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Live Updates: Footwear Biomechanics Symposium; Gold Coast; July 2017

Discussion in 'Biomechanics, Sports and Foot orthoses' started by Craig Payne, Jul 19, 2017.

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  1. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6

    Members do not see these Ads. Sign Up.
    Nice morning here in Goldie; its on; will update as the 3 days transpire ... check back for updates
     

    Attached Files:

  2. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
  3. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    First up: Joe Hamilton on `Evaluating Footwear`

    He started with the usual issues related to cushioning and pronation/motion control --- it is still used by many researchers and manufacturers, but data says otherwise - applying those concepts is not effective and has no affect on our goals.

    --> need a new paradigm

    Preferred motion pathway is a good start. Joe likes what he calls the Habitual Joint Motion Pathway ... as a study for minimal resistance pathway ... it is very individual and very subject specific.

    Determines pathway via 3D and squats and look at deviation from pathway; if low deviation --> neutral shoe so as not to interfere ; if high deviation --> more supportive shoe to move habitual pathway ... this is basis of Brook`s Stride Signature.

    Joe proposed concept of `Eversion Buffer Paradigm` Quoted Engberg et al 1996 (note to self: look it up) - greater risk for injury at the limits
    Also Rodigue et al 2013 on anterior knee pain eversion buffer was greater in those with AKP. No differences between groups in typical measures pronation.

    Comment made at end about pseudoscientific stuff in JAPMA! - that was embarassing
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Jul 20, 2017
  4. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Fischer et al: effect of footwear design on rearfoot addiction in running

    Brooks adrenaline reduced rearfoot eversion and was associated with greater rearfoot adduction compare to othe Brooks models

    Results statistically significant, but magnitudes small =

    (Who said shoe don`t alter motion)
     
  5. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Flores et al: Effects of shoe energy and bending stiffness on running economy and kinetics

    Shoes used in study differed only in energy return and bending stiffness;

    No differences in running economy
    There were kinetic differences ... low energy return reduced ground reaction forces
     
  6. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    DeClercq et al; striking the ground with a neutral ankle angle results in higher impacts during distance running.

    Compared typical rfs to atypical rfs to mfs

    Atypical rfs = initial cop position at lateral side of rearfoot--> fast anterior displacement ... 20% of runners have this; first met contact at 4% of stance (typical rfs at 20% of stance)

    Found differences in kinematics and kinetics between patterns
     
  7. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Giandolini et al: footwear influences soft tissue vibrations in rearfoot strike runners.

    Showed footwear has big effect on soft tissue vibrations

    Response appears to be subject specific
     
  8. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    langley et al: the influence of motion control, neutral and cushioned running shoes on foot kinematics

    Used asics motion control, neutral and cushioned running shoes

    Motion control shoes reduced foot motion- reduced arch angle, midfoot eversion, but not peak rearfoot eversion

    Results statistically significant, but magnitudes small
     
  9. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Zhang et al
    Effects of habitual running shoe type on foot soft tissue morphology

    3 groups of runners:
    - conventional running shoes
    - minimalist running shoes
    - conventional running shoes with orthotics

    Ultrasound to capture soft tissues images and used Arch Height Index

    Found:
    - arch height index same between all 3 groups
    - minimalist group had stiffer longitudinal arch
    - minimalist group had tinners plantar fascia and thicker achilles
     
  10. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Starbuck et al: The influence of an off-the-shelf lateral wedge orthotic on knee loading during running

    used arch supported lateral wedge insole --> no changes in lower limb biomechanics
     
  11. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Asmussen et al: Does a less torsionally stiff cycling shoe reduce knee moments during cycling?

    no

    subject specific responses.
     
  12. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Herbaut et al; Long term effects of gradual shoe drop reduction on young tennis players kinematics

    prospective; 2 groups:
    -control (12mm drop shoes)
    -experimental (8 mm drop and then 4 mm drop)

    6 of 12 in experimental group changed from heel strike to forefoot strike
     
  13. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Delattre et al: Women perception of shoe cushioning as a function of mechanical properties of footwear

    What they felt about how cushioning felt predicted 75% of the variance of what the mechanical data on the cushioning showed.
     
  14. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Hennig: Running shoe quality perception of runners can be predicted from biomechanical variables

    Which biomechanical footwear properties are related to shoe quality as judged by runners?

    60% of prediction of quality of shoe was related to the name of the running shoe company!

    Results:
    r squared for overall liking a shoe:
    - peak tibial acceleration (0.47)
    - max GRF rate (0.36)
    - max pronation (0.01)
    - max pronation velocity (p.01)
    - peak heel pressure (0.22)
    - peak forefoot pressure (0.21)

    Stepwise regression - tibial acceleration was prime factor; peak forefoot pressure was a second step variable
     
  15. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Willems et al: Is consumer behaviour towards footwear predisposing for lower extremity injuries in runners and walkers? A prospective study.

    300 runners + 280 walkers; baseline questionnaire on whole lot of stuff about choice, price, advertising etc

    49% had self reported injury during follow up (that high)

    Logistic regression analysis showed that the following were risk factors for injury:
    - a gait analysis before buying footwear
    - not caring for the model or closure mechanism of the shoe
    - feeling very much co0ncerned about the price quality ratio

    Risk decreased by:
    - buying shoes specific for the requested sport activity
    - buying the correct size
     
  16. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Mohr et al: The relationship between footwear comfort and variability of running kinematics

    36 runners; VAS on running shoe comfort

    whole lot of with accelerometer and gyroscope to get a relative variability measure

    --> lower perceived comfort associated with reduction in variability ... esp during late swing

    "We speculate that a less comfortable shoe offers a lower number of solutions for a runner to execute the running movement comfortably, leading to a more repetitive kinematic pattern. This may be particularly true for the preparation of heel strike during late swing"
     
  17. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    ... that's it; I done and dusted for the day; time for a beer ... see you tomorrow.
     
  18. Trevor Prior

    Trevor Prior Active Member

    Craig that is a great effort, well done and thank you.

    I was particularly interested in the Hamil study you quote below - I did a quick search for the two refs but drew a blank - do you have any more details on them?

    Also, was he doing there 3d whilst they performed the squats?

    T

    First up: Joe Hamilton on `Evaluating Footwear`

    He started with the usual issues related to cushioning and pronation/motion control --- it is still used by many researchers and manufacturers, but data says otherwise - applying those concepts is not effective and has no affect on our goals.

    --> need a new paradigm

    Preferred motion pathway is a good start. Joe likes what he calls the Habitual Joint Motion Pathway ... as a study for minimal resistance pathway ... it is very individual and very subject specific.

    Determines pathway via 3D and squats and look at deviation from pathway; if low deviation --> neutral shoe so as not to interfere ; if high deviation --> more supportive shoe to move habitual pathway ... this is basis of Brook`s Stride Signature.

    Joe proposed concept of `Eversion Buffer Paradigm` Quoted Engberg et al 1996 (note to self: look it up) - greater risk for injury at the limits
    Also Rodigue et al 2013 on anterior knee pain eversion buffer was greater in those with AKP. No differences between groups in typical measures pronation.
     
  19. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Will email him for the full refs.
    I was typing as fast as I could as he spoke! ... so missed bits etc; will get the info as I want to know more too.
     
  20. mgooch

    mgooch Member

  21. mgooch

    mgooch Member

  22. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Thanks Matt - will follow them up next week.

    First up this AM is CK!
    Not sure if I going to be able to write anything as probably will laughing so much!
     

    Attached Files:

  23. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Frankin et al: Do minimalist shoes improve balance and foot strength in older adults.

    26 subjects; mean age 71 yrs; randomized to 2 groups; measure balance and women strength measures; intervention group wore vivobarefoot`s

    No changes in balance
    Increase in hallux plantarflexion force
     
  24. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    This one interesting :
    Mills et al: Is immediate comfort while running in cushioned versus minimal footwear related to plantar foot sensitivity?
    75 runners
    Quantaive sensory testing
    Ran in NB1030v3 and NBminimus
    Then rated which shoe most comfortable

    47 said cushioned shoe more comfortable; 28 said minimus
    Then analysis based on QST
    `participants who rank cushioned running shoes as most comfortable have plantar foot sensitivity profiles that were more sensitive to mechanical pain, but less sensitive to vibration, compared to those who rank minimal running shoes as most comfortable. This suggests that cushioning may be preferred to avoid pain, or because it offers a vibration dampening that reduces the need for a muscle tuning response. This may have implications when advising runners on wearing a cushioned or a minimal running shoe, as comfort preference may be an indication of intrinsic capacity to tune impact force`

    Long term data coming to see if any adaptation
     
    Last edited: Jul 21, 2017
  25. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Semal et al: Minimalist running: evolution of spatiotemporal parameters and plantar pressure following a training of specific running technique in novice subjects

    Aim was to see if it was possible to teach the "technique of minimalist running" with standard shoes.

    .. yes you can
     
  26. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Firminger et al: Effect of minimalist footwear and stride length on the probability of metatarsal stress fracture.

    --> minimalist shoe associated with increased risk for stress fracture (due to smaller met angles at time of peak plantar force --> greater bending moments)

    --> reduced stride length does not reduce risk
     
  27. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Stebbins et al: Effect of shoe type on rearfoot motion

    looked at frontal plane rearfoot motion in Nike Free vs Ascent Sustain vs barefoot

    Minimalist shoe > rearfoot valgus than supportive shoe and less varus motion than barefoot

    BUT - no differences in rearfoot motion between barefoot and shod (!!!!)
     
  28. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Brauner et al: Does heel offset alter tensile load in the Achilles tendon during treadmill walking?

    Load in Achilles higher in shoes compared to barefoot (except when heel raise >14.8mm)
     
  29. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    ... missed a few; I done for the second day; time for a quiet night ...
     
  30. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Day 3; first up; Martyn Shorten; Science , pseudoscience and footwear science.

    Looking forward to this one ...
     

    Attached Files:

  31. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    `ideas are useless unless you allow others to take ownership of them` ... that resonates with me!A

    Minimalism has left a legacy
    Economics , cost f materials att eh time also drove running shoe companies to minimalism

    Unstable shoes disappeared from market quicker than minimalism

    Evidence came after the fact of loss of market share
    Questions answered by lawyers not scientists

    Innocent people hurt (injury; lost jobs)

    Epidemic of fake news affect this industry.

    What is our role as scientists?
     

    Attached Files:

  32. Craig Payne

    Craig Payne Moderator

    Articles:
    6
    Needs of the commercial imperative important to company.
    Science needs to fit into that --> not a good fit

    `up to 70% of runners inured each year` .... bullshit

    N=188952 online survey , 57% runners not injured in previous 12 month

    Injury rate ~70% in 1980; 43% in 2017 --> shoe reduce injury!!!!! (Others get into pseudoscience, why not us?)

    `Permissable puffery` --> marketing claims --> it is legal

    `scientifically proven` = bullshit

    Corporate culture and short product time frames a problem

    Comfort is psychological and not a biomechanical problem

    40% self identify a heel strikers; in reality 94% are
    `midfoot and forefoot strikers are outliers`

    New touch down foot angle 16.9 degrees --> normally distributed about that --> foot strike is just a continuum with no distinct pattern

    Too many `everriculum trinus` .... fishing trips into data

    Commercial conflicts:
    - attention seeking
    - attention span
    -consumer driven paradigms
    ...not about integrity but about culture

    2d frontal plane nonsense hung around as consumers understood it; but no excuse for researchers

    (...my head just grew a bit - Martyn just gave a shout out to my blog!!!!)
     
    Last edited: Jul 22, 2017
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