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Pachyonychia congenita

Discussion in 'General Issues and Discussion Forum' started by sooz, Sep 6, 2005.

  1. sooz

    sooz Member

    Members do not see these Ads. Sign Up.
    A site you may find interesting or useful


    I have this condition, so I hope you don't mind me posting here, just trying to spread the word, raise awareness etc..

    Any patients can register with the site also.
  2. sooz

    sooz Member

    I forgot to say, if anyone wants to ask any questions about how this condition affects patients, then please feel free.

    Has anyone looked at the site, did you find it interesting?
  3. Tully

    Tully Active Member


    Anyone have any hints on the best way to debride plantar keratosis beside smothering it in potassium hydroxide first? i know a patient uses a grinder the debride it off his hands, and having had to have tackled his feet i cant say i blame him!
  4. sooz

    sooz Member

    Personally speaking, nothing beats a scalpel and a lot of time and elbow grease!

    Soaking first, in plain old warm water, helps. I usually soak both feet for at least 15 minutes, dry one foot and start with the scalpel while the other foot carries on soaking, get as much off as possible, then switch and soak that foot while debriding the other one..... and so on. Obviously easier done at home, but any soaking before hand makes life easier and less painful. If this process is done every one to two weeks then (personally) the skin does not get too hard and therefore easier to trim.

    I do have a dremmel which I use hardly at all, but I'm lucky not to have it on my hands.
  5. cmax

    cmax Welcome New Poster

    I soak w/ warm water, use a cuticle cutter, then use a pumice stone.
  6. sooz

    sooz Member


    We have had a few new members join the Pachyonychia site recently, so just wanted to say thanks if any of you have patients with Pachyonychia and have referrred them to the site.

    Our message boards are getting fairly active these days, thanks so much. :)
  7. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Treatment of pachyonychia congenita with plantar injections of botulinum toxin.
    Br J Dermatol. 2006 Apr;154(4):763-5
  8. sooz

    sooz Member

    botulinum toxin.

    So how does this work??

    Any side effects?
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    This clinical trial has just been registered:
    Study of TD101, a Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Designed for Treatment of Pachyonychia Congenita
    This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
    Sponsored by: Pachyonychia Congenita Project
    Information provided by: Pachyonychia Congenita Project
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00716014
    Link to trial details
  10. Heather J Bassett

    Heather J Bassett Well-Known Member

    Hi CMAX, just a thought, Friction adn pressure also causes Callus so would not energetic use of a pumice stome add to the growth. I have seen that with normal callus?
    Appreciate your thoughts
  11. sooz

    sooz Member


    I have just returned from a patient support meeting organised by PC-Project and saw the results of the siRNA treatment... very exciting!

    There were approx 60 pc patients there (yes 60!!) plus many doctors, dermatologists, scientists etc.. as a pc'er myself, who didn't meet another until I was 40, it's pretty amazing!

    Re pumice stone, I've never been able to use this method, far too painful for me, but I know it has worked well for other pc'ers.
  12. Matt01

    Matt01 Member

    Hi all,
    a grave dig I know, but i found this thread after a search. I had a young gentleman present with this today. Debrided the hyperkerotosis, but wanted to know if anything further has been found recently regarding treatment. Have printed the botox article and will read tonight. I appreciate any thoughts or experiences, as this apparently is quite rare.
  13. Johnpod

    Johnpod Active Member


    Clients with this condition seek attention for nail management

    Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare condition in which the nails are thickened and discoloured at birth.

    It is a keratin disorder (see *Notes to assist the reader, at the end of this article).

    “Keratins are the major structural proteins of the epidermis and associated appendages and the nail, hair follicle, palm, sole and tongue are the main sites of constitutive K6, K16 and K17 expression” (Bowden, 1995)

    “Mutations in keratins, the epithelial-specific intermediate filament proteins, result in aberrant cytoskeletal networks which present clinically as a variety of epithelial fragility phenotypes”
    (Smith et al, 2005).

    Two types have been recognised: the Jadassohn–Lewandowsky form (PC-1) and the Jackson–Lawler form (PC-2).

    In PC-1 the nail dystrophy is accompanied by focal palmoplantar keratoderma and hyperkeratosis of the lingual and/or buccal mucosal tissues. The epithelia affected in P. congenita PC-1 express the keratin pair K6a and K16, and the condition is caused by dominant-negative mutations in these genes (Bowden et al, 1995; McLean et al, 1995).

    The PC-2 variant is caused by mutations in keratins K6b and K17 (McLean et al, 1995; Smith et al, 1998). Here, the nail dystrophy is accompanied by mild palmoplantar keratoderma and multiple pilosebaceous cysts caused by hyperkeratosis of the opening (infundibulum) of the hair follicle and accompanying sebaceous gland. Exactly how these keratin mutations lead to hyperkeratosis of the nail is not well understood, but fragility of the underlying nailbed keratinocytes presumably leads to release of cytokines and other inflammatory products which act upon the cells of the germinal matrix and produce overgrowth of the nail (Stoof et al, 1994; De Berker et al, 2000; Irwin et al, 2003).

    There are many reasons that nails are thickened to the extent of needing our management. Certain congenital conditions occur in which the nails are thickened and discoloured from birth. Nails suffer their own specific dystrophies and are sometimes affected by systemic disorders such as lupus, psoriasis, lymphatic and respiratory illnesses. Because of the conditions under which they are obliged to work they are subjected to accidental trauma and repetitive intermittent stress (exacerbated by the presence of any biomechanical lesions), and that makes them susceptible to infection by dermatophytic fungi and yeasts. The nail plates also thicken naturally with advanced age.

    Traumatic injury is the origin of the onychogryphotic nail and the ostler’s nail. Less obvious is the thickening caused by constant attrition of the involuted nail plate where the lateral nail borders cause persistent stimulation/inflammation of the nail structures. Repeated loss due to trauma eventually leads to coarser, thicker nail plates. The nail of the hyperextended hallux interacts with the interior toe box surface, and the short shoe will repeatedly push the nail body back onto the germinal matrix, causing hypertrophy of the nail. Retracted lesser digits suffer the repetitive stress of apical loading and react to the same nail matrix stimulation/inflammation, again resulting in thickening of the plate. Rotated lesser digits give rise to asymmetrical nail/ground contact, rotating the nail plate and stimulating the germinal matrix.
    Repetitive trauma produces thickening of the nail plate.

    In contrast, Pachyonychia congenita is present at birth. The nail plate is hypertrophic, dense and hard, but not unduly brittle. The sterile matrix is affected, creating a hyperkeratotic layer that raises and thickens the nail plate. Afflicted nails often adopt a tubular configuration.

    The nails require reduction to normal length per nipper and nail drill. It may also be possible to thin the nail plate slightly to reduce the overall vertical height of the nail and prevent further thickening due to repetitive trauma. There is no reason to trespass beneath the nailplate in order to remove hyperkeratotic tissue. This would open the area to infection and the pre-existing state would only recur.

    The identification of mutations in cases of P. congenita is necessary for future development of gene-specific and/or mutation-specific therapies (Liao et al, 2007)

    · Bowden PE, Haley JL, Kansky A, Rothnagel JA, Jones DO, Turner RJ. Mutation of a type II keratin gene (K6a) in pachyonychia congenita. Nat Genet. 1995;10:363–365.
    · De Berker D, Wojnarowska F, Sviland L, Westgate GE, Dawber RP, Leigh IM. Keratin expression in the normal nail unit: markers of regional differentiation. Br. J. Dermatol. 2000;142:89–96
    · Irwin WH, McLean WHI and Epithelial Genetics Group 2003 Genetic disorders of palm, skin and nail. J Anat. January; 202(1): 133–142.
    · Liao H, Sayers JM, Wilson NJ, Irvine AD, Mellerio JE, Baselga E, Bayliss SJ, Uliana V, Fimiani M, Lane EB, McLean WH, Leachman SA, Smith FJ., A spectrum of mutations in keratins K6a, K16 and K17 causing pachyonychia congenita. Epithelial Genetics Group, Human Genetics Unit, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.; [Epub ahead of print] J Dermatol Sci. 2007 Aug 23
    · McLean WHI, Rugg EL, Lunny DP, Morley SM, Lane EB, Swensson O, et al. Keratin 16 and keratin 17 mutations cause pachyonychia congenita. Nature Genet. 1995;9:273–278.
    · Smith FJD, Jonkman MF, Van Goor H, Coleman C, Covello SP, Uitto J, et al. A mutation in human keratin K6b produces a phenocopy of the K17 disorder pachyonychia congenita type 2. Human Mol. Genet. 1998;7:1143–1148
    · Smith FJ, Liao H, Cassidy AJ, Stewart A, Hamill KJ, Wood P, Joval I, van Steensel MA, Björck E, Callif-Daley F, Pals G, Collins P, Leachman SA, Munro CS, McLean WH. The genetic basis of pachyonychia congenita J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005 Oct;10(1):21-30
    · Stoof, TJ.;Boorsma, DM.; Nickoloff, BJ. Keratinocytes and immunological cytokines. In: Leigh IM, Lane EB, Watt FM. , editors. The Keratinocyte Handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1994. pp. 365–399.

    *Notes to assist the reader: In an animal cell, the cytoskeleton helps to maintain the shape of the cell, but its primary importance is in the internal movement and spatial arrangement of the components within the cell. The cytoskeleton is an organised network of three primary protein (keratin) filaments: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate fibres. In cases of Pachyonychia congenita, within the epithelial cells there are family-shared gene mutations in the keratin proteins of which the intermediate fibres are constructed. For further explanation the reader is referred to the animal cell animation on: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm
    Last edited: Dec 23, 2008
  14. Matt01

    Matt01 Member

    Many thanks for the info Johnpod, interesting reading.
  15. sooz

    sooz Member


    Please can I refer you to www.pachyonychia.org for latest info on Pachyonychia.

    thank you :)
  16. twirly

    twirly Well-Known Member

    Thank you Sooz,

    Great web site & really informative. :good:

  17. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Best treatment practices for pachyonychia congenita
    I. Goldberg1, D. Fruchter, A. Meilick, M.E. Schwartz, E. Sprecher
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (early view)
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  19. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    International Pachyonychia Congenita Research Registry (IPCRR)
  20. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Efficacy of botulinum toxin in pachyonychia congenita type 1: report of two new cases
    J?ssica Gonz?lez-Ramos*, Elena Sendagorta-Cud?s, Guillermo Gonz?lez-L?pez, Ander Mayor-Ibarguren, Rosa Feltes-Ochoa andPedro Herranz-Pinto
    Dermatologic Therapy; Early View
  21. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Chronic Foot Pain due to Pachyonychia Congenita in a Pediatric Patient: A Successful Management Strategy.
    Tariq S et al
    A A Case Rep. 2016 May 15;6(10):305-7
  22. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Peripheral neuropathic changes in pachyonychia congenita.
    Pan B, Byrnes K, Schwartz M, Hansen CD, Campbell CM, Krupiczojc M, Caterina MJ, Polydefkis M.
    Pain. 2016 Oct 20
  23. Daniel Smith

    Daniel Smith Welcome New Poster

    Hi There

    I have pachyonychia and have just had my first child yesterday. Her nails look fine but my wife is worried our little girl may still have it. Is there any tale tale signs in a new born.



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