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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 December 1826 – The Eggnog Riot at the United States Military Academy concludes after beginning the previous evening.

    Eggnog Riot

    The Eggnog Riot, sometimes known as the Grog Mutiny, was a riot that took place at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York, on 24–25 December 1826. It was caused by a drunken Christmas Day party in the North Barracks of the academy. Two days prior to the incident, a large quantity of whiskey was smuggled into the academy to make eggnog for the party, giving the riot its name.

    The riot eventually involved more than one-third of the cadets by the time it ceased on Christmas morning. A subsequent investigation by academy officials resulted in the implication of 70 cadets and the court-martialing of 20 of them and one enlisted soldier. Among the participants in the riot—though he was not court-martialed—was future Confederate States President Jefferson Davis.

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 December 1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou begins.

    Battle of Chickasaw Bayou

    The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, also called the Battle of Walnut Hills,[2] fought December 26–29, 1862, was the opening engagement of the Vicksburg Campaign during the American Civil War. Confederate forces under Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton repulsed an advance by Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman that was intended to lead to the capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

    On December 26, three Union divisions under Sherman disembarked at Johnson's Plantation on the Yazoo River to approach the Vicksburg defenses from the northeast while a fourth landed farther upstream on December 27. On December 27, the Federals pushed their lines forward through the swamps toward the Walnut Hills, which were strongly defended. On December 28, several futile attempts were made to get around these defenses. On December 29, Sherman ordered a frontal assault, which was repulsed with heavy casualties, and then withdrew. This Confederate victory frustrated Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's attempts to take Vicksburg by a direct approach.

    1. ^ a b c d Eicher, pp. 390–91.
    2. ^ The National Park Service battle description Archived September 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. gives a third alternative name, Chickasaw Bluffs. Although this may be derived from a variation on "Bluffs over Chickasaw Bayou" (referring to Drumgould's Bluff), the geographic location known as Chickasaw Bluffs is distant from the battlefield. Other references to this article do not use this name.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 December 1979 – The Soviet Union invades the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

    Soviet–Afghan War

    The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989. Insurgent groups known collectively as the mujahideen, as well as smaller Maoist groups, fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government, mostly in the rural countryside. The mujahideen groups were backed primarily by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan, making it a Cold War proxy war. Between 562,000[32] and 2,000,000 civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees,[33][34][36][37] mostly to Pakistan and Iran.

    Prior to the arrival of Soviet troops, Afghanistan's communist party took power after a 1978 coup, installing Nur Mohammad Taraki as president. The party initiated a series of radical modernization reforms throughout the country that were deeply unpopular, particularly among the more traditional rural population and the established traditional power structures.[38] The regime's nature[39] of vigorously suppressing opposition, executing thousands of political prisoners and ordering massacres against unarmed civilians, led to the rise of anti-government armed groups, and by April 1979 large parts of the country were in open rebellion.[40] The government itself experienced in-party rivalry, and in September 1979 Taraki was murdered under orders of his rival and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Hafizullah Amin, which soured relations with the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet government, under leader Leonid Brezhnev, decided to deploy the 40th Army on December 24, 1979.[41] Arriving in the capital Kabul, they staged a coup,[42] killing president Amin and installing Soviet loyalist Babrak Karmal from a rival faction.[40] The deployment had been variously called an "invasion" (by Western media and the rebels) or a legitimate supporting intervention (by the Soviet Union and the Afghan government)[43][44] on the basis of the Brezhnev Doctrine.

    In January 1980, foreign ministers from 34 nations of the Islamic Conference adopted a resolution demanding "the immediate, urgent and unconditional withdrawal of Soviet troops" from Afghanistan.[45] The UN General Assembly passed a resolution protesting the Soviet intervention by a vote of 104 (for) to 18 (against), with 18 abstentions and 12 members of the 152-nation Assembly absent or not participating in the vote;[45][46] only Soviet allies Angola, East Germany and Vietnam, along with India, supported the intervention.[47] Afghan insurgents began to receive massive amounts of aid and military training in neighboring Pakistan and China,[16] paid for primarily by the United States and Arab monarchies in the Persian Gulf.[8][9][16][12][48][49][50][51] As documented by the National Security Archive, "the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) played a significant role in asserting U.S. influence in Afghanistan by funding military operations designed to frustrate the Soviet invasion of that country. CIA covert action worked through Pakistani intelligence services to reach Afghan rebel groups."[52] Soviet troops occupied the cities and main arteries of communication, while the mujahideen waged guerrilla war in small groups operating in the almost 80 percent of the country that was outside government and Soviet control, almost exclusively being the rural countryside.[53] The Soviets used their air power to deal harshly with both rebels and civilians, levelling villages to deny safe haven to the mujahideen, destroying vital irrigation ditches, and laying millions of land mines.[54][55][56][57]

    The international community imposed numerous sanctions and embargoes against the Soviet Union, and the U.S. led a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow. The boycott and sanctions exacerbated Cold War tensions and enraged the Soviet government, which later led a revenge boycott of the 1984 Olympics held in Los Angeles.[58] The Soviets initially planned to secure towns and roads, stabilize the government under new leader Karmal, and withdraw within six months or a year. But they were met with fierce resistance from the guerillas,[59] and were stuck in a bloody war that lasted nine years.[60] By the mid-1980s, the Soviet contingent was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased, but the military and diplomatic cost of the war to the USSR was high.[10] By mid-1987 the Soviet Union, now under reformist leader Mikhail Gorbachev, announced it would start withdrawing its forces after meetings with the Afghan government.[6][7] The final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989, leaving the government forces alone in the battle against the insurgents, which continued until 1992 when the former Soviet-backed government collapsed. Due to its length, it has sometimes been referred to as the "Soviet Union's Vietnam War" or the "Bear Trap" by the Western media.[61][62][63] The Soviets' failure in the war[64] is thought to be a contributing factor to the fall of the Soviet Union.[65]

    1. ^ Peter Marsden (2009). Afghanistan – Aid, Armies and Empires: Aid, Armies and Empires. I.B.Tauris. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-85771-007-9.
    2. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1990/10/14/east-germanys-dirty-secret/09375b6f-2ae1-4173-a0dc-77a9c276aa4b/
    3. ^ . Delfi.lv. 7 March 1989 https://www.nytimes.com/1989/03/07/world/india-to-provide-aid-to-government-in-afghanistan.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
    4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Goodson, Larry P. (2001). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. pp. 147, 165. ISBN 978-0-295-98050-8.
    5. ^ McElroy, Damien (27 February 2012). "Stratfor: Osama bin Laden 'was in routine contact with Pakistan's spy agency'". The Telegraph. London.
    6. ^ a b c d "Afghanistan War – 2001–2014".
    7. ^ a b c d "Afghan War – 1978–1992".
    8. ^ a b c "Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski-(13/6/97)". Archived from the original on 2000-08-29. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
    9. ^ a b c d Cornwell, Rupert (February 13, 2010). "Charlie Wilson: Congressman whose support for the mujahideen helped force the Soviet Union out of Afghanistan". The Independent. London. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
    10. ^ a b Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-854-9.
    11. ^ "Saudi Arabia and the Future of Afghanistan". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
    12. ^ a b Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (May 13, 2003). "The Oily Americans". Time. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
    13. ^ ""Reagan Doctrine, 1985," United States State Department". State.gov. Archived from the original on 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
    14. ^ Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski – (June 13, 1997). Part 2. Episode 17. Good Guys, Bad Guys. June 13, 1997.
    15. ^ Corera, Gordon (2011). MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-7538-2833-5.
    16. ^ a b c d Frederick Starr, S. (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-7656-3192-3.
    17. ^ Renz, Michael (October 6, 2012). "Operation Sommerregen" (in German) (40). Die Welt. Die Welt. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
    18. ^ Borer, Douglas A. (1999). Superpowers defeated: Vietnam and Afghanistan compared. London: Cass. p. 216. ISBN 0-7146-4851-5.
    19. ^ Krivosheev, p. 365
    20. ^ Nyrop, Richard F.; Donald M. Seekins (January 1986). Afghanistan: A Country Study (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. pp. XVIII–XXV. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2001.
    21. ^ Mark N. Katz (March 9, 2011). "Middle East Policy Council | Lessons of the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan". Mepc.org. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
    22. ^ Maxime Rischard. "Al Qa'ida's American Connection". Global-Politics.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-11-21. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
    23. ^ "Soviet or the USA the strongest" (in Norwegian). Translate.google.no. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
    24. ^ "Afghanistan hits Soviet milestone – Army News". Armytimes.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
    25. ^ https://archive.org/stream/The_Soviet-Afghan_War_How_a_Superpower_Fought_and_Lost/The_Soviet-Afghan_War_How_a_Superpower_Fought_and_Lost_djvu.txt
    26. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference vfw.org was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "Russian soldier missing in Afghanistan for 33 years is FOUND living as nomadic sheikh in remote Afghan province". Dailymail. March 5, 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
    28. ^ David C. Isby (1986). Russia's War in Afghanistan. Osprey. ISBN 978-0-85045-691-2.
    29. ^ Antonio Giustozzi (2000). War, politics and society in Afghanistan, 1978–1992. Hurst. p. 115. ISBN 1-85065-396-8. A tentative estimate for total mujahideen losses in 1980-02 may be in the 150–180,000 range, with maybe half of them killed.
    30. ^ Markovskiy, Victor (1997). "Жаркое небо Афганистана: Часть IX" [Hot Sky of Afghanistan: Part IX]. Авиация и время [Aviation and Time] (in Russian) p.28
    31. ^ "Soviet Air-to-Air Victories of the Cold War". Retrieved October 2, 2014.
    32. ^ a b Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005). "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF). European Journal of Population. 21: 154. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 6, 2014. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
    33. ^ a b Noor Ahmad Khalidi, "Afghanistan: Demographic Consequences of War: 1978–87," Central Asian Survey, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 101–126, 1991.
    34. ^ a b Marek Sliwinski, "Afghanistan: The Decimation of a People," Orbis (Winter, 1989), p.39.
    35. ^ Hilali, A. (2005). US–Pakistan relationship: Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co. (p.198)
    36. ^ Klass, Rosanne (1994). The Widening Circle of Genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4128-3965-5. During the intervening fourteen years of Communist rule, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million Afghan civilians were killed by Soviet forces and their proxies- the four Communist regimes in Kabul, and the East Germans, Bulgarians, Czechs, Cubans, Palestinians, Indians and others who assisted them. These were not battle casualties or the unavoidable civilian victims of warfare. Soviet and local Communist forces seldom attacked the scattered guerrilla bands of the Afghan Resistance except, in a few strategic locales like the Panjsher valley. Instead they deliberately targeted the civilian population, primarily in the rural areas.
    37. ^ Cite error: The named reference :4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    38. ^ Bennett Andrew (1999); A bitter harvest: Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and its effects on Afghan political movements(Retrieved February 4, 2007)
    39. ^ Raymond Whitaker. "Obituary: Babrak Karmal". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
    40. ^ a b Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B.Tauris. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8.
    41. ^ "Timeline: Soviet war in Afghanistan". BBC News. Published February 17, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
    42. ^ "How Soviet troops stormed Kabul palace". BBC. 27 December 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
    43. ^ https://www.rbth.com/international/2017/01/12/7-things-you-probably-didnt-know-about-the-soviet-war-in-afghanistan_678758
    44. ^ https://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/modern-world-history-1918-to-1980/the-cold-war/russian-invasion-of-afghanistan/
    45. ^ a b "Moslems Condemn Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 29, 1980.
    46. ^ "U.N. General Assembly Votes to Protest Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan". Toledo Blade. January 15, 1980.
    47. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1980/01/12/india-supports-soviets-afghan-position-in-un-debate/17dd1eb5-93f9-44bf-9f95-ecda7285843c/?noredirect=on
    48. ^ Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 143. By 1982 the jihad was receiving $600 million in U.S. aid per year, with a matching amount coming from the Gulf states.
    49. ^ Total aid from the CIA is estimated at $3 billion. The precise figures as well as a description of the mechanics of the aid process are given in Barnett R. Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan. Yale University Press, 2002
    50. ^ According to Milton Bearden, former CIA chief in charge of the Afghan department, "The Saudi dollar-for-dollar match with the US taxpayer was fundamental to the success [of the ten-year engagement in Afghanistan]" (from Milton Bearden Interview. PBS Frontline.)
    51. ^ Cite error: The named reference unholy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    52. ^ U.S. ANALYSIS OF THE SOVIET WAR IN AFGHANISTAN: DECLASSIFIED, from the National Security Archive, edited by John Prados (October 9, 2001)
    53. ^ Amstutz, J. Bruce (1986). Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation. Washington D.C.: NDU Press, p. 127.
    54. ^ Westermann, Edward B. (Fall 1999). "The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Failure of Military Coercion in Afghanistan, 1979–89". XIX (2). Retrieved 3 October 2015.
    55. ^ Kaplan 2008, p. 128: "... the farmer told Wakhil [Kaplan's translator] about all the irrigation ditches that had been blown up by fighter jets, and the flooding in the valley and malaria outbreak that followed. Malaria, which on the eve of Taraki's Communist coup in April 1978 was at the point of being eradicated in Afghanistan, had returned with a vengeance, thanks to the stagnant, mosquito-breeding pools caused by the widespread destruction of irrigation systems. Nangarhar [province] was rife with the disease. This was another relatively minor, tedious side effect of the Soviet invasion."
    56. ^ TAYLOR, ALAN (Aug 4, 2014). "The Soviet War in Afghanistan, 1979 – 1989". The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
    57. ^ PEAR, ROBERT (August 14, 1988). "MINES PUT AFGHANS IN PERIL ON RETURN". The New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
    58. ^ "Cold War sanctions". Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
    59. ^ https://www.csmonitor.com/1983/0707/070754.html
    60. ^ "This Time It Will Be Different | Christs College Cambridge". Christs.cam.ac.uk. 2011-03-09. Archived from the original on 2018-01-16. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
    61. ^ Yousaf, Mohammad & Adkin, Mark (1992). Afghanistan, the bear trap: the defeat of a superpower. Casemate. p. 159. ISBN 0-9711709-2-4.
    62. ^ Richard Cohen (April 22, 1988). "The Soviets' Vietnam". Washington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
    63. ^ "Afghanistan was Soviets' Vietnam". Boca Raton News. April 24, 1988. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
    64. ^ "The Soviet Failure in Afghanistan | Marine Corps Association". Mca-marines.org. 2014-07-25. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
    65. ^ REUVENY, RAFAEL; PRAKASH, ASEEM (1999). "The Afghanistan war and the breakdown of the Soviet Union" (PDF). Review of International Studies. 25: 693–708. doi:10.1017/s0260210599006932. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 December 1973 – The Endangered Species Act is passed in the United States.

    Endangered Species Act of 1973

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).[1] Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The U.S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost."[2] The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

    1. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "International Affairs: CITES" Retrieved on 25 June 2015. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
    2. ^ "Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill", 437 U.S. 153 (1978) Retrieved 24 November 2015.  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 December 1851 – The first American YMCA opens in Boston, Massachusetts.

    YMCA

    First YMCA in Canada in Montreal, Quebec
    Self-defence classes at YMCA in Boise, Idaho, 1936

    The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), sometimes regionally called the Y, is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, with more than 64 million beneficiaries from 120 national associations.[1] It was founded on 6 June 1844 by Sir George Williams in London and aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body, mind, and spirit".

    From its inception, it grew rapidly and ultimately became a worldwide movement founded on the principles of Muscular Christianity. Local YMCAs deliver projects and services focused on youth development through a wide variety of youth activities, including providing athletic facilities, holding classes for a wide variety of skills, promoting Christianity, and humanitarian work.

    YMCA globally operates on a federation model, with each independent local YMCA voluntarily affiliated to their national organizations. The national organizations, in turn, are part of both an Area Alliance (Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, Africa, Latin America & Caribbean, USA and Canada) and the World Alliance of YMCAs (World YMCA).

    1. ^ "Blue Book". World Alliance of YMCAs. 2018-07-10. Retrieved 2018-11-10.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 December 1936 – The United Auto Workers union stages its first sitdown strike.

    Sitdown strike

    A sit-down strike is a labour strike and a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at factories or other centralized locations, take unauthorized or illegal possession of the workplace by "sitting down" at their stations. The attraction for workers of a sit-down strike is that the practice prevents employers from replacing them with strikebreakers or removing equipment to transfer production to other locations. Neal Ascherson has commented that an additional attraction of the practice is that it emphasizes the role of workers in providing for the people, and allows workers to in effect hold valuable machinery hostage as a bargaining chip.[1][verification needed]

    Workers have used this technique since the beginning of the 20th century in countries such as United States, Italy, Poland, Croatia, and France. However, sit-down strikes are now uncommon.

     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 December 1501 – The First Battle of Cannanore commences.

    First Battle of Cannanore

    The First Battle of Cannanore was a naval engagement between the Third Portuguese Armada under João da Nova and the naval forces of Calicut, which had been assembled by the Zamorin against the Portuguese in order to prevent their return to Portugal.

    The battle was fought over two days, between 31 December 1501 and 2 January 1502, and was the first major Portuguese naval engagement in the Indian Ocean. Although badly outnumbered, da Nova's bold tactics, better trained and prepared men and superior weaponry proved decisive for the Portuguese to defeat the blocking force of Calicut, break out of Cannanore, and emerge victorious from the battle.

    The battle is also historically notable for being one of the earliest recorded deliberate uses of a naval line of battle, and for resolving the battle by cannon alone. These tactics would become increasingly prevalent as navies evolved and began to see ships less as carriers of armed men, and more as floating artillery. In that respect, this has been called the first 'modern' naval battle (at least for one side).[2] After it, João da Nova returned to Portugal.

    1. ^ Matthew 1997, p. 11.
    2. ^ "Cananor – 31 de Dezembro de 1501 a 2 de Janeiro de 1502". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 January 1995 – The World Trade Organization comes into being

    World Trade Organization

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.[5][6]

    The WTO deals with regulation of trade in goods, services and intellectual property between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments[7]:fol.9–10 and ratified by their parliaments.[8] The WTO prohibits discrimination between trading partners, but provides exceptions for environmental protection, national security, and other important goals.[9] Trade-related disputes are resolved by independent judges at the WTO through a dispute resolution process.[9]

    The WTO's current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo,[10][11] who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland.[12] A trade facilitation agreement, part of the Bali Package of decisions, was agreed by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organization's history.[13][14] On 23 January 2017, the amendment to the WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement marks the first time since the organization opened in 1995 that WTO accords have been amended, and this change should secure for developing countries a legal pathway to access affordable remedies under WTO rules.[15]

    Studies show that the WTO boosted trade,[16][17][9] and that barriers to trade would be higher in the absence of the WTO.[18] The WTO has highly influenced the text of trade agreements, as "nearly all recent [preferential trade agreements (PTAs)] reference the WTO explicitly, often dozens of times across multiple chapters... in many of these same PTAs we find that substantial portions of treaty language—sometime the majority of a chapter—is copied verbatim from a WTO agreement."[19]

    1. ^ Members and Observers at WTO official website
    2. ^ Languages, Documentation and Information Management Division at WTO official site
    3. ^ "WTO Secretariat budget for 2017". WTO official site. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
    4. ^ Understanding the WTO: What We Stand For_ Fact File
    5. ^ http://www.nber.org/reporter/winter00/krueger.html
    6. ^ World Trade Organization – Unnderstanding the WTO: Basics
    7. ^ Understanding the WTO Handbook at WTO official website. (Note that the document's printed folio numbers do not match the pdf page numbers.)
    8. ^ Malanczuk, P. (1999). "International Organisations and Space Law: World Trade Organization". Encyclopædia Britannica. 442. p. 305. Bibcode:1999ESASP.442..305M.
    9. ^ a b c "U.S. Trade Policy: Going it Alone vs. Abiding by the WTO | Econofact". Econofact. 2018-06-15. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
    10. ^ Bourcier, Nicolas (21 May 2013). "Roberto Azevedo's WTO appointment gives Brazil a seat at the top table". Guardian Weekly. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
    11. ^ "Roberto Azevêdo takes over". WTO official website. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
    12. ^ "Overview of the WTO Secretariat". WTO official website. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
    13. ^ Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference | WTO – MC9 Archived 1 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
    14. ^ BBC News – WTO agrees global trade deal worth $1tn
    15. ^ "WTO | 2017 News items – WTO IP rules amended to ease poor countries' access to affordable medicines".
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference :3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference :4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference :6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 January 1833Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

    Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (1833)

    In December 1832, two naval vessels were sent by the United Kingdom to re-assert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), after the United Provinces of the River Plate (part of which later became Argentina) ignored British diplomatic protests over the appointment of Luis Vernet as governor of the Falkland Islands and a dispute over fishing rights.

     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 January 1956 – A fire damages the top part of the Eiffel Tower.

    Eiffel Tower

    The Eiffel Tower (/ˈfəl/ EYE-fəl; French: Tour Eiffel [tuʁ‿ɛfɛl] (About this soundlisten)) is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.

    Constructed from 1887–1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world.[3] The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015.

    The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.

    The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible only by lift.

    1. ^ a b c "Eiffel Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database.
    2. ^ a b Eiffel Tower at Emporis
    3. ^ SETE. "The Eiffel Tower at a glance". Official Eiffel Tower website. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
     
  11. Admin2

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    4 January 46 BCJulius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina.

    Julius Caesar

    Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈszər/; Latin pronunciation: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as an author of Latin prose.

    In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars. As a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms.[3] Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.

    After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land reform and support for veterans. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites, who began to conspire against him. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.[4][5] A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power and the era of the Roman Empire began.

    Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history.[6] His cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor"; the title "Caesar" was used throughout the Roman Empire, giving rise to modern cognates such as Kaiser or Tsar. He has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works, and his political philosophy, known as Caesarism inspired politicians into the modern era.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Dates in this article are given in the Roman calendar before 1 January 45 BC, and in the Julian calendar as observed in Rome on and after that date. There is some dispute over the year of Caesar's birth. Some scholars have made a case for 101 or 102 BC as the year of his birth, based on the dates that he held certain magistracies, but scholarly consensus favors 100 BC. Similarly, some scholars prefer 12 July, but most give 13 July. Goldsworthy, p. 30, Ward, Heichelheim, & Yeo p. 194. For a source arguing for 12 July, see Badian in Griffin (ed.) p.16
    2. ^ After Caesar's death, the leap years were not inserted according to his intent, and there is uncertainty about when leap years were observed between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive; the dates in this article between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive are those observed in Rome and there is an uncertainty of about a day as to where those dates would be on the proleptic Julian calendar. See Blackburn, B and Holford-Strevens, L. (1999 corrected 2003). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. p. 671. ISBN 978-0-19-214231-3
    3. ^ Keppie, Lawrence (1998). "The approach of civil war". The making of the Roman Army: from Republic to Empire. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-8061-3014-9.
    4. ^ Suetonius (121). "De vita Caesarum" [The Twelve Caesars]. University of Chicago. p. 107. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. More than sixty joined the conspiracy against [Caesar], led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus and Decimus Brutus.
    5. ^ Plutarch. "Life of Caesar". University of Chicago. p. 595. ... at this juncture Decimus Brutus, surnamed Albinus, who was so trusted by Caesar that he was entered in his will as his second heir, but was partner in the conspiracy of the other Brutus and Cassius, fearing that if Caesar should elude that day, their undertaking would become known, ridiculed the seers and chided Caesar for laying himself open to malicious charges on the part of the senators ...[dead link]
    6. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2010). Battles That Changed History: An Encyclopedia of World Conflict. ABC-CLIO. p. 68.
     
  12. Admin2

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    5 January 1919 – The German Workers' Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded.

    German Workers' Party

    The German Workers' Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). The DAP only lasted from 5 January 1919 until 24 February 1920.

     
  13. Admin2

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    6 January 1912 – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift.

    Alfred Wegener

    Alfred Lothar Wegener (/ˈvɡənər/;[1] German: [ˈʔalfʁeːt ˈveːgənɐ];[2][3] 1 November 1880 – November 1930) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.

    During his lifetime he was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research, but today he is most remembered as the originator of the theory of continental drift by hypothesizing in 1912 that the continents are slowly drifting around the Earth (German: Kontinentalverschiebung). His hypothesis was controversial and not widely accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries such as palaeomagnetism provided strong support for continental drift, and thereby a substantial basis for today's model of plate tectonics.[4][5] Wegener was involved in several expeditions to Greenland to study polar air circulation before the existence of the jet stream was accepted. Expedition participants made many meteorological observations and were the first to overwinter on the inland Greenland ice sheet and the first to bore ice cores on a moving Arctic glacier.

    1. ^ "Wegener". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962]. Das Aussprachewörterbuch [The Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German) (7th ed.). Berlin: Dudenverlag. pp. 177, 897. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4.
    3. ^ Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch [German Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 302, 1047. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6.
    4. ^ Spaulding, Nancy E.; Namowitz, Samuel N. (2005). Earth Science. Boston: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-618-11550-1.
    5. ^ McIntyre, Michael; Eilers, H. Peter; Mairs, John (1991). Physical geography. New York: Wiley. p. 273. ISBN 0-471-62017-3.
     
  14. Admin2

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    7 January 2012 – A hot air balloon crashes near Carterton, New Zealand, killing all 11 people on board.

    2012 Carterton hot air balloon crash

    On 7 January 2012, a scenic hot air balloon flight from Carterton, New Zealand, collided with a high-voltage power line while attempting to land, causing it to catch fire, disintegrate and crash just north of the town, killing all eleven people (ten passengers and the pilot) on board.[1][2]

    An inquiry into the accident by the Transport Accident Investigation Commission (TAIC) concluded that the balloon pilot made an error of judgement when contact with the power lines became imminent, trying to out-climb the power lines rather than using the rapid descent system to drop the balloon quickly to the ground below. Toxicology analysis of the balloon pilot after the accident tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), suggesting he may have been under the influence of cannabis at the time of the crash, which ultimately led to the error in judgement. The crash was the sixth accident in ten years the TAIC had investigated (the TAIC also investigates marine and rail accidents) which involved key people testing positive for drugs or alcohol, and the commission has called for the government to enact stricter measures in regards to drug and alcohol use in the aviation, marine and rail industries.[3][4]

    The crash was the deadliest air disaster to occur in mainland New Zealand since the July 1963 crash of New Zealand National Airways Corporation Flight 441 in the Kaimai Ranges, and the deadliest crash involving a New Zealand aircraft since the November 1979 crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 into Mount Erebus.[nb 1][1][5] As of September 2016, it is the deadliest ever ballooning disaster in New Zealand, and the fourth deadliest worldwide, surpassed only by the balloon crash in Australia in 1989 that killed 13, the balloon crash in Texas in 2016 that killed 16 people, and the 2013 crash in Egypt that killed 19 people.

    1. ^ a b "11 dead in hot air balloon tragedy". The New Zealand Herald. 7 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
    2. ^ "Eleven dead in New Zealand hot air balloon crash". BBC News. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
    3. ^ Backhouse, Matthew (31 October 2013). "Carterton balloon tragedy caused by errors of judgement". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
    4. ^ "New Zealand hot air balloon crash pilot 'used cannabis'". BBC News. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
    5. ^ Niles, Russ (6 January 2012). "New Zealand Balloon Crash Kills 11". AVweb. Retrieved 8 January 2012.


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  15. Admin2

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    8 January 1973Soviet space mission Luna 21 is launched.

    Luna 21

    Luna 21 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission, and its spacecraft, of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21, in 1973. The spacecraft landed on the Moon and deployed the second Soviet lunar rover, Lunokhod 2. The primary objectives of the mission were to collect images of the lunar surface, examine ambient light levels to determine the feasibility of astronomical observations from the Moon, perform laser ranging experiments from Earth, observe solar X-rays, measure local magnetic fields, and study mechanical properties of the lunar surface material.

    1. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 21/Lunokhod 2". Retrieved 2011-01-01.
     
  16. Admin2

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    9 January 2007Apple CEO Steve Jobs introduces the original iPhone at a Macworld keynote in San Francisco.

    IPhone

    iPhone (/ˈfn/ EYE-fone) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software. The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since.

    The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps. As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.

    Apple has released eleven generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the eleven major releases of the iOS operating system. The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, and was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, and the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal. They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch (120 and 140 mm) displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, and new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models. The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, and therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X.

    The original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have also garnered praise. The iPhone is one of the most widely used smartphones in the world, and its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.

    1. ^ "Apple stock soars to a record high on great earnings and a strong forecast for the next iPhone". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
    2. ^ "Under the Hood: The iPhone's Gaming Mettle". Touch Arcade. June 14, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    3. ^ "The iPhone 3GS Hardware Exposed & Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    4. ^ "iPhone 4 Teardown – Page 2". iFixit. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    5. ^ Toor, Amar (October 11, 2011). "Benchmarks clock iPhone 4S' A5 CPU at 800MHz, show major GPU upgrade over iPhone 4". Engadget. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
    6. ^ a b "iPhone 7 & 7 Plus". GSMArena. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
    7. ^ "iPhone 5 – View all the technical specifications". Apple Inc. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    8. ^ "iPhone Delivers Up to Eight Hours of Talk Time" (Press release). Apple Inc. June 18, 2007. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011.
    9. ^ Slivka, Eric (June 10, 2009). "More WWDC Tidbits: iPhone 3G S Oleophobic Screen, "Find My iPhone" Live lLP". Mac Rumors. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
    10. ^ Po-Han Lin. "iPhone Secrets and iPad Secrets and iPod Touch Secrets". Technology Depot. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
    11. ^ "Update: UK graphics specialist confirms that iPhone design win". EE Times.
    12. ^ a b Shimpi, Anand (June 10, 2009). "The iPhone 3GS Hardware Exposed & Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
      Sorrel, Charlie (June 10, 2009). "Gadget Lab Hardware News and Reviews T-Mobile Accidentally Posts Secret iPhone 3G S Specs". Wired. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
    13. ^ a b "Apple A4 Teardown". ifixit.com. June 10, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
    14. ^ "A9's GPU: Imagination PowerVR GT7600 – The Apple iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus Review". AnandTech. November 2, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
     
  17. Admin2

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    10 January 1870John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil

    Standard Oil

    Standard Oil Co. Inc. was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company and monopoly. Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refinery in the world of its time.[7] Its history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the United States Supreme Court, in a landmark case, ruled that Standard Oil was an illegal monopoly.

    Standard Oil dominated the oil products market initially through horizontal integration in the refining sector, then, in later years vertical integration; the company was an innovator in the development of the business trust. The Standard Oil trust streamlined production and logistics, lowered costs, and undercut competitors. "Trust-busting" critics accused Standard Oil of using aggressive pricing to destroy competitors and form a monopoly that threatened other businesses.

    Rockefeller ran the company as its chairman, until his retirement in 1897. He remained the major shareholder, and in 1911, with the dissolution of the Standard Oil trust into 34 smaller companies, Rockefeller became the richest man in the world, as the initial income of these individual enterprises proved to be much bigger than that of a single larger company. Its successors such as ExxonMobil or Chevron are still among the companies with the largest income worldwide. By 1882, his top aide was John Dustin Archbold. After 1896, Rockefeller disengaged from business to concentrate on his philanthropy, leaving Archbold in control. Other notable Standard Oil principals include Henry Flagler, developer of the Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, and Henry H. Rogers, who built the Virginian Railway.

    1. ^ "John D. and Standard Oil". Bowling Green State University. Archived from the original on 2008-05-04. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
    2. ^ "The Standard Oil Company; Ohio Charter No. 3675". Ohio Secretary of State. 1870-01-10.[permanent dead link]
    3. ^ "Rockefellers Timeline". PBS. Archived from the original on 2008-04-26. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
    4. ^ "WARDEN WINTER HOME - Florida Historical Markers on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
    5. ^ "Jacob Vandergrift…Transportation Pioneer - Oil150.com". oil150.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
    6. ^ "Random Reminiscences of Men and Events by John D. Rockefeller". Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018 – via www.gutenberg.org.
    7. ^ "Exxon Mobil - Our history". Exxon Mobil Corp. Archived from the original on 2008-11-12. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
     
  18. Admin2

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    11 January 1908Grand Canyon National Monument is created.

    Grand Canyon National Park

    Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named a national park. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World. The park, which covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties, received more than six million recreational visitors in 2017, which is the second highest count of all American national parks after Great Smoky Mountains National Park.[3] The Grand Canyon was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.

    1. ^ "Grand Canyon National Park Visitor Center". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
    2. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
    3. ^ a b "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
     
  19. Admin2

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    12 January 2005Deep Impact launches from Cape Canaveral on a Delta II rocket.

    Deep Impact (spacecraft)

    Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on January 12, 2005.[4] It was designed to study the interior composition of the comet Tempel 1 (9P/Tempel), by releasing an impactor into the comet. At 05:52 UTC on July 4, 2005, the Impactor successfully collided with the comet's nucleus. The impact excavated debris from the interior of the nucleus, forming an impact crater. Photographs taken by the spacecraft showed the comet to be more dusty and less icy than had been expected. The impact generated an unexpectedly large and bright dust cloud, obscuring the view of the impact crater.

    Previous space missions to comets, such as Giotto, Deep Space 1, and Stardust, were fly-by missions. These missions were able to photograph and examine only the surfaces of cometary nuclei, and even then from considerable distances. The Deep Impact mission was the first to eject material from a comet's surface, and the mission garnered considerable publicity from the media, international scientists, and amateur astronomers alike.

    Upon the completion of its primary mission, proposals were made to further utilize the spacecraft. Consequently, Deep Impact flew by Earth on December 31, 2007 on its way to an extended mission, designated EPOXI, with a dual purpose to study extrasolar planets and comet Hartley 2 (103P/Hartley).[5] Communication was unexpectedly lost in September 2013 while the craft was heading for another asteroid flyby.

    1. ^ Ray, Justin (January 9, 2005). "Delta Launch Report: Overview of NASA's Deep Impact comet mission". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
    2. ^ "Deep Impact (EPOXI): Key Dates". NASA. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
    3. ^ a b c d "Deep Impact Launch: Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. January 2005.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference SFN Over was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Tune, Lee; Steigerwald, Bill; Hautaluoma, Grey; Agle, D.C. (December 13, 2007). "Deep Impact Extended Mission Heads for Comet Hartley 2". University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
     
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    13 January 2018 – A false emergency alert warning of an impending missile strike in Hawaii caused widespread panic in the state.

    2018 Hawaii false missile alert

    On Saturday morning, January 13, 2018, a false ballistic missile alert was issued via the Emergency Alert System and Commercial Mobile Alert System over television, radio, and cellphones in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The alert stated that there was an incoming ballistic missile threat to Hawaii, advised residents to seek shelter, and concluded "This is not a drill". The message was sent at 8:07 a.m. local time. However, no civil defense outdoor warning sirens were authorized or sounded by the state.

    A second message, sent 38 minutes later, described the first as a "false alarm". State officials blamed a miscommunication during a drill at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency for the first message. Governor David Ige publicly apologized for the erroneous alert, which caused panic and disruption throughout the state. The Federal Communications Commission and the Hawaii House of Representatives launched investigations into the incident, leading to the resignation of the state's emergency management administrator.

    1. ^ "Human error, inadequate safeguards blamed in missile alert". Washington Post. Associated Press. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
     
  21. Admin2

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    14 January 1950 – The first prototype of the MiG-17 makes its maiden flight.

    Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17

    The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-17; NATO reporting name: Fresco)[1] is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants. It is an advanced development of the very similar looking MiG-15 of the Korean War. The MiG-17 was license-built in China as the Shenyang J-5 and Poland as the PZL-Mielec Lim-6.

    MiG-17s first saw combat in 1958 in the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis and later proved to be an effective threat against more modern supersonic fighters of the United States in the Vietnam War. It was also briefly known as the Type 38 by U.S. Air Force designation prior to the development of NATO codes.[2]

    1. ^ Parsch, Andreas and Aleksey V. Martynov. "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles." Non-U.S. Military Aircraft and Missile Designations, revised 18 January 2008. Retrieved: 30 March 2009.
    2. ^ Parsch, Andreas and Aleksey V. Martynov. "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles: 5.1 "Type" Numbers (1947-1955)." Non-U.S. Military Aircraft and Missile Designations, revised 18 January 2008. Retrieved: 30 March 2009.
     
  22. Admin2

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    15 January 1759 – The British Museum opens.

    British Museum

    The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room.

    The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, in the United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture. Its permanent collection numbers some 8 million works,[3] and is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence[3] having been widely sourced during the era of the British Empire, and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present.[a] It is the first national public museum in the world.[4]

    The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane.[5] It first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was largely a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the British Museum (Natural History) – now the Natural History Museum – in 1881.

    In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997. The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, and as with all other national museums in the United Kingdom it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions.[6]

    Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles.[7]

    1. ^ "Collection size". British Museum.
    2. ^ "2017 Visitor Figures". Association of Leading Visitor Attractions. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
    3. ^ a b "About us". British Museum. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
    4. ^ "History of the British Museum". The British Museum. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
    5. ^ "The Life and Curiosity of Hans Sloane". The British Library. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
    6. ^ "Admission and opening times". British Museum. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
    7. ^ Tharoor, Kanishk (29 June 2015). "Museums and looted art: the ethical dilemma of preserving world cultures". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2018.


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  23. Admin2

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    16 January 1556Philip II becomes King of Spain.

    Philip II of Spain

    Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain[a] (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I),[1] King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).[2] He was also Duke of Milan.[3] From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands.

    The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in Spain; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion.

    During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation. He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and the establishment of Protestantism in England, although he was defeated by the English. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.

    Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive". The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious."[4] Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Also rendered as Felipe in Archaic Portuguese
    2. ^ Geoffrey Parker. The Grand Strategy of Philip II, (2000)
    3. ^ Garret Mattingly. The Armada p. 22, p. 66 ISBN 0-395-08366-4
    4. ^ Davis, James C. (1970). Pursuit of Power: Venetian Ambassadors' Reports on Spain, Turkey, and France in the Age of Philip II 1560–1600. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 81–82.
     
  24. Admin2

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    16 January 1556Philip II becomes King of Spain.

    Philip II of Spain

    Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain[a] (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I),[1] King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).[2] He was also Duke of Milan.[3] From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands.

    The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in Spain; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion.

    During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation. He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and the establishment of Protestantism in England, although he was defeated by the English. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.

    Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive". The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious."[4] Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Also rendered as Felipe in Archaic Portuguese
    2. ^ Geoffrey Parker. The Grand Strategy of Philip II, (2000)
    3. ^ Garret Mattingly. The Armada p. 22, p. 66 ISBN 0-395-08366-4
    4. ^ Davis, James C. (1970). Pursuit of Power: Venetian Ambassadors' Reports on Spain, Turkey, and France in the Age of Philip II 1560–1600. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 81–82.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 January 1917 – The United States pays Denmark $25 million for the Virgin Islands.

    United States Virgin Islands

    The United States Virgin Islands (USVI; also called the American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean and an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles.

    The U.S. Virgin Islands consists of the main islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, and Saint Thomas, and many other surrounding minor islands. The total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles (346.36 km2).[3] The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of St. Thomas.

    Previously known as the Danish West Indies of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916. They are classified by the United Nations as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, and are currently an organized, unincorporated United States territory. The U.S. Virgin Islands are organized under the 1954 Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands and have since held five constitutional conventions. The last and only proposed Constitution, adopted by the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U.S. Virgin Islands in 2009, was rejected by the U.S. Congress in 2010, which urged the convention to reconvene to address the concerns Congress and the Obama Administration had with the proposed document. The Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U.S. Virgin Islands met in October 2012 to address these concerns, but was not able to produce a revised Constitution before its October 31 deadline.

    In 2010 the population was 106,405,[4] and mostly Afro-Caribbean. Tourism and related categories are the primary economic activity, employing a high percentage of the civilian non-farm labor force that totaled 42,752 persons in 2016 (the total non-farm labor force was 48,278 persons). Private sector jobs made up 71 percent of the total workforce. The average private sector salary was $34,088 and the average public sector salary was $52,572.[5]

    In a May 2016 report, some 11,000 people were categorized as being involved in some aspect of agriculture in the first half of 2016 but this category makes up a small part of the total economy. (The islands have a significant rum manufacturing sector.) At that time, there were approximately 607 manufacturing jobs and 1,487 natural resource and construction jobs. The single largest employer was the government.[6] In mid-February 2017, the USVI was facing a financial crisis due to a very high debt level of $2 billion and a structural budget deficit of $110 million.[7][8] Then early August 2017, the U.S. Virgin Islands government was rejected from the bond market.

    In September 2017, Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria slammed the U.S. Virgin Islands as Category 5 storms causing extensive damage to buildings and the island's power grid. More than 3,200 Virgin Islanders moved to the U.S. mainland to seek job opportunities and a better life.

    1. ^ "U.S. Virgin Islands – 2010 Census Results" (PDF). census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
    2. ^ "Gross Domestic Product Per Capita for U.S. Virgin Islands". 5 May 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
    3. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook-US Virgin Islands". Retrieved March 25, 2012.
    4. ^ 2010 Population Counts for the U.S. Virgin Islands Archived November 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., US Census Bureau.
    5. ^ "U.S. Virgin Islands Economic Review – VI" (PDF). VI Bureau of Economic Research. VI Bureau of Economic Research. May 15, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 30, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
    6. ^ "U.S. Virgin Islands Economic Review – VI" (PDF). VI Bureau of Economic Research. VI Bureau of Economic Research. May 15, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 30, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
    7. ^ Baribeau, Simone (January 23, 2017). "United States Virgin Islands Risks Capsizing Under Weight Of Debt". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved February 15, 2017. How far behind is the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) from facing the same sort of financial crisis as Puerto Rico? Not very.
    8. ^ Gilbert, Ernice (February 16, 2017). "GOVERNMENT HAS TWO DAYS CASH ON HAND LEFT, FINANCE COMMISSIONER REVEALS". VI Consortium. VI Consortium. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
     
  26. Admin2

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  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 January 1661Thomas Venner is hanged, drawn and quartered in London.

    Hanged, drawn and quartered

    The execution of Hugh Despenser the Younger, as depicted in the Froissart of Louis of Gruuthuse

    To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272). A convicted traitor was fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, and drawn by horse to the place of execution, where he was then hanged (almost to the point of death), emasculated, disembowelled, beheaded, and quartered (chopped into four pieces). The traitor's remains were often displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burned at the stake.

    The severity of the sentence was measured against the seriousness of the crime. As an attack on the monarch's authority, high treason was considered a deplorable act demanding the most extreme form of punishment. Although some convicts had their sentences modified and suffered a less ignominious end, over a period of several hundred years many men found guilty of high treason were subjected to the law's ultimate sanction. They included many English Catholic priests executed during the Elizabethan era, and several of the regicides involved in the 1649 execution of Charles I.

    Although the Act of Parliament defining high treason remains on the United Kingdom's statute books, during a long period of 19th-century legal reform the sentence of hanging, drawing, and quartering was changed to drawing, hanging until dead, and posthumous beheading and quartering, before being abolished in England in 1870. The death penalty for treason was abolished in 1998.

     
  28. Admin2

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    20 January 1969Richard Nixon is inaugurated the 37th President of the United States of America.

    Richard Nixon

    Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States from 1969 until 1974 and the only president to resign from the position. He had previously served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, and prior to that as both a U.S. representative and senator from California.

    Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U.S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950. His pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40. He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey.

    Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 eventually led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year. His administration generally transferred power from Washington D.C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon also presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race. He was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U.S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.

    In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman. He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days later at the age of 81.

    1. ^ Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum http://nixon.archives.gov/thelife/nixonbio.pdf Archived September 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 January 1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally takes place.

    Monte Carlo Rally

    A staging post from the 1959 Monte Carlo Rally
    1911 – Henri Rougier and the victorious 25Hp Turcat-Méry before the inaugural Monte Carlo rally
    1964 outright winning Morris-Mini Cooper S
    Stéphane Sarrazin driving a Subaru Impreza WRC2005 on the 2005 rally.
    Marcus Grönholm driving a Peugeot 307 WRC on the 2004 rally.
    Carlos Sainz driving a Toyota Corolla WRC on the 1999 rally.

    The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo (officially Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo) is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. Previously, competitors would set off from all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet, in Monaco to celebrate the end of a unique event. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating improvements and innovations to automobiles.

     

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