envoy Galeazzo Visconti presents his peace proposals to the delegation of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I at the city hall of Basel. A delegate from Lucerne (front left, in the blue-white dress) translates.

    The Treaty of Basel of 22 September 1499 was an armistice following the Battle of Dornach, concluding the Swabian War, fought between the Swabian League and the Old Swiss Confederacy.[1]

    The treaty restored the status quo ante territorially. Eight out of the ten members in the League of the Ten Jurisdictions were confirmed as nominally subject to the Habsburgs, but their membership in the league and their alliance with the Swiss Confederacy was to remain in place.

    Jurisdiction over Thurgau, previously an Imperial loan to the city of Constance, was to pass to the Swiss Confederacy. The imperial ban and all embargoes against the Swiss cantons were to be discontinued.

    In 19th-century Swiss historiography, the treaty was presented as an important step towards de facto independence of the Swiss Confederacy from the Holy Roman Empire. In the words of Wilhelm Oechsli (1890), the treaty represented "the recognition of Swiss independence by Germany".

    This view has come to be viewed as untenable in 20th-century literature (Sigrist 1949, Mommsen 1958), as there is no indication that the leaders of the Confederacy at the time had any desire to distance themselves from the Empire. Nevertheless, the Confederacy was substantially strengthened as a polity within the Empire by the treaty, and an immediate consequence of this was the accession of Basel and Schaffhausen in 1501, as part of the expansion (1481–1513) from the late medieval Eight Cantons to the early modern Thirteen Cantons.[2]

    1. ^ Oechsli, Wilhelm; Paul, Eden; Paul, Cedar (1922). "III, Mercenary Campaigns in Italy". History of Switzerland, 1499-1914 (1922). Cambridge historical series. Ed. by Sir G.W. Prothero. Cambridge: University Press. p. 26. OCLC 2884964. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
    2. ^ Claudius Sieber-Lehmann: Basel, Frieden von (1499) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2004. "Obwohl weder die Wormser Beschlüsse von 1495 noch die Weigerung der Eidgenossen, diesen nachzukommen, erw. sind, sah die ältere schweiz. Historiografie im Frieden von B. einen Wendepunkt im Verhältnis zwischen Eidgenossenschaft und Reich; nach Wilhelm Oechsli wurde damals die "Unabhängigkeit der Schweiz von Seiten Deutschlands" (1890) anerkannt. Diese Meinung gilt heute als widerlegt. Die Berichte des Gesandten Solothurns von den Verhandlungen in B. zeigen vielmehr, dass die Eidgenossen wünschten, "gnedeclich wider zum Rich" gelassen zu werden. Bis ins 17. Jh. hielten die eidg. Orte an ihrer Zugehörigkeit zum Reich fest und waren z.B. bereit, für die Türkenkriege Truppen zu stellen oder Geld für den gleichen Zweck zu bezahlen. Die Konflikte mit dem Haus Österreich und der eidg. Widerstand gegen eine wachsende "Verdichtung" der "offenen" Reichsverfassung (Peter Moraw) schmälerten in der Eidgenossenschaft noch bis weit in die Frühneuzeit nicht das Ansehen des Reichs als oberster Schutzmacht der Christenheit.
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 September 1806Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Route of the expedition

    The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. It began in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,[1] made its way westward, and passed through the Continental Divide of the Americas to reach the Pacific coast. The Corps of Discovery was a selected group of US Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark.

    President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, and to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it. The campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and to establish trade with local American Indian tribes. The expedition returned to St. Louis to report its findings to Jefferson, with maps, sketches, and journals in hand.[2][3]

    1. ^ Bauder, Bob (March 10, 2019). "Pittsburgh recognized as starting point for Lewis and Clark expedition". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
    2. ^ Woodger, Toropov, 2009 p. 150
    3. ^ Ambrose, 1996, Chap. VI
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 September 1806Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Route of the expedition

    The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. It began in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,[1] made its way westward, and passed through the Continental Divide of the Americas to reach the Pacific coast. The Corps of Discovery was a selected group of US Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark.

    President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, and to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it. The campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and to establish trade with local American Indian tribes. The expedition returned to St. Louis to report its findings to Jefferson, with maps, sketches, and journals in hand.[2][3]

    1. ^ Bauder, Bob (March 10, 2019). "Pittsburgh recognized as starting point for Lewis and Clark expedition". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
    2. ^ Woodger, Toropov, 2009 p. 150
    3. ^ Ambrose, 1996, Chap. VI
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 September 2013 – A 7.7-magnitude earthquake strikes southern Pakistan, killing at least 327 people.

    2013 Balochistan earthquakes

    The 2013 Balochistan earthquakes took place in late September in southwestern Pakistan. The mainshock had a moment magnitude of 7.7 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong). At least 825 people were killed and hundreds more were injured. On 28 September, a M6.8 aftershock occurred to the north at a depth of 14.8 kilometres (9.2 miles), killing at least 22 people.[6][7]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference dynya was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference nation825 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference CNN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference indian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference aljaz27 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ "M6.8 - 96 kilometres NNE of Awaran, Pakistan". United States Geological Survey. 28 September 2013.
    7. ^ Agence France Presse (28 September 2013). "Powerful new Pakistan earthquake kills at least 22". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 September 1066 – The Battle of Stamford Bridge sees the defeat of Harald Hardrada by King Harold II of England.

    Battle of Stamford Bridge

    Coordinates: 53°59′20″N 0°54′11″W / 53.989°N 0.903°W / 53.989; -0.903

    The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson. After a bloody battle, both Hardrada and Tostig along with most of the Norwegians were killed. Although Harold Godwinson repelled the Norwegian invaders, his army was defeated by the Normans at Hastings less than three weeks later. The battle has traditionally been presented as symbolising the end of the Viking Age, although major Scandinavian campaigns in Britain and Ireland occurred in the following decades, such as those of King Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark in 1069–1070 and King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in 1098 and 1102–1103.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, p. 199 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ While the initial invasion force required 300 longships to carry 10,000 troops (Jones, Charles (2011). Finding Fulford. London: WritersPrintShop. pp. 202-203), only 24 ships, or 8% of the fleet, were needed to carry back the survivors after Stamford Bridge ("Anglo-Saxon Chronicles", p. 199).
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 September 2002 – The overcrowded Senegalese ferry, MV Le Joola, capsizes off the coast of the Gambia killing more than 1,000.

    MV Le Joola

    MV Le Joola was a Senegalese government-owned roll-on/roll-off ferry that capsized off the coast of The Gambia on 26 September 2002,[1] with 1,863 deaths and 64 survivors. It is thought to be the second-worst non-military disaster in maritime history.

    The ship was plying the route from Ziguinchor in the Casamance region to the Senegalese capital, Dakar, when it ran into a violent storm, farther out to sea than it was licensed to sail. The estimated 2000 passengers aboard (about half of whom lacked tickets) would have amounted to at least three times the ship's design capacity. The large numbers sleeping on-deck (and thus above its center of buoyancy) added further instability. Rescue operations did not start for several hours.

    A government inquiry principally blamed negligence, and accusations were levelled at both the Senegalese president and prime minister.

    1. ^ "Hundreds lost as Senegal ferry sinks". BBC News. 27 September 2002.
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 September 1066William the Conqueror and his army set sail from the mouth of the Somme river, beginning the Norman conquest of England.

    William the Conqueror

    William I[a] (c. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][b] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. He was a descendant of Rollo and was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. His hold was secure on Normandy by 1060, following a long struggle to establish his throne, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son, Robert Curthose.

    William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by his mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy which plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047, William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process that was not complete until about 1060. His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointment of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church. His consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and he secured control of the neighbouring county of Maine by 1062.

    In the 1050s and early 1060s, William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson whom Edward named as king on his deathbed in January 1066. Arguing that Edward had previously promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support his claim, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066. He decisively defeated and killed Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts, William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 in London. He made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but William's hold was mostly secure on England by 1075, allowing him to spend the majority of his reign on the continent.

    William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his son Robert, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes. In 1086, he ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all the land-holdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. He died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, and was buried in Caen. His reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, settling a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but continued to administer each part separately. His lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to Robert Curthose, and England went to his second surviving son William Rufus.

    1. ^ a b Bates William the Conqueror p. 33
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference DNB was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 September 1994 – The cruise ferry MS Estonia sinks in the Baltic Sea, killing 852 people.

    MS Estonia

    MS Estonia, previously Viking Sally (1980–1990), Silja Star (1990–1991), and Wasa King (1991–1993), was a cruise ferry built in 1979/80 at the German shipyard Meyer Werft in Papenburg. The ship sank in 1994 in the Baltic Sea in one of the worst maritime disasters of the 20th century.[2][3] It is the second-deadliest peacetime sinking of a European ship, after the RMS Titanic, and the deadliest peacetime shipwreck to have occurred in European waters, with 852 lives lost.[4]

    Coordinates: 59°23′0″N 21°40′0″E / 59.38333°N 21.66667°E / 59.38333; 21.66667

    1. ^ a b Final report on the capsizing on 28 September 1994 in the Baltic Sea of the Ro-Ro passenger vessel MN Estonia, Chapter 3: The vessel. The Joint Accident Investigation Commission of Estonia, Finland and Sweden, December 1997.
    2. ^ Soomer, H.; Ranta, H.; Penttilä, A. (2001). "Identification of victims from the M/S Estonia". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 114 (4–5): 259–262. doi:10.1007/s004140000180. PMID 11355406.
    3. ^ Boesten, E. (2006): The M/S Estonia Disaster and the Treatment of Human Remains. In: Bierens, J.J.L.M. (ed.): Handbook on Drowning: 650–652. ISBN 978-3-540-43973-8.
    4. ^ "Estonia shipwreck investigator and nautical linguist Captain Uno Laur dies". ERR. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 September 1911 – Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

    Italo-Turkish War

    The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Turkish: Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912. As a result of this conflict, Italy captured the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (province), of which the main sub-provinces (sanjaks) were Fezzan, Cyrenaica, and Tripoli itself. These territories together formed what became known as Italian Libya.

    During the conflict, Italian forces also occupied the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea. Italy had agreed to return the Dodecanese to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Ouchy[8] in 1912. However, the vagueness of the text allowed a provisional Italian administration of the islands, and Turkey eventually renounced all claims on these islands in Article 15 of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.[9]

    Although minor, the war was a significant precursor of the First World War as it sparked nationalism in the Balkan states. Seeing how easily the Italians had defeated the weakened Ottomans, the members of the Balkan League attacked the Ottoman Empire starting the First Balkan War before the war with Italy had ended.

    The Italo-Turkish War saw numerous technological changes, notably the airplane. On October 23, 1911, an Italian pilot, Captain Carlo Piazza, flew over Turkish lines on the world's first aerial reconnaissance mission,[10] and on November 1, the first ever aerial bomb was dropped by Sottotenente Giulio Gavotti, on Turkish troops in Libya, from an early model of Etrich Taube aircraft.[11] The Turks, lacking anti-aircraft weapons, were the first to shoot down an aeroplane by rifle fire.[12] Another use of new technology was a network of wireless telegraphy stations established soon after the initial landings.[13] Guglielmo Marconi himself came to Libya to conduct experiments with the Italian Corps of Engineers.

    1. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (25 March 2018). "The Encyclopedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information". The Encyclopedia Britannica Co. Retrieved 25 March 2018 – via Google Books.
    2. ^ Italy. Esercito. Corpo di stato maggiore (1914). The Italo-Turkish War (1911–12). Franklin Hudson Publishing Company. p. 13.
    3. ^ a b c The History of the Italian-Turkish War, William Henry Beehler, p.13-36
    4. ^ a b World War I: A Student Encyclopedia, Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 946
    5. ^ a b Emigrant nation: the making of Italy abroad, Mark I. Choate, Harvard University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-674-02784-1, page 176.
    6. ^ James C. Bradford: International Encyclopedia of Military History, Routledge 2006, page 674
    7. ^ Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts: World War I: A Student Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-879-8, page 946.
    8. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne, October, 1912". www.mtholyoke.edu. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    9. ^ "Treaty of Lausanne - World War I Document Archive". wwi.lib.byu.edu. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    10. ^ Maksel, Rebecca. "The World's First Warplane". airspacemag.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    11. ^ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission: Aviation at the Start of the First World War Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine
    12. ^ James D. Crabtree: On air defense, ISBN 0275947920, Greenwood Publishing Group, page 9
    13. ^ Wireless telegraphy in the Italo-Turkish War
  16. Admin2

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    30 September 1941 – World War II: The Babi Yar massacre comes to an end.

    Babi Yar

    Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Russian: Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II. The first, and best documented, of the massacres took place on 29–30 September 1941, killing approximately 33,771 Jews. The decision to kill all the Jews in Kiev was made by the military governor Generalmajor Kurt Eberhard, the Police Commander for Army Group South, SS-Obergruppenführer Friedrich Jeckeln, and the Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. Sonderkommando 4a soldiers, along with the aid of the SD and SS Police Battalions with the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police backed by the Wehrmacht carried out the orders.[1][2][3]

    The massacre was the largest mass killing under the auspices of the Nazi regime and its collaborators during its campaign against the Soviet Union[4] and has been called "the largest single massacre in the history of the Holocaust" to that particular date,[5] and surpassed overall only by the later 1941 Odessa massacre of more than 50,000 Jews in October 1941 (committed by German and Romanian troops) and by Aktion Erntefest of November 1943 in occupied Poland with 42,000–43,000 victims.[6][need quotation to verify]

    Victims of other massacres at the site included Soviet prisoners of war, communists, Ukrainian nationalists and Roma.[7][8][9] It is estimated that between 100,000 and 150,000 people were killed at Babi Yar during the German occupation.[10]

    1. ^ Karel C. Berkhoff (May 28, 2008). "Babi Yar Massacre". The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. p. 303. ISBN 0253001595. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
    2. ^ "Holocaust in Kiev and the Tragedy of Babi Yar | www.yadvashem.org". historical-background3.html. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112.
    5. ^ Wendy Lower, "From Berlin to Babi Yar. The Nazi War Against the Jews, 1941–1944" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2014-04-24.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Journal of Religion & Society, Volume 9 (2007). The Kripke Center, Towson University. I.S.S.N 1522–5658. Retrieved from Internet Archive, May 24, 2013.
    6. ^ Browning, Christopher R. (1992–1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 135–142. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
    7. ^ Hoffman, Avi (23 October 2011). "A Museum for Babi Yar". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference BYUnk2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference BYUnk1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 978-0-8020-7820-9.
  17. Admin2

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    1 October 1947 – The North American F-86 Sabre flies for the first time

    North American F-86 Sabre

    The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft. Produced by North American Aviation, the Sabre is best known as the United States' first swept-wing fighter that could counter the swept-wing Soviet MiG-15 in high-speed dogfights in the skies of the Korean War (1950–1953), fighting some of the earliest jet-to-jet battles in history. Considered one of the best and most important fighter aircraft in that war, the F-86 is also rated highly in comparison with fighters of other eras.[3] Although it was developed in the late 1940s and was outdated by the end of the 1950s, the Sabre proved versatile and adaptable and continued as a front-line fighter in numerous air forces until the last active operational examples were retired by the Bolivian Air Force in 1994.[citation needed]

    Its success led to an extended production run of more than 7,800 aircraft between 1949 and 1956, in the United States, Japan, and Italy. Variants were built in Canada and Australia. The Canadair Sabre added another 1,815 airframes, and the significantly redesigned CAC Sabre (sometimes known as the Avon Sabre or CAC CA-27), had a production run of 112. The Sabre is by far the most-produced Western jet fighter, with total production of all variants at 9,860 units.[1]

    1. ^ a b Winchester 2006, p. 184.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference knaack was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "MiG-15 'Fagot'." Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine mnangmuseum.org. Retrieved: 19 July 2011.
  18. Admin2

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    2 October 2002 – The Beltway sniper attacks begin, extending over three weeks.

    D.C. sniper attacks

    The D.C. sniper attacks (also known as the Beltway sniper attacks) were a series of coordinated shootings that occurred during three weeks in October 2002, in the states of Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Ten people were killed and three others were critically wounded in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area and along Interstate 95 in Virginia.

    The snipers were John Allen Muhammad (aged 41 at the time) and Lee Boyd Malvo (aged 17 at the time), who traveled in a blue 1990 Chevrolet Caprice sedan. Their crime spree, begun in February 2002, included murders and robberies in the states of Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, and Washington, which resulted in seven deaths and seven wounded people; in ten months, the snipers killed 17 people and wounded 10 others.[1]

    In September 2003, Muhammad was sentenced to death, and in October, the juvenile, Malvo, was sentenced to six consecutive life sentences without parole. In November 2009, Muhammad was put to death by lethal injection.

    In 2017, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit vacated Malvo's three life sentences without parole in Virginia on appeal, with re-sentencing ordered pursuant to the Supreme Court's ruling in the case of Miller v. Alabama, 567 U.S. ___, 132 S.Ct. 2455 (2012), which held that mandatory life sentences for juvenile criminals without possibility of parole violated the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari, with oral arguments scheduled for October 16, 2019.[2] Should he be resentenced, Malvo's minimum prison sentence will be determined by a judge; the available maximum sentence would be life imprisonment. The ruling does not apply to the six life sentences Malvo received in Maryland.[3]

    1. ^ "Sniper reportedly details 4 new shootings". kxmb.com. AP. June 16, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007.
    2. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court Monthly Calendar, October 2019" (PDF). Retrieved October 10, 2019.
    3. ^ Jackman, Tom (28 May 2017). "Federal judge tosses life sentences for convicted beltway sniper Lee Boyd Malvo". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  19. Admin2

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    3 October 1963A violent coup in Honduras begins two decades of military rul

    1963 Honduran coup d'état

    The 1963 Honduran coup d'état was a military takeover of the Honduran government on 3 October 1963, ten days before a scheduled election. Oswaldo López Arellano replaced Ramón Villeda Morales as the President of the country and initiated two decades of military rule.

    Villeda Morales had instituted progressive labor laws and an agrarian reform policy, which prompted accusations of Communist sympathies from the right wing in Honduras and the United States. His intention to expropriate land from United Fruit Company, though never carried out, was a particular source of friction.

    Civil–military relations in Honduras had deteriorated since 1957. A coup attempt in 1959, suppressed by students and unionist supporters of Villeda Morales, provoked intense hostility towards the military, as well as the creation of an autonomous presidential guard. Politicians discussed abolishing the military. Modesto Rodas Alvarado, the Liberal Party's candidate for president, ran on a demilitarization platform and was expected to win the election on 13 October 1963. The military acted pre-emptively and seized control of the government.

  20. Admin2

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    4 October 2003 – The Maxim restaurant suicide bombing Israel kills twenty-one Israelis, both Jews and Arabs.

    Maxim restaurant suicide bombing

    The Maxim restaurant suicide bombing was a suicide bombing which occurred on October 4, 2003 in the beachfront "Maxim" restaurant in Haifa, Israel. Twenty-one people were killed in the attack and 51 were injured. Among the victims were two families and four children, including a two-month-old baby.

    The restaurant, which is located at the seafront near the southern boundary of the city of Haifa, was frequently attended by both Arab and Jewish local populations, and was widely seen as a symbol of peaceful coexistence in Haifa.

    Militant organization Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. It was condemned by Palestinian President Yasser Arafat. The restaurant's interior was destroyed by the blast (it was completely rebuilt seven months after the attack).

  21. Admin2

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    5 October 1948 – The Ashgabat earthquake kills between 10,000 and 110,000 people.

    1948 Ashgabat earthquake

    The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake (Turkmen: 1948 Ашгабат ыер титремеси; 1948 Aşgabat yer titremesi; Russian: Ашхабадское землетрясение 1948 года; Ashkhabadskoye zemletryasenie 1948 goda) occurred on 6 October with a surface wave magnitude of 7.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock occurred in Turkmenistan near Ashgabat. Due to censorship by the Turkmen government, the event was not widely reported in the USSR's media. Historians tend to agree that the ban on reporting the extent of the casualties and damage did not allow the Soviet government to allocate enough financial resources to adequately respond.[3]

    1. ^ "Comments for the significant earthquake". Significant Earthquake Database. National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference PAGER-CAT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "List of the main Literature about the Ashkhabad Earthquake", Herald of the DGGGMS RAS, State registration number 0329700126, 2 (4), 1998
  22. Admin2

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    6 October 1981 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is murdered by Islamic extremists.

    Assassination of Anwar Sadat

    The assassination of Anwar Sadat occurred on 6 October 1981. Anwar Sadat, the President of Egypt, was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Operation Badr, during which the Egyptian Army had crossed the Suez Canal and taken back a small part of the Sinai Peninsula from Israel at the beginning of the Yom Kippur War.[1] A fatwa approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman, a cleric later convicted in the US for his role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.[2] The assassination was undertaken by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.[3]

    1. ^ "1981 Year in Review: Anwar Sadat Killed". UPI. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
    2. ^ Young, Jan (14 December 2010). The Assassins. lulu.com. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-557-95274-8.
    3. ^ "Sadat as a president of Egypt". News Egypt. 8 October 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  23. Admin2

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    7 October 1996Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

    Fox News

    Fox News (officially Fox News Channel and abbreviated FNC) is an American conservative[1][2] pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, and Fox Corporation since 2019. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide,[3] with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks.

    The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO.[4][5] It launched on October 7, 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers.[6] Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the U.S.[7] As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 US households (81.4% of television subscribers) receive Fox News.[8] Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO.[9][10]

    Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations, and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.[11][12][13][14] Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall.[15][16] Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, and have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives".[17] During Trump's presidency, observers have noted a pronounced tendency of Fox News to serve as a "mouthpiece" for the administration, providing "propaganda" and a "feedback loop" for Trump, with one presidential scholar stating, "it’s the closest we’ve come to having state TV."[18][19][20][21][22]

    1. ^ DellaVigna, Stefano; Kaplan, Ethan (August 1, 2007). "The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 122 (3): 1187–1234. doi:10.1162/qjec.122.3.1187. ISSN 0033-5533.
    2. ^ Nie, Norman H.; Iii, Darwin W. Miller; Golde, Saar; Butler, Daniel M.; Winneg, Kenneth (2010). "The World Wide Web and the U.S. Political News Market". American Journal of Political Science. 54 (2): 428–439. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00439.x. ISSN 1540-5907.
    3. ^ "Where in the World is FOX?". Fox News. March 1, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
    4. ^ Mifflin, Lawrie (October 7, 1996). "At the new Fox News Channel, the buzzword is fairness, separating news from bias". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
    5. ^ "Divisive Ailes gave conservatives a TV home at Fox News". July 21, 2016 – via www.reuters.com.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference King was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Gillette, Felix (October 1, 2008). "Viewers Continuing to Flock to Cable News Networks". The New York Observer.
    8. ^ Seidman, Robert (February 22, 2015). "List of how many homes each cable network is in as of February 2015". TV by the Numbers. Zap2it. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
    9. ^ Steinberg, Brian (May 17, 2018). "Suzanne Scott Named CEO of Fox News". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
    10. ^ "Roger Ailes Resigns From Fox News Amid Sexual Harassment Accusations". Time. July 21, 2016.
      "Roger Ailes leaves Fox News in wake of sexual harassment claims". The Guardian. July 21, 2016.
    11. ^ Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (September 1, 2016). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 5, 8, 86, 123, 125, 130–140. ISBN 9780190633660. the challenge of spreading and germinating the Tea Party idea was surmounted with impressive ease because a major sector of the U.S. media today is openly partisan—including Fox News Channel, the right-wing "blogosphere," and a nationwide network of right- wing talk radio programs. This aptly named conservative media "echo chamber" reaches into the homes of many Americans ... Towering above all others is the Fox News empire, the loudest voice in conservative media. Despite its claim to be "fair and balanced," multiple studies have documented Fox's conservative stance ... Fox News's conservative slant encourages a particular worldview.
    12. ^ Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Cappella, Joseph N. (February 4, 2010). Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195398601. We do this to illustrate the ways Fox News, Limbaugh, and the print and web editorial pages of the Wall Street Journal play both offense and defense in service of conservative objectives. As these case studies will suggest, the big three reinforce each other's conservative messages in ways that distinguish them from the other major broadcast media, CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, MSNBC, and major print outlets such as the Washington Post and New York Times.
    13. ^ Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (October 13, 2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780190626600.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference :34 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Anthony Collings (2010). Capturing the News: Three Decades of Reporting Crisis and Conflict. University of Missouri Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8262-7211-9.
    16. ^ Jonathan McCollum; David G. Hebert (2014). Theory and Method in Historical Ethnomusicology. Lexington Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-4985-0705-9.
    17. ^ Memmott, Mark (September 2, 2004). "Fox newspeople say allegations of bias unfounded". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2009. "White House Escalates War of Words With Fox News". Fox News. October 12, 2009. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
    18. ^ Mayer, Jane (March 4, 2019). "The Making of the Fox News White House" – via www.newyorker.com.
    19. ^ Illing, Sean (March 22, 2019). "How Fox News evolved into a propaganda operation". Vox.
    20. ^ Boot, Max. "Fox News Has Completed Its Transformation Into Trump TV".
    21. ^ "Inside the unprecedented partnership between Fox News and the Trump White House". PBS NewsHour. March 5, 2019.
    22. ^ ""Destructive propaganda machine": How current and former staffers have ripped into Fox News". Media Matters for America. July 9, 2019.
  24. Admin2

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    8 October 1982 – Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.

    Solidarity (Polish trade union)

    Solidarity (Polish: Solidarność, pronounced [sɔlʲiˈdarnɔɕtɕ] (About this soundlisten); full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność" [ɲezaˈlɛʐnɨ samɔˈʐɔndnɨ ˈzvjɔ̃zɛk zavɔˈdɔvɨ sɔlʲiˈdarnɔɕtɕ]) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.[1] It was the first trade union in a Warsaw Pact country that was not controlled by a communist party. Its membership peaked at 10 million members at its September 1981 Congress,[2][3] which constituted one third of the total working-age population of Poland.[4]

    In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change.[5] The government attempted to destroy the union by imposing martial law in Poland, which lasted from December 1981 to July 1983 and was followed by several years of political repression from 8 October 1982, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with Solidarity. In the union's clandestine years, Pope John Paul II and the United States provided significant financial support, estimated to be as much as 50 million US dollars.[6]

    The round table talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August, a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed. In December 1990, Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then, Solidarity has become a more traditional liberal trade union. Its membership had dropped to 680,000 by 2010[3] and 400,000 by 2011.[2]

    1. ^ a b Guardian newspaper report Retrieved 22 June 2009
    2. ^ a b c (in Polish) 30 lat po Sierpniu'80: "Solidarność zakładnikiem własnej historii" Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 7 June 2011
    3. ^ a b c (in Polish) Duda za Śniadka? by Maciej Sandecki and Marek Wąs, Gazeta Wyborcza of 24 August 2010
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Official was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Aleksander Smolar, '"Self-limiting Revolution": Poland 1970–89', in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6, pp. 127–43.
    6. ^ Tony Judt (2005). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. The Penguin Press. p. 589.
  25. Admin2

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    9 October 1950 – The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre in Korea begins.

    Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre

    Goyang Geunjeong cave, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

    The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre (Korean: 고양 금정굴 민간인 학살[1][4] Hanja: 高陽衿井窟民間人虐殺[1][4] Goyang Geunjeong Cave civilian massacre[1][4]) was a massacre of over 153 unarmed civilians conducted between 9 October 1950 and 31 October 1950 by police in Goyang, Gyeonggi-do district of South Korea.[1][4][5] After the victory of the Second Battle of Seoul, South Korean authorities arrested and summarily executed several individuals along with their families on suspicion of sympathizing with North Korea.[4] The killings in Goyang coincided with the Namyangju Massacre in nearby Namyangju.[6]

    In 1995 the bodies of the 153 victims were excavated by their families.[7] In June 2006 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission demanded that the South Korean government apologize and erect a monument for the victims.[7] However, the government did not show any intention of following through on the TRCK recommendation.[7] In 2007 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission again demanded that the government apologize, provide compensation, and erect a memorial for the victims; however, the government still refused.[8][9][5] The Truth and Reconciliation Commission also clarified most of the victims, including 8 teenagers and 7 women, had no relation to rebels.[5]

    On November 28, 2011, the Seoul central court ordered the South Korean government to apologize, pay reparations and fund a memorial to the victims' families.[1]

    1. ^ a b c d e f Hwang Chun-hwa (2011-11-29). "고양 금정굴 민간인 학살…법원 "유족에 국가배상을"". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
    2. ^ a b c "Goyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre memorial service". Hankyoreh. February 9, 2010. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
    3. ^ In 2007 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission clarified the number of victims was 153. -Hankyoreh 2011-11-29
    4. ^ a b c d e f "'고양 금정굴 민간인 학살사건' 유족에게 1억원 국가 배상 판결 "헌법에 보장된 기본권인 신체의 자유와 적법절차에 따라 재판받을 권리 등 침해"". CBS. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
    5. ^ a b c Song Gyeong-hwa (2010-07-05). "'금정굴 학살사건' 국가상대 소송". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
    6. ^ Charles J. Hanley (December 6, 2008). "Children 'executed' in 1950 South Korean killings". San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
    7. ^ a b c Park Gyeong-man (2011-09-19). "고양 금정굴 민간인 학살…법원 "유족에 국가배상을"". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
    8. ^ "'고양 금정굴 사건' 유족에 1억 배상". Dong-a Ilbo; Yonhap News Agency. 2011-11-29. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
    9. ^ "'고양 금정굴 사건' 유족에 1억 배상". Chosun Ilbo. 2011-11-29. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  26. Admin2

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    10 October 1967 – The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.

    Outer Space Treaty

    The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2019, 109 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1] In addition, Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971.[5]

    Among the Outer Space Treaty's main points are that it prohibits the placing of nuclear weapons in space, it limits the use of the Moon and all other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes only, and establishes that space shall be free for exploration and use by all nations, but that no nation may claim sovereignty of outer space or any celestial body. The Outer Space Treaty does not ban military activities within space, military space forces, or the weaponization of space, with the exception of the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space.[6][7]

    1. ^ a b "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference UK was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference US was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference RU was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference unodacn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Shakouri Hassanabadi, Babak (30 July 2018). "Space Force and international space law". The Space Review. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    7. ^ Irish, Adam (13 September 2018). "The Legality of a U.S. Space Force". OpinioJuris. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  27. Admin2

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    11 October 1991Prof. Anita Hill delivers her televised testimony concerning sexual harassment during the Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination

    Anita Hill

    Anita Faye Hill (born July 30, 1956) is an American lawyer and academic. She is a university professor of social policy, law, and women's studies at Brandeis University and a faculty member of the university's Heller School for Social Policy and Management.[3] She became a national figure in 1991 when she accused U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, her supervisor at the United States Department of Education and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, of sexual harassment.[4]

    1. ^ Anita Hill (2011). Speaking Truth to Power. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 53. ISBN 9780307779663.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference haven't really was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference faculty profile was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference historical was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 October 1810 – The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest.


    Coordinates: 48°7′53″N 11°32′57″E / 48.13139°N 11.54917°E / 48.13139; 11.54917

    Oktoberfest (German pronunciation: [ɔkˈtoːbɐˌfɛst]) is the world's largest Volksfest (beer festival and travelling funfair). Held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, it is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid or late September to the first Sunday in October, with more than six million people from around the world attending the event every year. Locally, it is often called the Wiesn, after the colloquial name for the fairgrounds, Theresa's meadows (Theresienwiese). The Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture, having been held since the year 1810. Other cities across the world also hold Oktoberfest celebrations that are modeled after the original Munich event.

    During the event, large quantities of Oktoberfest Beer are consumed: during the 16-day festival in 2013, for example, 7.7 million litres (66,000 US bbl; 1,700,000 imp gal) were served.[1] Visitors also enjoy numerous attractions, such as amusement rides, sidestalls, and games. There is also a wide variety of traditional foods available.

    The Munich Oktoberfest originally took place in the 16-day period leading up to the first Sunday in October. In 1994, this longstanding schedule was modified in response to German reunification. As such, if the first Sunday in October falls on the 1st or the 2nd, then the festival would run until 3 October (German Unity Day). Thus, the festival now runs for 17 days when the first Sunday is 2 October and 18 days when it is 1 October. In 2010, the festival lasted until the first Monday in October (4 October), to mark the event's bicentennial.

    1. ^ "Oktoberfest Beer Consumption".
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 October 1972Aeroflot Flight 217 crashes outside Moscow, killing 174.

    Aeroflot Flight 217

    Aeroflot Flight 217 was a non-scheduled international passenger flight from Orly Airport in Paris to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, with a stopover at Shosseynaya Airport (now Pulkovo Airport) in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). On 13 October 1972, the Ilyushin Il-62 airliner operating the flight crashed on approach to Sheremetyevo, with the loss of all 164 passengers and crew of 10. The fatalities include 118 Russians, 38 Chileans, 6 Algerians, one East German, and one Australian.[1] At the time, it was the world's deadliest aviation disaster, until it was surpassed by the Kano air disaster in 1973.[2] As of 2016, the accident remains the second-deadliest one involving an Il-62, after LOT Flight 5055, and the second-deadliest on Russian soil, after Aeroflot Flight 3352.[3][4][5]

    1. ^ [1]
    2. ^ Leddington, Roger (16 October 1972). "Death toll at 176 in Russian crash". Nashua Telegraph. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
    3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62 CCCP-86671 Moskva-Sheremetyevo Airport (SVO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
    4. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62M SP-LBG Warszawa-Okecie Airport (WAW)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
    5. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 154B-1 CCCP-85243 Omsk Airport (OMS)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 October 1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

    War on drugs

    As part of the War on Drugs, the U.S. spends approximately $500 million per year on aid for Colombia, largely used to combat guerrilla groups such as FARC that are involved in the illegal drug trade.[1][2][3][4][5]

    The war on drugs is a campaign, led by the U.S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade in the United States.[6][7][8][9] The initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal. The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, and the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs".[10][11][12] However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a "war on drugs" that would be directed toward eradication, interdiction, and incarceration.[13] Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, estimates that the United States spends $51 billion annually on these initiatives.[14]

    On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)—signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to significantly alter drug enforcement policy, but also that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive".[15] ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be successfully prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe".[16]

    In June 2011, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed."[17] The report was criticized by organizations that oppose a general legalization of drugs.[16]

    1. ^ "Colombia Program At-A-Glance" (PDF). usaid.gov. United States Agency for International Development. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
    2. ^ Bennett, Brian (June 9, 2011). "U.S. can't justify its drug war spending, reports say". Los Angeles Times.
    3. ^ Drug War Clock. DrugSense (December 31, 1995).
    4. ^ Vulliamy, Ed (April 3, 2011). "How a big US bank laundered billions from Mexico's murderous drug gangs". The Guardian. London.
    5. ^ Congress: US Wasting Billions in War on Drugs – Pair of reports blast counter-narcotics spending in Latin America. Newser.com.
    6. ^ Baum, Writer Dan. "Legalize All Drugs? The 'Risks Are Tremendous' Without Defining The Problem". NPR.org.
    7. ^ "(And) Richard Nixon was the one who coined the phrase, 'war on drugs.'"
    8. ^ Cockburn and St. Clair, 1998: Chapter 14
    9. ^ Bullington, Bruce; Alan A. Block (March 1990). "A Trojan horse: Anti-communism and the war on drugs". Crime, Law and Social Change. 14 (1): 39–55. doi:10.1007/BF00728225. ISSN 1573-0751.
    10. ^ "Richard Nixon: Special Message to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control".
    11. ^ "Nixon Calls War on Drugs". The Palm Beach Post. June 18, 1971. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
    12. ^ Dufton, Emily (March 26, 2012). "The War on Drugs: How President Nixon Tied Addiction to Crime". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
    13. ^ Payan, Tony (2013). A War that Can't Be Won. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
    14. ^ "Drug War Statistics". Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
    15. ^ Fields, Gary (May 14, 2009). "White House Czar Calls for End to 'War on Drugs'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
    16. ^ a b Global Commission on Drug Policy Offers Reckless, Vague Drug Legalization Proposal, Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc, July 12, 2011 Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF).
    17. ^ War on Drugs. The Global Commission on Drug Policy. 2011. p. 24.
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 October 1966 – The Black Panther Party is founded.

    Black Panther Party

    The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a revolutionary political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966 in Oakland, California.[2][3] The party was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982, with chapters in numerous major cities, and international chapters operating in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s,[4] and in Algeria from 1969 until 1972.[5]

    At its inception on October 15, 1966,[6] the Black Panther Party's core practice was its armed citizens' patrols to monitor the behavior of officers of the Oakland Police Department, a practice later known as "copwatching", and challenge police brutality in the city.

    In 1969, community social programs became a core activity of party members.[7] The Black Panther Party instituted a variety of community social programs, most extensively the Free Breakfast for Children Programs, to address issues like food injustice, and community health clinics for education and treatment of diseases including sickle cell anemia, tuberculosis, and later HIV/AIDS.[8][9][10]

    Black Panther Party members were involved in many fatal firefights with police: Huey Newton allegedly killed officer John Frey in 1967, and Eldridge Cleaver led an ambush in 1968 of Oakland police officers, in which two officers were wounded and Panther Bobby Hutton was killed. The party suffered many internal conflicts, resulting in the murders of Alex Rackley and Betty Van Patter.

    In 1967, the Mulford Act was passed by the California legislature and signed into law by governor Ronald Reagan, establishing strict gun laws that stripped legal ownership of firearms from Black Panther members and prevented all citizens, black and white, from carrying firearms in public.

    In 1969, Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover described the party as "the greatest threat to the internal security of the country."[11][12][13] He developed and supervised an extensive counterintelligence program (COINTELPRO) of surveillance, infiltration, perjury, police harassment, and many other tactics, designed to undermine Panther leadership, incriminate and assassinate party members, discredit and criminalize the Party, and drain organizational resources and manpower. The program was responsible for the assassination of Fred Hampton,[14] and is accused of assassinating other Black Panther members, including Mark Clark.[15][16][17][18]

    Government persecution initially contributed to the party's growth, as killings and arrests of Panthers increased its support among African Americans, and on the broad political left, who both valued the Panthers as a powerful force opposed to de facto segregation and the military draft. The party enrolled the most members and had the most influence in the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Area, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Philadelphia.[19] There were active chapters in many prisons, at a time when an increasing number of young African-American men were being incarcerated.

    Black Panther Party membership reached a peak in 1970, with offices in 68 cities and thousands of members, it began to decline over the following decade. After its leaders and members were vilified by the mainstream press, public support for the party waned, and the group became more isolated.[20] In-fighting among Party leadership, fomented largely by the FBI's COINTELPRO operation, led to expulsions and defections that decimated the membership.[21] Popular support for the Party declined further after reports of the group's alleged criminal activities, such as drug dealing and extortion of Oakland merchants.[22] By 1972 most Panther activity centered on the national headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics. Though under constant police surveillance, the Chicago chapter also remained active and maintained their community programs until 1974.[19] The Seattle chapter lasted longer than most, with a breakfast program and medical clinics that continued even after the chapter disbanded in 1977.[19] Party contractions continued throughout the 1970s, and by 1980, the Black Panther Party had just 27 members.[23]

    The party's history is controversial. Scholars have characterized the Black Panther Party as the most influential black movement organization of the late 1960s, and "the strongest link between the domestic Black Liberation Struggle and global opponents of American imperialism".[24] Other commentators have described the Party as more criminal than political, characterized by "defiant posturing over substance".[25]

    1. ^ Delli Carpin, Michael X. (2000). "Black Panther Party: 1966-1982". Retrieved June 11, 2019. While the exact size of the party is difficult to determine,the best estimates are that at its peak in 1969, the Black Panthers had as many as 5,000 members and between thirty-four and forty local chapters in the United States.
    2. ^ Joseph, Peniel (2006). Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. Henry Holt. p. 219.
    3. ^ Van Deburg, William L. New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975. University of Chicago Press. p. 155.
    4. ^ Brown, Mark (December 27, 2013). "Britain's black power movement is at risk of being forgotten, say historians". The Guardian. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
    5. ^ Meghelli, Samir (2009), "From Harlem to Algiers: Transnational Solidarities Between the African American Freedom Movement and Algeria, 1962-1978", in Marable, Manning (ed.), Black Routes to Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 99–119
    6. ^ "October 15, 1966: The Black Panther Party Is Founded". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
    7. ^ Austin 2006; Bloom & Martin 2013; March 2010; Joseph 2006
    8. ^ Pearson 1994, p. 152
    9. ^ Bloom & Martin 2013, chapter 7
    10. ^ Nelson, Alondra (2011). Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight against Medical Discrimination. University of Minnesota Press.
    11. ^ "Hoover and the F.B.I." Luna Ray Films, LLC. PBS.org. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
    12. ^ "Hoover Calls Panthers Top Threat to Security". The Washington Post. WP Company LLC d/b/a The Washington Post. July 16, 1969. ProQuest 147638465.
    13. ^ "Panthers 'threaten' U.S., Hoover says". Afro-American. Afro - American Company of Baltimore City. July 26, 1969. ProQuest 532216174.
    14. ^ Stubblefield, Anna (May 31, 2018). Ethics Along the Color Line. Cornell University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9781501717703.
    15. ^ Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate.
    16. ^ O'Reilly, Kenneth. Racial Matters: The FBI's Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972. Free Press.
    17. ^ Churchill and Vander Wall (2002). The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI's Secret Wars Against Dissent in the United States. South End Press.
    18. ^ Haas, Jeffrey (2010). The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther. Chicago Review Press.
    19. ^ a b c "Mapping the Black Panther Party in Key Cities". Mapping American Social Movements.
    20. ^ Barker 2015
    21. ^ Bloom & Martin 2013, conclusion
    22. ^ Philip Foner, The Black Panthers Speak, Da Capo Press, 2002.
    23. ^ Austin 2006, p. 331
    24. ^ Bloom & Martin 2013, p. 3
    25. ^ Pearson 1994, p. 340

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