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13 October 1972 – An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashes outside Moscow killing 174.

## Ilyushin Il-62

The Ilyushin IL-62 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-62; NATO reporting name: Classic) is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin. As successor to the popular turboprop Il-18 and with capacity for almost 200 passengers and crew, the Il-62 was the world's largest jet airliner when first flown in 1963. One of four pioneering long-range designs (the others being Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, and Vickers VC10), it was the first such type to be operated by the Soviet Union and a number of allied nations.

The Il-62 entered Aeroflot civilian service on 15 September 1967 with an inaugural passenger flight from Moscow to Montreal, and remained the standard long-range airliner for the Soviet Union (and later, Russia) for several decades. It was the first Soviet pressurised aircraft with non-circular cross-section fuselage and ergonomic passenger doors, and the first Soviet jet with six-abreast seating (the turboprop Tu-114 shared this arrangement) and international-standard position lights.

Over 30 nations operated the Il-62 with over 80 examples exported and others having been leased by Soviet-sphere and several Western airlines. The Il-62M variant became the longest-serving model in its airliner class (average age of examples in service as of 2016 is over 32 years). Special VIP (salon) and other conversions were also developed and used as head-of-state transport by some 14 countries. However, because it is expensive to operate compared to newer generation airliners, the number in service was greatly reduced after the 2008 Great Recession. The Il-62's successors include the wide-bodied Il-86 and Il-96, both of which were made in much smaller numbers and neither of which was widely exported.

14 October 1805Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria

## Battle of Elchingen

The Battle of Elchingen, fought on 14 October 1805, saw French forces under Michel Ney rout an Austrian corps led by Johann Sigismund Riesch. This defeat led to a large part of the Austrian army being invested in the fortress of Ulm by the army of Emperor Napoleon I of France while other formations fled to the east. Soon afterward, the Austrians trapped in Ulm surrendered and the French mopped up most of the remaining Austrians forces, bringing the Ulm Campaign to a close.

In late September and early October 1805, Napoleon carried out a gigantic envelopment of the Austrian army in Bavaria led by Karl Mack von Lieberich. While the Austrian army lay near Ulm, south of the Danube River, the French army marched west on the north side of the river. Then Napoleon's troops crossed the river east of Ulm, cutting the Austrian retreat route to Vienna. Finally waking up to his danger, Mack tried to break out on the north side of the river, but a lone French division blocked his first attempt.

Realizing that his enemies might escape the trap, Napoleon ordered Ney to cross to the north bank of the river. Ney's larger corps attacked Riesch's corps at Elchingen on the north bank. The French captured the heights and drove the Austrian soldiers west toward Ulm, forcing many of them to surrender. While a body of Austrians remained at large on the north bank, the near destruction of Riesch's command meant that the bulk of Mack's army was hopelessly surrounded in Ulm.

15 October 1894 – The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

## Dreyfus affair

The Dreyfus Affair (French: l'affaire Dreyfus, pronounced [la.fɛʁ dʁɛ.fys]) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. The affair is often seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice,[1] and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The major role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the lasting social conflict.

The scandal began in December 1894 with the treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young Alsatian French artillery officer of Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years.

Evidence came to light in 1896—primarily through an investigation instigated by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—identifying a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy as the real culprit. After high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days. The Army then accused Dreyfus with additional charges based on falsified documents. Word of the military court's framing of Dreyfus and of an attempted cover-up began to spread, chiefly owing to J'Accuse…!, a vehement open letter published in a Paris newspaper in January 1898 by writer Émile Zola. Activists put pressure on the government to reopen the case.

In 1899, Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial. The intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus (now called "Dreyfusards"), such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, and those who condemned him (the anti-Dreyfusards), such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was given a pardon and set free. Eventually all the accusations against Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless. In 1906, Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army. He served during the whole of World War I, ending his service with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He died in 1935.

The affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France deeply and lastingly into two opposing camps: the pro-Army, mostly Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards" and the anticlerical, pro-republican Dreyfusards. It embittered French politics and encouraged radicalization.

1. ^ Guy Canivet, first President of the Supreme Court, Justice from the Dreyfus Affair, p. 15.

16 October 1964 – China detonates its first nuclear weapon.

## 596 (nuclear test)

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17 October 1814 – Eight people die in the London Beer Flood.

## London Beer Flood

The London Beer Flood happened on 17 October 1814[2] in the parish of St. Giles, London, England. At the Meux and Company Brewery[1] in Tottenham Court Road,[1][3] a huge vat containing over 135,000 imperial gallons (610,000 L) of beer ruptured, causing other vats in the same building to succumb in a domino effect. As a result, more than 323,000 imperial gallons (1,470,000 L) of beer burst out and gushed into the streets. The wave of beer destroyed two homes and crumbled the wall of the Tavistock Arms pub, killing teenage employee Eleanor Cooper under the rubble.[4] Within minutes neighbouring George Street and New Street were swamped, seriously injuring a mother, and killing a daughter and young neighbour who were taking tea. The beer also surged through a room of people gathered for a wake, killing five of them.[5]

1. ^ a b c d Greenberg, Michael I. Disaster!: A Compendium of Terrorist, Natural, and Man-made Catastrophes. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 156. ISBN 0-7637-3989-8.
2. ^ The Oxford Companion to Beer. p. 48.
3. ^ Rennison, Nicholas (2 November 2006). The Book of Lists: London. Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84195-676-3.
4. ^ London Beer Flood at Expages.com (archived version)
5. ^ "The London Beer Flood of 1814". 10 July 2018.

18 October 1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization.

A trade union, also called a labour union or labor union (US), is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers.[1] The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2] This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.

Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism),[3] a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and also have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them legally to their negotiations and functioning.

Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries.[4]

1. ^ Frost, Daniel (1 April 1967). "Labor's Antitrust Exemption". California Law Review. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-15.

...the United States Supreme Court again undertook the delicate task of defining the antitrust exemption granted labor unions by section six of the Clayton Act.

2. ^ Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London. ch. I
3. ^ Poole, M., 1986. Industrial Relations: Origins and Patterns of National Diversity. London UK: Routledge.
4. ^ [1] OECD. Retrieved: 1 December 2017.

18 October 1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization.

A trade union, also called a labour union or labor union (US), is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers.[1] The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".[2] This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.

Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism),[3] a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and also have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them legally to their negotiations and functioning.

Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries.[4]

1. ^ Frost, Daniel (1 April 1967). "Labor's Antitrust Exemption". California Law Review. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-15.

...the United States Supreme Court again undertook the delicate task of defining the antitrust exemption granted labor unions by section six of the Clayton Act.

2. ^ Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London. ch. I
3. ^ Poole, M., 1986. Industrial Relations: Origins and Patterns of National Diversity. London UK: Routledge.
4. ^ [1] OECD. Retrieved: 1 December 2017.

19 October 1914 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.

## First Battle of Ypres

The First Battle of Ypres (French: Première Bataille des Flandres German: Erste Flandernschlacht, 19 October – 22 November) was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914. The battle was part of the First Battle of Flanders, in which German, French and Belgian armies and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) fought from Arras in France to Nieuport on the Belgian coast, from 10 October to mid-November. The battles at Ypres began at the end of the Race to the Sea, reciprocal attempts by the German and Franco-British armies to advance past the northern flank of their opponents. North of Ypres, the fighting continued in the Battle of the Yser (16–31 October), between the German 4th Army, the Belgian army and French marines.

The fighting has been divided into five stages, an encounter battle from 19 to 21 October, the Battle of Langemarck from 21 to 24 October, the battles at La Bassée and Armentières to 2 November, coincident with more Allied attacks at Ypres and the Battle of Gheluvelt (29–31 October), a fourth phase with the last big German offensive, which culminated at the Battle of Nonne Bosschen on 11 November, then local operations which faded out in late November. Brigadier-General James Edmonds, the British official historian, wrote in the History of the Great War, that the II Corps battle at La Bassée could be taken as separate but that the battles from Armentières to Messines and Ypres, were better understood as one battle in two parts, an offensive by III Corps and the Cavalry Corps from 12 to 18 October against which the Germans retired and an offensive by the German 6th Army and 4th Army from 19 October to 2 November, which from 30 October, took place mainly north of the Lys, when the battles of Armentières and Messines merged with the Battles of Ypres.[a]

Attacks by the BEF (Field Marshal Sir John French) the Belgians and the French Eighth Army in Belgium made little progress beyond Ypres. The German 4th and 6th Armies took small amounts of ground at great cost to both sides, during the Battle of the Yser and further south at Ypres. General Erich von Falkenhayn, head of the Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL, German General Staff), then tried a limited offensive to capture Ypres and Mont Kemmel, from 19 October to 22 November. Neither side had moved forces to Flanders fast enough to obtain a decisive victory and by November both sides were exhausted. The armies were short of ammunition, suffering from low morale and some infantry units refused orders. The autumn battles in Flanders had become static, attrition operations, unlike the battles of manoeuvre in the summer. French, British and Belgian troops in improvised field defences, repulsed German attacks for four weeks. From 21 to 23 October, German reservists had made mass attacks at Langemarck, with losses of up to 70 percent, to little effect.

Warfare between mass armies, equipped with the weapons of the Industrial Revolution and its later developments, proved to be indecisive, because field fortifications neutralised many classes of offensive weapon. The defensive use of artillery and machine guns, dominated the battlefield and the ability of the armies to supply themselves and replace casualties prolonged battles for weeks. Thirty-four German divisions fought in the Flanders battles, against twelve French, nine British and six Belgian, along with marines and dismounted cavalry. Falkenhayn reconsidered German strategy over the winter, because Vernichtungsstrategie and a dictated peace against France and Russia had been shown to be beyond German resources. Falkenhayn intended to detach Russia or France from the Allied coalition by diplomatic as well as military action. A strategy of attrition (Ermattungsstrategie) would make the cost of the war too great for the Allies, until one made a separate peace. The remaining belligerents would have to negotiate or face the Germans concentrated on the remaining front, which would be sufficient to obtain a decisive victory.

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20 October 1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

## Louisiana Purchase

The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane 'Sale of Louisiana') was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory of New France (828,000 sq mi (2,140,000 km2; 530,000,000 acres)) by the United States from France in 1803. The U.S. paid fifty million francs ($11,250,000) and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs ($3,750,000) for a total of sixty-eight million francs ($15 million, equivalent to about$600 billion given the GDP of 2017[1]). The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory contained land that forms Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska; the portion of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River; a large portion of North Dakota; a large portion of South Dakota; the northeastern section of New Mexico; the northern portion of Texas; the area of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide; Louisiana west of the Mississippi River (plus New Orleans); and small portions of land within the present Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves.[2]

The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. In 1800, Napoleon, then the First Consul of the French Republic, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. However, France's failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States to fund his military. The Americans originally sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but quickly accepted the bargain. The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition; they argued that it was unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Jefferson agreed that the U.S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient.

1. ^ https://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/uscompare/result.php?year_source=1803&amount=15000000&year_result=2017. For details on why the use of relative share of GDP is best, see https://www.measuringworth.com/indicator.php
2. ^ "Congressional series of United States public documents". U.S. Government Printing Office. January 1, 1864 – via Google Books.

21 October 1854Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

## Florence Nightingale

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Florence Nightingale, (/ˈntɪnɡl/; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.

Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers.[3] She gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.[4][5]

Recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her later work in professionalising nursing roles for women.[6] In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London. It was the first secular nursing school in the world, and is now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, and the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday. Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were harsh for women, and expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce.

Nightingale was a prodigious and versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge. Some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could easily be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was also a pioneer in the use of infographics, effectively using graphical presentations of statistical data.[6] Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously.

1. ^ "Florence Nightingale". King's College London. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
2. ^ "Florence Nightingale 2nd rendition, 1890 – greetings to the dear old comrades of Balaclava". Internet Archive. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
3. ^ Strachey, Lytton (1918). Eminent Victorians. London: Chatto and Windus.[page needed]
4. ^ Swenson, Kristine (2005). Medical Women and Victorian Fiction. University of Missouri Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8262-6431-2.
5. ^ Aaron Ralby (2013). "The Crimean War 1853–1856". Atlas of Military History. Parragon. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-4723-0963-1.
6. ^ a b Bostridge, Mark (17 February 2011). "Florence Nightingale: the Lady with the Lamp". BBC.

22 October 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.

## Morocco

Morocco (; Arabic: المغرب‎, translit. al-maġhrib, lit. 'place the sun sets; the west'; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, translit. Lmeɣrib; French: Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco (Arabic: المملكة المغربية‎, translit. al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah, lit. 'The Western Kingdom'; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, translit. Tageldit n Lmaɣrib; French: Royaume du Maroc), is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi). Its capital is Rabat, the largest city Casablanca.[10] It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction.[11]

Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier. It regained its independence in 1956, and has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.

Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.

The unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.

Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and Berber; the latter became an official language in 2011,[12] and was the native language of Morocco before the Muslim conquest in the seventh century C.E.[13] The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences.

Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.[14]
Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIApop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
2. ^ "Morocco". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
3. ^ "Morocco in CIA World Factbook". CIA.gov.
4. ^ "Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, I-1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
5. ^ "Morocco Population, 1960-2017 - knoema.com". HCP. 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
6. ^ a b c d "Morocco". IMF.
7. ^
8. ^ "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
9. ^ "Morocco Keeps Clocks Steady on GMT+1". 28 October 2018.
10. ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr (20 August 1987). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0.
11. ^ "Ceuta, Melilla profile". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
12. ^ Schnelzer, Nadine (10 November 2015). Libya in the Arab Spring: The Constitutional Discourse since the Fall of Gaddafi. Springer. ISBN 9783658113827.
13. ^ Rodd, Francis. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers: "A Sketch of the Arab Invasion of Ifriqiya in the First Century of the Hijra" Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 3, No. 4, (1925)
14. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.

23 October 1707 – The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

## Parliament of Great Britain

The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.

24 October 1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic.

## George Washington Bridge

The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City with the borough of Fort Lee in New Jersey. As of 2016, the George Washington Bridge carried over 103 million vehicles per year,[a] making it the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.[5]:39 It is owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a bi-state government agency that operates infrastructure in the Port of New York and New Jersey. The George Washington Bridge is also informally known as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George,[6] and was known as the Fort Lee Bridge or Hudson River Bridge during construction.

A bridge across the Hudson River was first conceived in 1906, but it was not until 1925 that the state legislatures of New York and New Jersey voted to allow for the planning and construction of such a bridge. Construction on the George Washington Bridge started in October 1927; the bridge was ceremonially dedicated on October 24, 1931, and opened to traffic the next day. The opening of the George Washington Bridge contributed to the development of Bergen County, New Jersey, in which Fort Lee is located. The current upper deck was widened from six to eight lanes in 1946. The six-lane lower deck was constructed beneath the existing span from 1958 to 1962 because of increasing traffic flow.

The George Washington Bridge, an important travel corridor within the New York metropolitan area, has an upper level that carries four lanes in each direction and a lower level with three lanes in each direction, for a total of 14 lanes of travel. The speed limit on the bridge is 45 mph (72 km/h). The bridge's upper level also carries pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Interstate 95 (I-95) and U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9, composed of US 1 and US 9) cross the river via the bridge. US 46, which lies entirely within New Jersey, terminates halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York. At its eastern terminus in New York City, the bridge continues onto the Trans-Manhattan Expressway (part of I-95, connecting to the Cross Bronx Expressway).

The George Washington Bridge measures 4,760 feet (1,450 m) long and has a main span of 3,500 feet (1,100 m). It had the longest main bridge span in the world at the time of its opening and held this distinction until the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937.

1. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference PANYNJ Facts was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
2. ^ Cite error: The named reference asce was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
3. ^ Cite error: The named reference PANYNJ-GWBRestrictions was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
4. ^ a b "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Six Bridges was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
6. ^
• Rose, Lacey (March 2, 2006). "Inside the Booth". Forbes. Retrieved January 15, 2008. Like the PATH trains, which also connect New York to New Jersey, the G.W. Bridge is run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a public agency that employees 7,000 workers and has annual revenues of $2.9 billion. • Ervolino, Bill (October 24, 2018). "Happy birthday George Washington Bridge! You look pretty good for 87". North Jersey. Retrieved January 12, 2019. By 1962, New Jerseyans were routinely referring to Ammann's masterpiece as "the GWB" and "the George." • Jones, Charisse (October 20, 2006). "Upkeep Costs Rise as USA's Bridges Age". USA Today. Retrieved January 15, 2008. The George Washington Bridge — locals call it 'the GW' — is one of a collection of dazzling spans that link New York's five boroughs or the city and New Jersey. Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page). 14. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 25 October 1983Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d'état. ## United States invasion of Grenada The United States invasion of Grenada began on 25 October 1983. The invasion, led by the United States, of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located 160 kilometres (99 mi) north of Venezuela, resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of days. Codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, it was triggered by the internal strife within the People's Revolutionary Government that resulted in the house arrest and the execution of the previous leader and second Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop, and the establishment of a preliminary government, the Revolutionary Military Council with Hudson Austin as Chairman. The invasion resulted in the appointment of an interim government, followed by democratic elections in 1984. The country has remained a democratic nation since then. Grenada gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1974. The Marxist-Leninist New Jewel Movement seized power in a coup in 1979 under Maurice Bishop, suspending the constitution and detaining a number of political prisoners. Among Bishop's core principles were workers' rights, women's rights, and the struggle against racism and Apartheid. Under Bishop's leadership, the National Women's Organization was formed which participated in policy decisions along with other social groups. Women were given equal pay and paid maternity leave, and sex discrimination was made illegal. Organisations for education (Center for Popular Education), health care, and youth affairs (National Youth Organization) were also established. In 1983, an internal power struggle began over Bishop's relatively moderate foreign policy approach, and on 19 October, hard-line military junta elements captured and executed Bishop and his partner Jacqueline Creft, along with three cabinet ministers and two union leaders. Subsequently, following appeals by the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and the Governor-General of Grenada, Paul Scoon, the Reagan Administration in the U.S. quickly decided to launch a military intervention. U.S. President Ronald Reagan's justification for the intervention was in part explained as "concerns over the 600 U.S. medical students on the island" and fears of a repeat of the Iran hostage crisis. The U.S. invasion began six days after Bishop's death, on the morning of 25 October 1983, just two days and several hours after the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut. The invading force consisted of the U.S. Army's Rapid Deployment Force (the 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions and 82nd Airborne Division paratroopers); U.S. Marines (22nd MAU); U.S. Army Delta Force; U.S. Navy SEALs, and ancillary forces totaling 7,600 U.S.troops, together with Jamaican forces, and troops of the Regional Security System (RSS).[8] USAF Pararescue and TACP personnel from the 21St Tass, Shaw AFB were attached to various other Special Operations Units during the Grenada conflict.[9] The invasion force defeated Grenadian resistance after a low-altitude airborne assault by Rangers on Point Salines Airport at the south end of the island, and a Marine helicopter and amphibious landing on the north end at Pearls Airport. The military government of Hudson Austin was deposed and replaced by a government appointed by Governor-General Paul Scoon. The invasion was criticized by many countries including Canada. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher privately disapproved of the mission and the lack of notice she received, but publicly supported the intervention.[10] The United Nations General Assembly, on 2 November 1983 with a vote of 108 to 9, condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law".[11] Conversely, it enjoyed broad public support in the United States[12] and over time, a positive evaluation from the Grenadian population, who appreciated the fact that there had been relatively few civilian casualties, as well as the return to democratic elections in 1984.[13][14] The U.S. awarded more than 5,000 medals to its soldiers for merit and valor.[15][16] The date of the invasion is now a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, which commemorates the freeing, after the invasion, of several political prisoners who were subsequently elected to office. A truth and reconciliation commission was launched in 2000 to re-examine some of the controversies of the era; in particular, the commission made an unsuccessful attempt to find Bishop's body, which had been disposed of at Hudson Austin's order, and never found. For the U.S., the invasion also highlighted issues with communication and coordination between the different branches of the United States military when operating together as a joint force, contributing to investigations and sweeping changes in the form of the Goldwater-Nichols Act and other reorganizations. 1. ^ a b "Operation Urgent Fury"' GlobalSecurity.org 2. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. Operation Urgent Fury: Invasion of Grenada, October (PDF). United States Army. 3. ^ a b c Cole, Ronald (1997). "Operation Urgent Fury: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Grenada" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2006. 4. ^ "Medals Outnumber G.I.'S In Grenada Assault". The New York Times. 30 March 1984. 5. ^ 6. ^ Russell, Lee; Mendez, Albert (2012). Grenada 1983. 12-14 Long Acre, London WC2E 9LP: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 45. 7. ^ "Soldiers During the Invasion of Grenada". CardCow Vintage Postcards. 8. ^ "Caribbean Islands – A Regional Security System". country-data.com. 9. ^ 10. ^ Charles Moore, Margaret Thatcher: At her Zenith (2016) p. 130. 11. ^ "United Nations General Assembly resolution 38/7". United Nations. 2 November 1983. Retrieved 5 March 2016. 12. ^ Magnuson, Ed (21 November 1983). "Getting Back to Normal". Time. 13. ^ Associated Press report in 2012, printed in Fox News 14. ^ Steven F. Hayward (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution: 1980–1989. Crown Forum. ISBN 978-1-4000-5357-5. 15. ^ Tessler, Ray (19 August 1991). "Gulf War Medals Stir Up Old Resentment". Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 16. ^ "Overdecorated". Time. 9 April 1984. 15. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 26 October 1520Charles V is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor. ## Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V[a] (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (1519–1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire (as Charles I, 1516–1556), Archduke of Austria (as Charles I, 1519–1521), and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506–1555). The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne[2] and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands (primarily Bruxelles), 18 years in Spain (notably Toledo and Extremadura) and 9 years in Germany.[3] After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. The personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets".[4][5][6][7][8] Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, and Trastámara of Spain. As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe, and was also elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor. As a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara he inherited the Crown of Castile, which was developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, and the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right (as a unified Spain), and as a result he is often referred to as the first king of Spain.[9][b] The personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy[10] since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century. Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realisation of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies.[11] His reign was dominated by war, particularly by three major simultaneous prolonged conflicts: the Italian Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Turkish advance into Europe, and the conflict with the German princes resulting from the Protestant Reformation.[12] The French wars, mainly fought in Italy, lasted for most of his reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean. The Turkish advance was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529, and a lengthy war of attrition, conducted on Charles' behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand (King of Hungary and archduke of Austria), continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, he was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary pirates. Charles opposed the Reformation, and in Germany he was in conflict with Protestant nobles who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him. He could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and was ultimately forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany along denominational lines. While Charles did not typically concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three particularly dangerous rebellions; the Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile, the revolt of the Arumer Zwarte Hoop in Frisia, and, later in his reign, the Revolt of Ghent (1539). Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule. Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castilian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castilian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of active rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58. The Holy Roman Empire passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain. The two empires would remain allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs in 1700. 1. ^ Edmundson, G. (1922). History of Holland. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. 2. ^ {{cite book |last=Armitage |date=2000 |first=D. |title=The Ideological Origins of the British Empire |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PkuozOfNnKkC |publisher=Cambridge University Press |p=[32 |isbn=978-0-521-78978-3 |authorlink=David Armitage (historian) |ref=harv }} 3. ^ [1] 4. ^ Plain Truth. Ambassador College. 1984. 5. ^ Ferer, Mary Tiffany (2012). Music and Ceremony at the Court of Charles V: The Capilla Flamenca and the Art of Political Promotion. Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843836995. 6. ^ H. Micheal Tarver, ed. (2016). The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-61069-421-6. 7. ^ Pagden, Anthony (2007-12-18). Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307431592. 8. ^ Chesney, Elizabeth A.; Zegura, Elizabeth Chesney (2004). The Rabelais Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313310348. 9. ^ MacCulloch, D. (2 September 2004). Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490–1700. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-14-192660-5. 10. ^ {{cite book |last=Armitage |date=2000 |first=D. |title=The Ideological Origins of the British Empire |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PkuozOfNnKkC |publisher=Cambridge University Press |p=[32 |isbn=978-0-521-78978-3 |authorlink=David Armitage (historian) |ref=harv }} 11. ^ Bérenger, J. (1994-03-07). A History of the Habsburg Empire 1273–1700. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-582-09010-1. 12. ^ Maltby, William S. (25 March 2002). The Reign of Charles V. European History in Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-67768-1. Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page). 16. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 28 October 1453Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned king of Bohemia in Prague. ## Ladislaus the Posthumous Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Hungarian: Utószülött László; Croatian: Ladislav Posmrtni; Czech: Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert's descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king. After Ladislaus's birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungary declared Ladislaus's coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years. Elizabeth appointed her late husband's distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus' guardian. Ladislaus lived in Frederick's court (mainly in Wiener Neustadt), where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) wrote a treatise of his education. After his mother died in late 1442, Ladislaus' interests were represented by a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, in Hungary, and by the Czech Catholic lord, Ulrich II of Rosenberg, in Bohemia. Ladislaus' rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. The next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship. After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites (or Utraquists), George of Poděbrady, took control of Prague in 1448. The Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was formally restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453, but he continued to control most royal castles and revenues. Ulrich II, Count of Celje (his mother's cousin) became Ladislaus' main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, forced Ladislaus to expel Celje from his court. Although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Poděbrady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Poděbrady closely cooperated to mutually secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Ulrich II in early 1455. With the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues. After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus and Ulrich II left the kingdom. The sultan laid siege to Belgrade. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later. Ladislaus and Ulrich II returned to Hungary and tried to force Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus, to renounce all royal castles and revenues, but Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich II on 9 November, forcing Ladislaus to grant an amnesty to him. However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias. After Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. Ladislaus died unexpectedly in Prague. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg. 17. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 29 October 1390 – First trial for witchcraft in Paris leading to the death of three people. ## Witchcraft Witches by Hans Baldung (woodcut), 1508 Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision,[1] and cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft often occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role,[2] and is often present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view.[1] 1. ^ a b Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, Jeffrey Russell, p.4-10. 2. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReferenceA was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 18. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 30 October 1974The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman takes place in Zaire. ## The Rumble in the Jungle Kinshasa Location in Africa The Rumble in the Jungle was a historic boxing event in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) on October 30, 1974 (at 4 am). Held at the 20th of May Stadium (now the Stade Tata Raphaël), it pitted the undefeated world heavyweight champion George Foreman against challenger Muhammad Ali, the former heavyweight champion; the attendance was 60,000. Ali won by knockout, putting Foreman down just before the end of the eighth round. It has been called "arguably the greatest sporting event of the 20th century".[3][4] It was a major upset victory,[5] with Ali coming in as a 4–1 underdog against the unbeaten, heavy-hitting Foreman.[6] The fight is famous for Ali's introduction of the rope-a-dope tactic.[7] The fight was watched by a record estimated television audience of 1 billion viewers worldwide,[8][9] becoming the world's most-watched live television broadcast at the time.[10] This included a record estimated 50 million viewers watching the fight pay-per-view on closed-circuit theatre TV.[5] The fight grossed an estimated$100 million (inflation-adjusted $510 million) in worldwide revenue.[11][12] 1. ^ "Foreman heavy favorite over Ali". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. October 29, 1974. p. 1-part 2. 2. ^ "Ali KO's Foreman in 8th". Milwaukee Sentinel. UPI. October 30, 1974. p. 1-part 2. 3. ^ Kang, Jay Caspian (2013-04-04). "The End and Don King". Grantland. ESPN. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 4. ^ 5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Herald was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 6. ^ "Ali Regains Title, Flooring Foreman". The New York Times. October 30, 1974. 7. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 8. ^ Cite error: The named reference usatoday was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 9. ^ Cite error: The named reference jet was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 10. ^ Cite error: The named reference inquisitr was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Times was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kabanda was invoked but never defined (see the help page). 19. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 31 October 1922Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy ## Benito Mussolini Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Italian: [beˈniːto mussoˈliːni];[1] 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF). He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943; he constitutionally led the country until 1925, when he dropped the pretense of democracy and established a dictatorship. Known as Il Duce ("The Leader"), Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism.[2][3][4] In 1912, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI),[5] but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism[6] and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines.[7] Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,[8] Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. In 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, and recognized the independence of Vatican City. After the Abyssinia Crisis of 1935–1936, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in the Second Italo–Ethiopian War. The invasion was condemned by the Western powers and was answered with economic sanctions against Italy. Relations between Germany and Italy improved due to Hitler's support of the invasion. In 1936, Mussolini surrendered Austria to the German sphere of influence, signed the treaty of cooperation with Germany and proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin Axis. From 1936 through 1939, Mussolini provided huge amounts of military support to Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War. This active intervention further distanced Italy from France and Britain. Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe, but Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II. On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy officially entered the war on the side of Germany, though Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity and resources to carry out a long war with the British Empire.[9] He believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France, and he could then concentrate his forces on a major offensive in North Africa, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces.[10] However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Eastern and Western Europe; plans for an invasion of the UK did not proceed and the war continued. In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece, starting the Greco-Italian War. The invasion failed and the following Greek counter-offensive pushed the Italians back to occupied Albania. The Greek debacle and simultaneous defeats against the British in North Africa reduced Italy to dependence on Germany. Beginning in June 1941, Mussolini sent Italian forces to participate in the invasion of the Soviet Union, and Italy declared war on the United States in December. In 1943, Italy suffered one disaster after another: by February the Red Army had completely destroyed the Italian Army in Russia; in May the Axis collapsed in North Africa; on 9 July the Allies invaded Sicily; and by the 16th it became clear the German summer offensive in the USSR had failed. As a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence for Mussolini; later that day the King dismissed him as head of government and had him placed in custody, appointing Pietro Badoglio to succeed him as Prime Minister. After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors. Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator, then put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI),[11] informally known as the Salò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland,[12] but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed by firing squad on 28 April 1945 near Lake Como. His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm his demise.[13] 1. ^ See Benito and Mussolini in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online 2. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509514-2. 3. ^ "Historic Figures: Benito Mussolini (1883–1945)". BBC – History – bbc.co.uk. 4. ^ "Mussolini founds the Fascist party – Mar 23, 1919". History.com. 5. ^ Anthony James Gregor (1979). Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520037991. 6. ^ Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi (1997). Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. U of California Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0520926158. 7. ^ Gregor 1979, p. 191. 8. ^ Haugen, pp. 9, 71 9. ^ MacGregor Knox. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Edition of 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 122–23. 10. ^ MacGregor Knox. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Edition of 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 122–27. 11. ^ 12. ^ Viganò, Marino (2001), "Un'analisi accurata della presunta fuga in Svizzera", Nuova Storia Contemporanea (in Italian), 3 13. ^ "1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini". BBC News. 28 April 1945. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 20. ### Admin2AdministratorStaff Member 1 November 1955 – The Vietnam War begins. ## Vietnam War The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War,[62] and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.[10] It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China,[14] and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.[63] The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives.[64] It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was then French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh.[65][A 4] Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S.[66] After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state. The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U.S. involvement escalated in 1960, and continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels gradually surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.[67][68] By 1964, there were 23,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U.S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000.[67] Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces. Every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.[69] U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. The U.S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; despite years of American tutelage and aid the South Vietnamese forces were unable to withstand the communist offensive and the task fell to US forces instead. The Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders; bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam as supply routes and were heavily bombed by U.S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress.[70] The capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000[29] to 3.8 million.[58] Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians,[59][60][61] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[58] and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626 remain missing in action.[A 3] The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, and the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War. The end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea. Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements,[71] which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s.[72] 1. ^ "Why did Sweden support the Viet Cong?". HistoryNet. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 2. ^ "Sweden announces support to Viet Cong". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. In Sweden, Foreign Minister Torsten Nilsson reveals that Sweden has been providing assistance to the Viet Cong, including some$550,000 worth of medical supplies. Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting. This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid.
3. ^ Weil, Thomas E. et. al. Area Handbook for Brazil (1975), p. 293
4. ^ "Chapter Three: 1957–1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. p. 72. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
5. ^ Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers) (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-9832220268. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.
6. ^ DoD 1998
7. ^ Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
9. ^ Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–46; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
10. ^ a b The Paris Agreement on Vietnam: Twenty-five Years Later Conference Transcript, The Nixon Center, Washington, DC, April 1998. Reproduced on mtholyoke.edu. Accessed 5 September 2012.
11. ^ Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975. Translated by Merle Pribbenow, Lawerence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002, p. 211: "By the end of 1966 the total strength of our armed forces was 690,000 soldiers.". According to Hanoi's official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the People's Army of Vietnam.
12. ^ Doyle, The North, pp. 45–49
13. ^ a b The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1461719038.
14. ^ a b "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
15. ^ Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0847690138.
16. ^ a b Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam. ISBN 978-0521618342.
17. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 376. ISBN 978-1851099603.
18. ^
19. ^ O'Ballance, Edgar (1982). Tracks of the bear: Soviet imprints in the seventies. Presidio. p. 171. ISBN 9780891411338.
20. ^ Pham Thi Thu Thuy (1 August 2013). "The colorful history of North Korea-Vietnam relations". NK News. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
21. ^ Le Gro, p. 28.
22. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. xlv. ISBN 978-1851099610.
23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
24. ^ Pike, John. "Cambodia Civil War, 1970s". www.globalsecurity.org.
25. ^ "The rise of Communism". www.footprinttravelguides.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
26. ^
27. ^ "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960–73". Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016., accessed 7 Nov 2017
28. ^ Pike, John. "Pathet Lao Uprising".
29. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate", Population and Development Review, December 1995.
30. ^ a b c Lewy 1978, pp. 450–53.
31. ^
32. ^ Cite error: The named reference :11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
33. ^ "Công tác tìm kiếm, quy tập hài cốt liệt sĩ từ nay đến năm 2020 và những năn tiếp theo" [The work of searching and collecting the remains of martyrs from now to 2020 and the next] (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Defence, Government of Vietnam.
34. ^ Communist Party of Vietnam. "Đời đời nhớ ơn các anh hùng liệt sĩ!" [Eternal gratitude to the heroes and martyrs!] (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2018-06-11.
35. ^ a b Lewy, Guenter (1978). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. pp. 450–1. ISBN 9780199874231.
36. ^ Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
37. ^ James F. Dunnigan; Albert A. Nofi (2000). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-25282-3.
38. ^ "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News Online. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
39. ^ Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
40. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. (1988), United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973, Washington, D.C: Center of Military History, United States Army, p. 275: "The Army of the Republic of Vietnam suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths"
41. ^ Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System
42. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer E. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851099611
43. ^ Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (29 May 2017). "3 new names added to Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall" (Press release). Associated Press.
44. ^ America's Wars (PDF) (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014.
45. ^ Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service.
46. ^ Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
47. ^ Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005, 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1417229209.
48. ^ Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
49. ^ T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
50. ^ "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
51. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 2nd Edition [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099610.
52. ^ "Overview of the war in Vietnam". New Zealand and the Vietnam War. 16 July 1965. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
53. ^ "America Wasn't the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War". 2013-10-02. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
54. ^ "Chapter III: The Philippines". History.army.mil. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
55. ^ "Asian Allies in Vietnam" (PDF). Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
56. ^ Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
57. ^ Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela (23 April 2008). "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme". British Medical Journal. 336 (336): 1482–1486. doi:10.1136/bmj.a137. PMC 2440905. PMID 18566045. Retrieved 5 January 2013. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths ... 3.8 million in Vietnam
58. ^ a b c d
59. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academy Press. pp. 102–04, 120, 124. ISBN 978-0309073349. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the 1970s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime. ... Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of 300,000 or less.
60. ^ a b Banister, Judith; Johnson, E. Paige (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia". Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community. Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. p. 87. ISBN 978-0938692492. An estimated 275,000 excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality we can justify for the early 1970s.
61. ^ a b Sliwinski, Marek (1995). Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique [The Khmer Rouge genocide: A demographic analysis]. Paris: L'Harmattan. pp. 42–43, 48. ISBN 978-2738435255.
62. ^ Cite error: The named reference Factasy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
63. ^ "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2008. Meanwhile, the United States, its military demoralized and its civilian electorate deeply divided, began a process of coming to terms with defeat in its longest and most controversial war
64. ^ Lind, Michael (1999). "Vietnam, The Necessary War: A Reinterpretation of America's Most Disastrous Military Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
65. ^ Major General George S. Eckhardt, Vietnam Studies Command and Control 1950–1969, Department of the Army, Washington, DC (1991), p. 6
66. ^ "Could Vietnam have been nuked in 1954?". BBC News. 5 May 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
67. ^ a b "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960–73". www.americanwarlibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
68. ^ Vietnam War Statistics and Facts 1, 25th Aviation Battalion website.
69. ^ "McNamara becomes Vietnam War skeptic, Oct. 14, 1966". Politico. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
70. ^ Kolko 1985, pp. 457, 461ff.
71. ^ Kalb, Marvin (22 January 2013). "It's Called the Vietnam Syndrome, and It's Back". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
72. ^ Horne, Alistair (2010). Kissinger's Year: 1973. Phoenix Press. pp. 370–371. ISBN 978-0-7538-2700-0.

Cite error: There are <ref group=A> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=A}} template (see the help page).

3 November 1911Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.

## Chevrolet

Chevrolet (/ˌʃɛvrəˈl/ SHEV-rə-LAY), colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM). Louis Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3, 1911[2] as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2, 1918 and propelled himself back to the GM presidency. After Durant's second ousting in 1919, Alfred Sloan, with his maxim "a car for every purse and purpose", would pick the Chevrolet brand to become the volume leader in the General Motors family, selling mainstream vehicles to compete with Henry Ford's Model T in 1919 and overtaking Ford as the best-selling car in the United States by 1929.[3]

Chevrolet-branded vehicles are sold in most automotive markets worldwide. In Oceania, Chevrolet is represented by GM subsidiary, Holden, having returned to the region in 2018 after a 50-year absence with the launching of the Camaro and Silverado pickup truck. In 2005, Chevrolet was relaunched in Europe, primarily selling vehicles built by GM Daewoo of South Korea with the tagline "Daewoo has grown up enough to become Chevrolet", a move rooted in General Motors' attempt to build a global brand around Chevrolet. With the reintroduction of Chevrolet to Europe, GM intended Chevrolet to be a mainstream value brand, while GM's traditional European standard-bearers, Opel of Germany, and Vauxhall of United Kingdom would be moved upmarket.[4] However, GM reversed this move in late 2013, announcing that the brand would be withdrawn from Europe, with the exception of the Camaro and Corvette[5] in 2016. Chevrolet vehicles will continue to be marketed in the CIS states, including Russia. After General Motors fully acquired GM Daewoo in 2011 to create GM Korea, the last usage of the Daewoo automotive brand was discontinued in its native South Korea and succeeded by Chevrolet.

In North America, Chevrolet produces and sells a wide range of vehicles, from subcompact automobiles to medium-duty commercial trucks. Due to the prominence and name recognition of Chevrolet as one of General Motors' global marques, Chevrolet, Chevy or Chev is used at times as a synonym for General Motors or its products, one example being the GM LS1 engine, commonly known by the name or a variant thereof of its progenitor, the Chevrolet small-block engine.

1. ^ Corporate Officers (January 15, 2014). "Alan Batey – GM Corporate Officers". GM.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
2. ^ "Chevrolet 1911–1996". GM Heritage Center. 1996. p. 97. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
3. ^ 60 years of Chevrolet. Crestline. 1972.
4. ^ Luft, Alex. "General Motors To Move Opel Upmarket, Position Chevy As "Value" Brand". Retrieved November 17, 2013.
5. ^ "General Motors to withdraw Chevrolet brand from Europe". BBC News. December 5, 2013.

4 November 1980Ronald Reagan is elected the 40th President of The United States, defeating incumbent Jimmy Carter.

## Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈrɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois. He graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, and was re-elected in 1970. He twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years later in 1980, he won the nomination and then defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump (aged 70 years, 220 days) in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, and defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U.S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U.S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the (then-total) 531 electoral votes.[1]

Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, and reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, and an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, and increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall, even after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, and the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate. He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty, which shrank both countries' nuclear arsenals. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, and on December 26, 1991 (nearly three years after he left office), the Soviet Union collapsed.

When Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.[2] He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent as the disease progressed. He died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, and he is an icon among conservatives. Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents.

1. ^ Murse, Tom (January 28, 2019). "The Most Lopsided Presidential Elections in U.S. History: How a Landslide is Measured". ThoughtCo. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
2. ^ "A Look Back At The Polls". CBS News. Retrieved May 15, 2015.

5 November 1943 – World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

## Bombing of the Vatican

Map of Vatican City showing the buildings of the Governatorate, the Tribunal, and the Archpriest, and the railway station, which were damaged on 5 November 1943. The mosaic workshop, which received a direct hit, is positioned between the railway station and the residence of the archpriest.

Bombing of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II. The first occasion was on the evening of 5 November 1943, when a plane dropped bombs on the area south-west of Saint Peter's Basilica, causing considerable damage but no casualties. The second bombing, which affected only the outer margin of the city, was at about the same hour on 1 March 1944, and caused the death of one person and the injury of another.[1]

6 November 1860Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of United States.

## Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman, politician, and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis.[2][3] He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman. He left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign. He then ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery. They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U.S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union.

As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South; War Democrats, who rallied a large faction of former opponents into his camp; anti-war Democrats (called Copperheads), who despised him; and irreconcilable secessionists, who plotted his assassination. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by carefully distributing political patronage, and by appealing to the American people.[4]:65–87 His Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, and he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade. As the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863; ordering the Army to protect escaped slaves, encouraging border states to outlaw slavery, and pushing through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed slavery across the country.

Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign. He sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists. A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, and died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero. He is consistently ranked both by scholars[5] and the public[6] as among the greatest U.S. presidents.

1. ^ Carpenter, Francis B. (1866). Six Months in the White House: The Story of a Picture. Hurd and Houghton. p. 217.
2. ^ William A. Pencak (2009). Encyclopedia of the Veteran in America. ABC-CLIO. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-313-08759-2. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
3. ^ Finkelman, Paul; Gottlieb, Stephen E. Toward a Usable Past: Liberty Under State Constitutions. U of Georgia Press. p. 388.
4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Randall1947 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
5. ^ Lindgren, James (November 16, 2000). "Ranking Our Presidents for dealing with the American Civil War, and slavery" (PDF). International World History Project. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 31, 2012.
6. ^ "Americans Say Reagan Is the Greatest U.S. President". Gallup.com. February 28, 2011. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved 2019-02-13.

Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

7 November 1861 – The first Melbourne Cup horse race is held in Melbourne, Australia.

## Melbourne Cup

The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most famous annual Thoroughbred horse race. It is a 3200-metre race for three-year-olds and over, conducted by the Victoria Racing Club on the Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Victoria as part of the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival. It is the richest "two-mile" handicap in the world, and one of the richest turf races. The event starts at 3pm on the first Tuesday in November and is known locally as "the race that stops a nation".

The Melbourne Cup has a long tradition, with the first race held in 1861. It was originally over two miles (3.219 km) but was shortened to 3,200 metres (1.988 mi) in 1972 when Australia adopted the metric system. This reduced the distance by 18.688 metres (61.312 ft), and Rain Lover's 1968 race record of 3:19.1 was accordingly adjusted to 3:17.9. The present record holder is the 1990 winner Kingston Rule with a time of 3:16.3.

Archer, the inaugural winner of the Melbourne Cup

8 November 1939 – In Munich, Adolf Hitler narrowly escapes the assassination attempt of Georg Elser while celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.

## Georg Elser

Johann Georg Elser (4 January 1903 – 9 April 1945) was a German worker who planned and carried out an elaborate assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders on 8 November 1939 at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich. A time bomb that Elser constructed and placed near the speaking platform failed to kill Hitler, who left earlier than expected, but killed eight people and injured 63 others. Elser was held as a prisoner for over five years until he was executed at the Dachau concentration camp less than a month before the surrender of Nazi Germany.

9 November 1953Cambodia gains independence from France.

## Cambodia

Cambodia (;[7] also Kampuchea /ˌkæmpʊˈə/; Khmer: កម្ពុជា Khmer: [kam.pu.ciə]; French: Cambodge), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer: ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə, IPA: [prĕəh riə.ciə.naː.caʔ kam.pu.ciə]; French: Royaume du Cambodge), is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 square miles) in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

The sovereign state of Cambodia has a population of over 16 million. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, practised by approximately 95 percent of the population. The country's minority groups include Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 hill tribes.[8] The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh, the political, economic and cultural centre of Cambodia. The kingdom is an elective constitutional monarchy with a monarch, currently Norodom Sihamoni, chosen by the Royal Throne Council as head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister, currently Hun Sen, the longest serving non-royal leader in Southeast Asia, ruling Cambodia since 1985.

In 802 AD, Jayavarman II declared himself king, uniting the warring Khmer princes of Chenla under the name "Kambuja".[9] This marked the beginning of the Khmer Empire, which flourished for over 600 years, allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth. The Indianised kingdom facilitated the spread of first Hinduism and then Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia and undertook many religious infrastructural projects throughout the region, including the construction of more than 1,000 temples and monuments in Angkor alone. Angkor Wat is the most famous of these structures and is designated as a World Heritage Site.

After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a reduced and weakened Cambodia was then ruled as a vassal state by its neighbours. In 1863, Cambodia became a protectorate of France, which doubled the size of the country by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand.

Cambodia gained independence in 1953. The Vietnam War extended into the country with the US bombing of Cambodia from 1969 until 1973. Following the Cambodian coup of 1970 which installed the right-wing pro-US Khmer Republic, the deposed king gave his support to his former enemies, the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge emerged as a major power, taking Phnom Penh in 1975 and later carrying out the Cambodian genocide from 1975 until 1979, when they were ousted by Vietnam and the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea, supported by the Soviet Union in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War (1979–91).

Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords, Cambodia was governed briefly by a United Nations mission (1992–93). The UN withdrew after holding elections in which around 90 percent of the registered voters cast ballots. The 1997 factional fighting resulted in the ousting of the government by Prime Minister Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party, who remain in power as of 2018.

Cambodia is a member of the United Nations since 1955, ASEAN, the East Asia Summit, the WTO, the Non-Aligned Movement and La Francophonie. According to several foreign organisations, the country has widespread poverty,[10] pervasive corruption,[11] lack of political freedoms,[12] low human development[13] and a high rate of hunger.[14][15][16] Cambodia has been described by Human Rights Watch's Southeast Asian Director, David Roberts, as a "vaguely communist free-market state with a relatively authoritarian coalition ruling over a superficial democracy".[17]

While per capita income remains low compared to most neighboring countries, Cambodia has one of the fastest growing economies in Asia, with growth averaging 7.6 percent over the last decade. Agriculture remains the dominant economic sector, with strong growth in textiles, construction, garments and tourism leading to increased foreign investment and international trade.[18] The US World Justice Project's 2015 Rule of Law Index ranked Cambodia 76 out of 102 countries, similar to other countries in the region.[19]

1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIACB was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
2. ^ "Table: Religious Composition by Country" (PDF). Pew Research Center.
3. ^ Cambodian National Institute of Statistics, accessed 6 June 2012.
4. ^ a b c d "Cambodia". International Monetary Fund.
5. ^ "GINI Index". Gini Index. World Bank. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
6. ^ "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
7. ^ "Cambodia". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
8. ^ "Cambodia to celebrate day for indigenous people near Angkor Wat". News.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
9. ^ Chandler, David P. (1992) History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, ISBN 0813335116.
10. ^ "Consumerism booms as Cambodia embraces once-forbidden capitalism". Reuters. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
11. ^ "2013 Freedom House". Freedom House. 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
12. ^ "2013 Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
13. ^ "The 2013 Human Development Report – "The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"". Human Development Report Office United Nations Development Programme. pp. 144–147. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
14. ^ Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, and Concern Worldwide: 2013 Global Hunger Index – The challenge of hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food and Nutrition Security. Bonn, Washington D. C., Dublin. October 2013.
15. ^
16. ^ Chueyprasit, Orapa; Naasiri, Chaite (27 March 2014). "Thailand ranks 2nd in ASEAN for the best quality of life". National News Bureau of Thailand. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
17. ^ David Roberts (29 April 2016). Political Transition in Cambodia 1991–99: Power, Elitism and Democracy. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-85054-7. (section XI, "Recreating Elite Stability, July 1997 to July 1998")
18. ^ "Cambodia to outgrow LDC status by 2020". The Phnom Penh Post. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
19. ^ Cuddy, Alice (2 June 2015). "Rule of law rank near bottom". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 February 2016. The World Justice Project's Rule of Law Index, which is based on surveys with ordinary people and in-country experts, ranks countries based on eight key indicators including constraints on government powers, an absence of corruption, and regulatory enforcement...In every factor measured, Cambodia scored the worst in the East Asia and Pacific region, where other ranked nations include Myanmar, Vietnam and Mongolia....[w]here the rule of law is weak, medicines fail to reach health facilities, criminal violence goes unchecked, laws are applied unequally across societies, and foreign investments are held back.

10 November 1674Third Anglo-Dutch War: As provided in the Treaty of Westminster, Netherlands cedes New Netherland to England.

## Third Anglo-Dutch War

The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Dutch: Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674. It was part of the larger conflict between the Dutch Republic and her allies (the Quadruple Alliance) and France, and the third of a series of naval wars between the English and the Dutch.[1]

In 1670, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France concluded the Secret Treaty of Dover, intending to subjugate the Dutch state. England's Royal Navy joined France in its attack on the Republic in 1672, but was frustrated in its attempts to blockade the Dutch coast by four strategic victories of Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. An attempt to make the province of Holland an English protectorate rump state likewise failed. The Parliament of England, fearful that the alliance with France was part of a plot to make England Roman Catholic, forced the king to abandon the costly and fruitless war.[2]

1. ^ David Ogg, England in the Reign of Charles II (2nd ed. 1936), pp 357-88
2. ^ Boxer, C. R. (1969). "Some Second Thoughts on the Third Anglo–Dutch War, 1672–1674". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series. 19: 67–94. doi:10.2307/3678740.

11 November 1675Gottfried Leibniz demonstrates integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = ƒ(x).

## Integral

A definite integral of a function can be represented as the signed area of the region bounded by its graph.

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. Integration is one of the two main operations of calculus, with its inverse operation, differentiation, being the other. Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral

${\displaystyle \int _{a}^{b}f(x)\,dx}$

is defined informally as the signed area of the region in the xy-plane that is bounded by the graph of f, the x-axis and the vertical lines x = a and x = b. The area above the x-axis adds to the total and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total.

The operation of integration, up to an additive constant, is the inverse of the operation of differentiation. For this reason, the term integral may also refer to the related notion of the antiderivative, a function F whose derivative is the given function f. In this case, it is called an indefinite integral and is written:

${\displaystyle F(x)=\int f(x)\,dx.}$

The integrals discussed in this article are those termed definite integrals. It is the fundamental theorem of calculus that connects differentiation with the definite integral: if f is a continuous real-valued function defined on a closed interval [a, b], then, once an antiderivative F of f is known, the definite integral of f over that interval is given by

${\displaystyle \int _{a}^{b}\,f(x)dx=\left[F(x)\right]_{a}^{b}=F(b)-F(a)\,.}$

The principles of integration were formulated independently by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late 17th century, who thought of the integral as an infinite sum of rectangles of infinitesimal width. Bernhard Riemann gave a rigorous mathematical definition of integrals. It is based on a limiting procedure that approximates the area of a curvilinear region by breaking the region into thin vertical slabs. Beginning in the 19th century, more sophisticated notions of integrals began to appear, where the type of the function as well as the domain over which the integration is performed has been generalised. A line integral is defined for functions of two or more variables, and the interval of integration [a, b] is replaced by a curve connecting the two endpoints. In a surface integral, the curve is replaced by a piece of a surface in three-dimensional space.

12 November 1954Ellis Island ceased operations.

## Ellis Island

Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U.S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years[8] from 1892 until 1954. Ellis Island was opened January 1, 1892. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965 and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990 through 1995.

It was long considered part of New York, but a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey.[9] The south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public although there are tours of the hospital itself.[10][11]

1. ^ "Ellis Island - Hudson County, New Jersey". USGS. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
2. ^
3. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
4. ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
7. ^ http://www.neighborhoodpreservationcenter.org/db/bb_files/Ellis-Island--Main-Building--Interior-.pdf
8. ^ "Ellis Island - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
9. ^ Biskupic, Joan (May 27, 1998). "N.J. Wins Claim to Most of Ellis Island". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
10. ^ https://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2014/09/a_look_inside_ellis_island_hospital_complex_that_opens_to_public_next_week.html
11. ^ https://www.urbanexplorationtours.com/

13 November 1901 – The 1901 Caister lifeboat disaster.

## 1901 Caister lifeboat disaster

Memorial to the lifeboatmen who died

The Caister lifeboat disaster of 13 November 1901 occurred off the coast of Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk, England. It took place during what became known as the "Great Storm", which caused havoc down the east coasts of England and Scotland.

14 November 1971Mariner 9 enters orbit around Mars.

## Mariner 9

Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971[1][2] from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year,[1][2] becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet[3] – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month. After months of dust storms it managed to send back clear pictures of the surface.

Mariner 9 returned 7329 images over the course of its mission, which concluded in October 1972.[4]

1. ^ a b c "Mariner 9: Trajectory Information". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
2. ^ a b "Mariner Mars 1971 Project Final Report" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
3. ^ "Mariner 9: Details". National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
4. ^ NASA PROGRAM & MISSIONS Historical Log

15 November 2006 – Al Jazeera English launches worldwide.

## Al Jazeera English

Al Jazeera English (AJE) is a Qatari pay television news channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar. It is the first English-language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East.[1] Instead of being run centrally, news management rotates between broadcasting centres in Doha and London.

1. ^ "Al-Jazeera Says Its English-Language News Channel Will Launch November 15". The Post-Star. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009.

16 November 1871 – The National Rifle Association receives its charter from New York State.

## National Rifle Association

Seal of the National Rifle Association

The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a U.S. nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.[4][5][6] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.[7]

Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[7] According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed.[8][9][10]

Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[11][12] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[13][14] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.

1. ^ "The National Rifle Association". The New York Times. September 17, 1871. A meeting of the National Rifle Association was held in the Seventh Regiment armory yesterday, Gen. J.P. Woodward, of the second Division, presided, and Col. H.G. Shaw officiated as Secretary. Articles of association were presented and adopted. The incorporators are composed of forty prominent officers and ex-officers of the National Guard. Membership in the Association is to be open to all persons interested in the promotion of the rifle practice. Regiments and companies in the National Guard are entitled by the by-laws to constitute all their regular members in good standing members of the Association on the payment of one-half of the entrance fees and annual dues.
2. ^ "National Rifle Association". Guide Star.
3. ^ a b
4. ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.
5. ^ Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. Retrieved June 6, 2014. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.
6. ^ More gun rights sources:
7. ^ a b "A Brief History of NRA". National Rifle Association HQ. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
8. ^
9. ^ AM, Ryan Sit on 3/30/18 at 10:54 (March 30, 2018). "How big is the NRA? Gun group's membership might not be as powerful as it says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
10. ^ "About the NRA". home.nra.org. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
11. ^ "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. November 15, 1999. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
12. ^ Wilson, James Q.; et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-0495802815.
13. ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA 'encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut' shooting". ABC News. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
14. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 26, 2012). "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2013.

16 November 1871 – The National Rifle Association receives its charter from New York State.

## National Rifle Association

Seal of the National Rifle Association

The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a U.S. nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.[4][5][6] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.[7]

Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[7] According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed.[8][9][10]

Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[11][12] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[13][14] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.

1. ^ "The National Rifle Association". The New York Times. September 17, 1871. A meeting of the National Rifle Association was held in the Seventh Regiment armory yesterday, Gen. J.P. Woodward, of the second Division, presided, and Col. H.G. Shaw officiated as Secretary. Articles of association were presented and adopted. The incorporators are composed of forty prominent officers and ex-officers of the National Guard. Membership in the Association is to be open to all persons interested in the promotion of the rifle practice. Regiments and companies in the National Guard are entitled by the by-laws to constitute all their regular members in good standing members of the Association on the payment of one-half of the entrance fees and annual dues.
2. ^ "National Rifle Association". Guide Star.
3. ^ a b
4. ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.
5. ^ Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. Retrieved June 6, 2014. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.
6. ^ More gun rights sources:
7. ^ a b "A Brief History of NRA". National Rifle Association HQ. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
8. ^
9. ^ AM, Ryan Sit on 3/30/18 at 10:54 (March 30, 2018). "How big is the NRA? Gun group's membership might not be as powerful as it says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
10. ^ "About the NRA". home.nra.org. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
11. ^ "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. November 15, 1999. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
12. ^ Wilson, James Q.; et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-0495802815.
13. ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA 'encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut' shooting". ABC News. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
14. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 26, 2012). "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2013.

16 November 1871 – The National Rifle Association receives its charter from New York State.

## National Rifle Association

Seal of the National Rifle Association

The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a U.S. nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.[4][5][6] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975.[7]

Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events.[7] According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed.[8][9][10]

Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[11][12] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[13][14] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.

1. ^ "The National Rifle Association". The New York Times. September 17, 1871. A meeting of the National Rifle Association was held in the Seventh Regiment armory yesterday, Gen. J.P. Woodward, of the second Division, presided, and Col. H.G. Shaw officiated as Secretary. Articles of association were presented and adopted. The incorporators are composed of forty prominent officers and ex-officers of the National Guard. Membership in the Association is to be open to all persons interested in the promotion of the rifle practice. Regiments and companies in the National Guard are entitled by the by-laws to constitute all their regular members in good standing members of the Association on the payment of one-half of the entrance fees and annual dues.
2. ^ "National Rifle Association". Guide Star.
3. ^ a b
4. ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today.
5. ^ Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. (2012). "National Rifle Association (NRA)". Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0313386701. Retrieved June 6, 2014. The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the nation's largest, oldest, and most politically powerful interest group that opposes gun laws and favors gun rights.
6. ^ More gun rights sources:
7. ^ a b "A Brief History of NRA". National Rifle Association HQ. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
8. ^
9. ^ AM, Ryan Sit on 3/30/18 at 10:54 (March 30, 2018). "How big is the NRA? Gun group's membership might not be as powerful as it says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
10. ^ "About the NRA". home.nra.org. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
11. ^ "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations" (Press release). Time Warner. November 15, 1999. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
12. ^ Wilson, James Q.; et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 978-0495802815.
13. ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA 'encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut' shooting". ABC News. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
14. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 26, 2012). "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2013.

17 November 1950 – Lhamo Dondrub is officially named the 14th Dalai Lama.

## 14th Dalai Lama

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The 14th Dalai Lama[note 1] (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup;[note 2] 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism,[1] which was formally headed by the Ganden Tripas. From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama to 1959, the central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the position of Dalai Lama with temporal duties.[2][3]

The 14th Dalai Lama was born in Taktser, Amdo, Tibet. He was selected as the tulku of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1937 and formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama in a public declaration near the town of Bumchen in 1939.[4] His enthronement ceremony as the Dalai Lama was held in Lhasa on 22 February 1940 and he eventually assumed full temporal (political) duties on 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, after the People's Republic of China's incorporation of Tibet.[4] The Gelug school's government administered an area roughly corresponding to the Tibet Autonomous Region, just as the nascent PRC wished to assert control over it.

During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama fled to India, where he currently lives as a refugee. He has traveled the world and has spoken about the welfare of Tibetans, environment, economics, women's rights, non-violence, interfaith dialogue, physics, astronomy, Buddhism and science, cognitive neuroscience, reproductive health, and sexuality, along with various topics of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist teachings. A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, Time magazine named him one of the "Children of Mahatma Gandhi" and his spiritual heir to nonviolence.[5]
Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

1. ^ Van Schaik, Sam (2011). Tibet: A History. Yale University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-300-15404-7.
2. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400848058. Entries on "Dalai Lama" and "Dga' ldan pho brang".
3. ^ "Definition of Dalai Lama in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2 May 2015. The spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet
4. ^ a b "Chronology of Events". The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
5. ^ "The Children of Gandhi" (excerpt). Time. 31 December 1999. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.

18 November 1180Phillip II becomes king of France.

## Philip II of France

Philip II (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), known as Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France". The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) because he was a first son and born late in his father's life.[1] Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably.

The only known description of Philip describes him as "a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, and a temperament much inclined towards good-living, wine, and women. He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well-versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief, prudent and stubborn in his resolves. He made judgements with great speed and exactitude. Fortune's favorite, fearful for his life, easily excited and easily placated, he was very tough with powerful men who resisted him, and took pleasure in provoking discord among them. Never, however, did he cause an adversary to die in prison. He liked to employ humble men, to be the subduer of the proud, the defender of the Church, and feeder of the poor".[2]

After a twelve-year struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty in the Anglo-French War of 1202–14, Philip broke up the large Angevin Empire presided over by the crown of England and defeated a coalition of his rivals (German, Flemish and English) at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. This victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English King John was forced by his barons to sign Magna Carta and deal with a rebellion against him aided by Philip, the First Barons' War. The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals and knights to help carry it out.

Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris ("the Wall of Philip II Augustus"), re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.

1. ^ Cullum, P.; Lewis, K., eds. (2004). Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages. Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages. University of Wales Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7083-1894-2. Retrieved 2012-11-22. [...] Philip Augustus 'Dieudonné', [...] as this epithet demonstrates, was thought to have been given to Louis VII by God, because Louis had been married three times and had to wait many years for the birth of a son.
2. ^ Horne (2004), p. 25

19 November 1955National Review publishes its first issue.

## National Review

National Review (NR) is an American semi-monthly editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs. The magazine was founded by the author William F. Buckley Jr. in 1955.[3] It is currently edited by Rich Lowry.

Since its founding, the magazine has played a significant role in the development of conservatism in the United States, helping to define its boundaries[3] and promoting fusionism while establishing itself as a leading voice on the American right.[3][4][5]

The online version, National Review Online, is edited by Charles C. W. Cooke and includes free content and articles separate from the print edition.[6]

1. ^ "Garrett Bewkes". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
2. ^
3. ^ a b c Perlstein, Rick (April 11, 2017). "I thought I understood the American Right". New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
4. ^ Byers, Dylan. "National Review, conservative thinkers stand against Donald Trump". CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
5. ^ Brooks, David (September 24, 2017). "The Conservative Mind". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
6. ^ Advertising Media Kit, National Review Online.