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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 April 1770 – Captain James Cook, still holding the rank of lieutenant, sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia.

    James Cook

    Captain James Cook FRS (7 November 1728[NB 1] – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

    Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.

    In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not previously charted by Western explorers. As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.

    Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=NB> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=NB}} template (see the help page).

     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 April 1908 – Opening day of competition in the New South Wales Rugby League.

    New South Wales Rugby League

    The New South Wales Rugby League (NSWRL) is the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory and is a member of the Australian Rugby League Commission. It was formed in Sydney on 8 August 1907[1] and was known as the New South Wales Rugby Football League (NSWRFL) until 1984. From 1908 to 1994, the NSWRL ran Sydney's, then New South Wales', and eventually Australia's top-level rugby league club competition from their headquarters (or "Bunker" as it was nicknamed during the Super League war) on Phillip Street, Sydney. The organisation is responsible for administering the New South Wales rugby league team.

    1. ^ ARL (2007). "Australian Rugby Football League Annual Report 2007" (PDF). Australian Rugby League Limited. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 April 1952 – Secretary's Day (now Administrative Professionals' Day) is first celebrated.

    Administrative Professionals' Day

    • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 April 1952 – Secretary's Day (now Administrative Professionals' Day) is first celebrated.

    Administrative Professionals' Day

    • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 April 1952 – Secretary's Day (now Administrative Professionals' Day) is first celebrated.

    Administrative Professionals' Day

    • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 April 1998Disney's Animal Kingdom opened at Walt Disney World.

    Disney's Animal Kingdom

    Disney's Animal Kingdom is a zoological theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando. Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks, Experiences and Consumer Products division, it is the largest theme park in the world, covering 580 acres (230 ha).[2][3][4][5] The park opened on Earth Day, April 22, 1998, and was the fourth theme park built at the resort. The park is dedicated and themed entirely around the natural environment and animal conservation, a philosophy once pioneered by Walt Disney himself.[6]

    Disney's Animal Kingdom is distinguished from the rest of Walt Disney World's theme parks in that it features traditional attractions while also exhibiting hundreds of species of live animals. Due to these sensitive conditions, special designs and provisions were incorporated throughout the park to protect the animals' welfare. The park is located on the western edge of the resort, and is isolated from the resort's other theme parks and properties to minimize external disruptions to the animals; as a result, the park's nighttime show also features no fireworks that would otherwise disturb the animals. The park also uses biodegradable paper straws and prohibits plastic straws, lids, and balloons. Disney's Animal Kingdom is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, which indicates they have met or exceeded the standards in education, conservation, and research.[7]

    In 2017, Disney's Animal Kingdom hosted about 12.5 million guests, ranking it as the third-most-visited theme park in North America and the sixth-most-visited theme park in the world.[8] The park's icon is the Tree of Life, a 145-foot-tall (44 m), 50-foot-wide (15 m) artificial baobab tree.

    1. ^ "Disney's Animal Kingdom". wdwinfo.com. Werner Technologies, LLC. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
    2. ^ Eades, Mark (August 30, 2017). "A former Disney Imagineer's guide to Disney's Animal Kingdom". OC Register. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
    3. ^ Kurt Snibbe (June 11, 2016). "A close-up look at Shanghai Disneyland: the newest Disney Park". Orange County Register. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
    4. ^ Kowalczik, Christopher; Kowalczik, Carol (2008). Simply Disney: Vacation Planning Made Easy 2008. Lulu Publishing. ISBN 978-1-43571-0-054. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
    5. ^ Robert Niles (May 26, 2013). "Disney's Animal Kingdom at Walt Disney World". Retrieved March 22, 2016.
    6. ^ "Environmentality: Disney and the Environment". The Walt Disney Company. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference aza_list was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2017 Global Attractions Attendance Report Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
     
  7. skeptic__me

    skeptic__me Member

    April 22 2016 Paris Agreement on climate change signed in New York binding 195 nations to an increase in the global average temperature to less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 April 2005 – The first ever YouTube video, titled "Me at the zoo", was published by user "jawed".

    Me at the zoo

    Me at the zoo is the first video that was uploaded to YouTube. It was uploaded on April 23, 2005 at 20:27:12 PDT (April 24, 2005 at 3:27:12 UTC)[1] by the site's co-founder Jawed Karim, with the username "jawed" and recorded by his high school friend Yakov Lapitsky.[2][3][4]

    He created a YouTube account on the same day.[5] The nineteen-second video was shot by Yakov at the San Diego Zoo, featuring Karim in front of the elephants in their old exhibit in Elephant Mesa, making note of their lengthy trunks.[6][7]

    1. ^ "Extract Meta Data". www.amnestyusa.org. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
    2. ^ Hartley, Matt (February 19, 2010). "Ten of YouTube's most influential videos". Canwest.
    3. ^ McGuinness, Ross (April 15, 2010). "Elephants to Gaga". Metro. p. 34. IT began with a spectacularly ordinary 18-second clip of man at the zoo, watching some elephants ... It has been viewed almost 2 million times.
    4. ^ Meltzer, Tom; Phillips, Sarah (October 23, 2009). "G2: A First Time For Everything". The Guardian (London). p. 14. "Me at the zoo" is a man called Karim's 19-second long report from the elephant enclosure at San Diego zoo ... But its historical significance means that it has had well over a million hits so far.
    5. ^ "jawed - YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved April 23, 2015. Joined 23 Apr 2005
    6. ^ Hoby, Hermione; Tom Lamont (April 11, 2011). "How YouTube made superstars out of everyday people". The Observer. Kings Place, London, England, UK: Guardian Media Group. ISSN 0029-7712. OCLC 50230244. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2011. A girl in red hotpants helped elect a US president, a British pensioner became everyone's favourite grandad. In just five years, the YouTube website has invented a new kind of celebrity
    7. ^ Heffernan, Virginia (September 6, 2009). "Uploading the Avant-Garde". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2011. The first video on YouTube was uploaded at 8:27 p.m. on Saturday, April 23, 2005. It's called "Me at the Zoo," and it features the musings of Jawed Karim, one of the site's founders, as elephants nose around in hay behind him.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 April 1993 – An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.

    1993 Bishopsgate bombing

    The Bishopsgate bombing occurred on 24 April 1993, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a powerful truck bomb on Bishopsgate, a major thoroughfare in London's financial district, the City of London. Telephoned warnings were sent about an hour beforehand, but a news photographer was killed in the blast and 44 people were injured, with fatalities minimised due to it occurring on a Saturday. The blast destroyed the nearby St Ethelburga's church and wrecked Liverpool Street station and the NatWest Tower.[1][2] The financial cost was severe, estimated at the time to be over £1 billion of damage (about £1.84 billion in 2018), making it the costliest terrorist attack at the time (since surpassed by the September 11 attacks).[3]

    As a result of the bombing, which happened just over a year after the bombing of the nearby Baltic Exchange, a "ring of steel" was implemented to protect the City, and many firms introduced disaster recovery plans in case of further attacks or similar disasters. £350 million was spent on repairing damage. In 1994 detectives believed they knew the identities of the IRA bombers, but lacked sufficient evidence to arrest them.[4]

    1. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY | 24 | 1993: IRA bomb devastates City of London". BBC News. 24 April 1993. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
    2. ^ "Bomb disposal hero breaks silence on anniversary of Bishopsgate blast | London Evening Standard". Standard.co.uk. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
    3. ^ "Wormwood Street in London after the IRA had detonated a truck bomb, 1993". Rarehistoricalphotos.com. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
    4. ^ Terry Kirby. "Police 'know who planted Bishopsgate bomb': Men seen on video may be in Irish Republic. Terry Kirby reports". The Independent. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 April 1898Spanish–American War: The United States declares war on Spain.

    Spanish–American War

    The Spanish–American War (Spanish: Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Filipino: Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U.S. predominance in the Caribbean region,[15] and resulted in U.S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.[16]

    The main issue was Cuban independence. Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule. The U.S. later backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by reports of gruesome Spanish atrocities.[17] The business community had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains. It lobbied vigorously against going to war. President William McKinley ignored the exaggerated yellow press and sought a peaceful settlement.[18] The United States Navy armored cruiser USS Maine mysteriously exploded and sank in Havana Harbor; political pressures from the Democratic Party pushed McKinley into a war that he had wished to avoid.

    McKinley signed a joint Congressional resolution demanding Spanish withdrawal and authorizing the President to use military force to help Cuba gain independence on April 20, 1898.[19] In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U.S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba.[20] Both sides declared war; neither had allies.

    The ten-week war was fought in both the Caribbean and the Pacific. As U.S. agitators for war well knew,[21] U.S. naval power would prove decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison already facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever.[22] The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill.[23] Madrid sued for peace after two Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern, fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.[24]

    The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U.S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine islands. The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million ($602,320,000 today) to Spain by the U.S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain.[25]

    The defeat and loss of the last remnants of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of '98.[24] The United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism.[26]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Clodfelter 2017, p. 256.
    2. ^ Clodfelter 2017, p. 308.
    3. ^ Karnow 1990, p. 115
    4. ^ Clodfelter 2017, pp. 254–255.
    5. ^ "America's Wars: Factsheet." Archived July 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine US Department of Veteran Affairs. Office of Public Affairs. Washington DC. Published April 2017.
    6. ^ "America's Wars: Factsheet." Archived July 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine US Department of Veteran Affairs. Office of Public Affairs. Washington DC. Published April 2017.
    7. ^ Marsh, Alan. "POWs in American History: A Synoposis" Archived August 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. National Park Service. 1998.
    8. ^ a b c d e f Clodfelter 2017, p. 255.
    9. ^ "America's Wars: Factsheet." Archived July 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine US Department of Veteran Affairs. Office of Public Affairs. Washington DC. Published April 2017.
    10. ^ See: USS Merrimac (1894).
    11. ^ a b Keenan 2001, p. 70.
    12. ^ Clodfelter describes the U.S. capturing 30,000 prisoners (plus 100 cannons, 19 machine guns, 25,114 rifles, and various other equipment) in the Oriente province and around Santiago. He also states that the 10,000-strong Puerto Rican garrison capitulated to the U.S. after only minor fighting.
    13. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 105.
    14. ^ Keenan, Jerry (2001). Encyclopedia of the Spanish–American & Philippine–American Wars. ABC-CLIO. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-57607-093-2. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
    15. ^ "Milestones: 1866–1898 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
    16. ^ Some recent historians prefer a broader title to encompass the fighting in Cuba and the Philippine Islands.
      examples:
    17. ^ W. Joseph Campbell, Yellow journalism: Puncturing the myths, defining the legacies (2001).
    18. ^ David Nasaw (2013). The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. p. 171. ISBN 978-0547524726.
    19. ^ Cite error: The named reference stat33.738 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    20. ^ Cite error: The named reference trask57 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference :3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Pérez 1998, p. 89 states: "In the larger view, the Cuban insurrection had already brought the Spanish army to the brink of defeat. During three years of relentless war, the Cubans had destroyed railroad lines, bridges, and roads and paralyzed telegraph communications, making it all but impossible for the Spanish army to move across the island and between provinces. [The] Cubans had, moreover, inflicted countless thousands of casualties on Spanish soldiers and effectively driven Spanish units into beleaguered defensive concentrations in the cities, there to suffer the further debilitating effects of illness and hunger."
    23. ^ "Military Book Reviews". StrategyPage.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
    24. ^ a b Dyal, Carpenter & Thomas 1996, pp. 108–109.
    25. ^ Benjamin R. Beede (2013). The War of 1898 and US Interventions, 1898T1934: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 289. ISBN 9781136746901. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
    26. ^ George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower: US Foreign relations since 1777 (2008) ch. 8
     
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 April 1964Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to form Tanzania.

    Tanzania

    Tanzania (/ˌtænzəˈnə/,[14][15][note 2] Swahili: [tanzaˈni.a]) officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.

    Many important hominid fossils have been found in Tanzania, such as 6 million year-old Pliocene hominid fossils. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago; and the oldest remains of the Homo genus are found near Lake Olduvai. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, and later in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens also overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, and their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire, medicine, and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them.

    Later in the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia;[16] Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago;[16] and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.[16]:page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.[16][17]

    European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.[18]

    The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.[7] The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located.[19] Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre.[18][20][21] Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power.

    Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. The Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa.[22]

    Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[23] The country does not have a de jure official language,[citation needed] although the national language is Swahili.[24] Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education,[23] although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether.[25] Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.[23]

    1. ^ "Tanzania". Ethnologue. SL International.
    2. ^ CIA World Factbook 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
    3. ^ David Lawrence (2009). Tanzania: The Land, Its People and Contemporary Life. Intercontinental Books. p. 146. ISBN 978-9987-9308-3-8.
    4. ^ "About the United Republic of Tanzania". Permanent Representative of Tanzania to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
    5. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978)
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference BFF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2012 census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
    10. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
    11. ^ "GINI Index". The World Bank. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
    12. ^ "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
    13. ^ "UPDATE 2-Tanzania's GDP expands by 32 pct after rebasing – officials". Reuters. Reuters. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
    14. ^ "Tanzania | Define Tanzania at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
    15. ^ "Tanzania". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
    16. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Genetics was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    17. ^ Christopher Ehret (2001). An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400. University Press of Virginia. ISBN 978-0-8139-2057-3.
    18. ^ a b Central Intelligence Agency. "Tanzania". The World Factbook.
    19. ^ Aloysius C. Mosha. "The planning of the new capital of Tanzania: Dodoma, an unfulfilled dream" (PDF). University of Botswana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
    20. ^ "The Tanzania National Website: Country Profile". Tanzania.go.tz. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
    21. ^ "Dar es Salaam Port". Tanzaniaports.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
    22. ^ "Kalambo Falls". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    23. ^ a b c Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1967. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.
    24. ^ "Tanzania Profile". Tanzania.go.tz. Tanzanian Government. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
    25. ^ "Tanzania Ditches English In Education Overhaul Plan". AFK Insider. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 April 1981Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.

    Computer mouse

    A computer mouse with the most common features: two buttons (left and right) and a scroll wheel, which can also act as a third button.

    A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface. The first public demonstration of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Originally wired to a computer, many modern mice are cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system. Mice originally used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and "wheels", which enable additional control and dimensional input.

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 April 1952 – The Treaty of San Francisco comes into effect, restoring Japanese sovereignty and ending its state of war with most of the Allies of World War II.

    Treaty of San Francisco

    The Treaty of San Francisco (サンフランシスコ講和条約, San-Furanshisuko kōwa-Jōyaku), Peace Treaty with Japan (日本国との平和条約, Nihon-koku to no Heiwa-Jōyaku) or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty), mostly between Japan and the Allied Powers, was officially signed by 49 nations on September 8, 1951, in San Francisco, California. It came into force on April 28, 1952 and officially ended the American-led Allied Occupation of Japan. According to Article 11 of the Treaty, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan.[1]

    This treaty served to officially end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes during World War II, and to end the Allied post-war occupation of Japan and return sovereignty to that nation. This treaty made extensive use of the United Nations Charter[2] and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[3] to enunciate the Allies' goals.

    This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the San Francisco System; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history.

    This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is still undetermined.

     
  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 April 1945 – World War II: The German army in Italy surrenders to the Allies.

    Operation Sunrise (World War II)

    SS General Karl Wolff's Proxy of Surrender for northern Italy, May 2, 1945

    Operation Sunrise, or the Bern incident, refers to a series of secret negotiations from February to May 1945 between representatives of Nazi Germany and the Western Allies of World War II to arrange a local surrender of German forces in northern Italy.[1] Most of the meetings took place in the vicinity of Bern, Switzerland, and the lead negotiators were Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff and American agent Allen Dulles. The meetings provoked Soviet suspicion that the Americans were seeking to sign a separate peace with the Germans and led to heated correspondence between Joseph Stalin and Franklin Roosevelt, an early episode of the emerging Cold War.[2]

    Roosevelt denied that there were any negotiations for surrender taking place in Switzerland. Dulles, however, appears to have made a verbal agreement to protect SS General Wolff from prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials as they worked out details of surrender.[3] Although Switzerland was neutral during World War II, the Swiss intelligence officer Max Waibel and the school director Max Husmann arranged for the meetings.[4] Prime Minister Winston Churchill was following the discussion closely, and said he believed that "misunderstandings" with the Soviets were resolved with Roosevelt's death on April 13. Churchill referred to the negotiations as Operation Crossword, apparently because he found them puzzling.[5][6] In spite of warnings from other officials that he was violating the Casablanca agreement that called for all dealings with Axis members to be on terms of unconditional surrender, Dulles worked supportively with Wolff, determined to end the war before the communists reached Trieste.[7]

    President Harry Truman officially closed down talks with the Germans in Switzerland, and made sure that a Russian general was represented at the talks in Caserta, Italy that finalized the surrender of the entire force.[8] Nonetheless, fallout from the incident seems to have discouraged full Soviet participation in the founding United Nations conference later that month.[9]

    1. ^ Zabecki, David T.; "Dulles, Allen Welsh" (May 2015). World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781135812423.
    2. ^ Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (2013-05-13). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 1135923116.
    3. ^ K., von Lingen,. "Conspiracy of Silence: How the "Old Boys" of American Intelligence Shielded SS General Karl Wolff from Prosecution". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 22 (1). ISSN 1476-7937.
    4. ^ Lingen, Kerstin von (2013-09-30). Allen Dulles, the OSS, and Nazi War Criminals: The Dynamics of Selective Prosecution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–80. ISBN 9781107025936.
    5. ^ Waller, Douglas (2016-10-25). Disciples: The World War II Missions of the CIA Directors Who Fought for Wild Bill Donovan. Simon and Schuster. p. 333. ISBN 9781451693744.
    6. ^ Martin Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, Volume 7: Road to Victory, 1941–1945 (1986) ch 65
    7. ^ Lingen, Kerstin von (2013-09-30). Allen Dulles, the OSS, and Nazi War Criminals: The Dynamics of Selective Prosecution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–80. ISBN 9781107025936.
    8. ^ Stephen P. Halbrook, "Operation Sunrise: America’s OSS, Swiss Intelligence, and the German Surrender 1945," (2006) online
    9. ^ Randell, Sara B. (2018). Ending the war - Operation Sunrise and Max Husmann. Stämpfli Verlag. ISBN 9783727260148.
     
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    30 April 1939 – The 1939-40 New York World's Fair opens.

    1939 New York World's Fair

    The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, which covered the 1,216 acres (492 ha) of Flushing Meadows–Corona Park (also the location of the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair), was the second most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St. Louis's Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904. Many countries around the world participated in it, and over 44 million people attended its exhibits in two seasons.[2] It was the first exposition to be based on the future, with an opening slogan of "Dawn of a New Day", and it allowed all visitors to take a look at "the world of tomorrow". According to the official pamphlet:

    The eyes of the Fair are on the future—not in the sense of peering toward the unknown nor attempting to foretell the events of tomorrow and the shape of things to come, but in the sense of presenting a new and clearer view of today in preparation for tomorrow; a view of the forces and ideas that prevail as well as the machines.

    To its visitors the Fair will say: "Here are the materials, ideas, and forces at work in our world. These are the tools with which the World of Tomorrow must be made. They are all interesting and much effort has been expended to lay them before you in an interesting way. Familiarity with today is the best preparation for the future.

    Within six months of the Fair's opening, World War II began, a war that lasted six years and resulted in the deaths of 70-85 million people.

    1. ^ "1939 New York World's Fair". www.1939nyworldsfair.com.
    2. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 58, Random House, New York, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
     
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    1 May 1994 – Three-time Formula One world champion Ayrton Senna is killed in an accident whilst leading the San Marino Grand Prix at Imola.

    Death of Ayrton Senna

    Three-time Formula One World Champion Ayrton Senna died on 1 May 1994 after his car crashed into a concrete barrier while he was leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in Italy. The previous day, Roland Ratzenberger had died when his car crashed during qualification for the race. His and Senna's accidents were the worst of several accidents that took place that weekend and were the first fatal accidents to occur during a Formula One race meeting in twelve years. They became a turning point in the safety of Formula One, prompting the implementation of new safety measures in both Formula One and the circuit, as well as the Grand Prix Drivers' Association to be reestablished. The Supreme Court of Cassation of Italy ruled that mechanical failure was the cause of the accident, although this has been disputed.

     
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    4 May 1959 – The 1st Annual Grammy Awards are held.

    1st Annual Grammy Awards

    The 1st Annual Grammy Awards were held on May 4, 1959. They recognized musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Two separate ceremonies were held simultaneously on the same day; the first in The Beverly Hilton hotel in Beverly Hills, California, and the second in the Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City.[1] Ella Fitzgerald & Ross Bagdasarian won most awards with 3 each, whereas Count Basie, Domenico Modugno, and Henry Mancini, each won 2 awards.[2][3]

    1. ^ "Grammy Awards 1959 (May)". Grammy.
    2. ^ Dornbrook, Don (24 May 1959). "And Now the Grammy Awards". The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
    3. ^ "1958 Grammy Winners". Grammy.com. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
     
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    5 May 2010Mass protests in Greece erupt in response to austerity measures imposed by the government as a result of the Greek government-debt crisis.

    Anti-austerity movement in Greece

    The anti-austerity movement in Greece involves a series of demonstrations and general strikes that took place across the country. The events, which began on 5 May 2010, were provoked by plans to cut public spending and raise taxes as austerity measures in exchange for a €110 billion bail-out, aimed at solving the Greek government-debt crisis. Three people were killed on 5 May in one of the largest demonstrations in Greece since 1973.

    On 25 May 2011 (2011-05-25), anti-austerity activists organised by the Direct Democracy Now! movement, known as the Indignant Citizens Movement (Greek: Κίνημα Αγανακτισμένων Πολιτών, Kínima Aganaktisménon-Politón), started demonstrating in major cities across Greece. This second wave of demonstrations proved different from the years before[6][7] in that they were not partisan[8] and began through peaceful means.[9] Some of the events later turned violent, particularly in the capital city of Athens.[10][11][12][13] Inspired by the anti-austerity protests in Spain, these demonstrations were organised entirely using social networking sites, which earned it the nickname "May of Facebook".[14] The demonstrations and square sit-ins were officially ended when municipal police removed demonstrators from Thessaloniki's White Tower square on 7 August 2011.[15]

    On 29 June 2011, violent clashes occurred between the riot police and activists as the Greek parliament voted to accept the EU's austerity requirements. Incidents of police brutality were reported by international media such as the BBC, The Guardian, CNN iReport and The New York Times, as well as by academic research[16] and organisations Amnesty International.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] The Athens Prosecutor agreed to an investigation into accusations of excessive use of tear gas, as well as the alleged use of other expired and carcinogenic chemical substances. As of 2011 the investigation is under way.[24]

    1. ^ "Outraged Greek youth follow Spanish example". euronews.eu. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011. First the Arab world, then Madrid, now Athens. Outraged Greek youth has taken its lead from the Arab spring and Spanish protests over unemployment.
    2. ^ "Greece crisis: Revolution in the offing?". BBC. 19 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011. Inspired by the Arab uprisings, they have dug in to oppose further spending cuts in exchange for a second bail-out by the EU and IMF.
    3. ^ Νέα ένταση και κυκλοφοριακό χάος (in Greek). Retrieved 29 June 2011.
    4. ^ Επεισόδια στο Σύνταγμα 12 Φεβρουαρίου 2012 (in Greek). Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    5. ^ "Μάριος Λώλος: Το χτύπημα ήταν δολοφονικό". Retrieved 22 June 2012.
    6. ^ Dalakoglou Dimitris (2012). "The Movement and the "Movement" of Syntagma Square". Cultural Anthropology. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
    7. ^ Εκπομπή: Ο δρόμος (για την πλατεία) είχε την δική του ιστορία (in Greek). koutipandoras.gr. 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
    8. ^ "Στα χνάρια των Ισπανών αγανακτισμένων (On the footsteps of the Spanish 'indignados')" (in Greek). skai.gr. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
    9. ^ Αγανακτισμένοι στο Σύνταγμα (in Greek). skai.gr. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
    10. ^ "Violent anti-cut riots in Greece spark coalition talks". Metro.co.uk. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    11. ^ "Greece Anxiety Increases: US Stocks Ends Lower on Wednesday Trading « USA Market News". Usamarketnews.com. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    12. ^ "BBC News – Greek PM George Papandreou to unveil new cabinet". BBC. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    13. ^ "Greek riot police, protesters clash during strike – World news – Europe". MSNBC. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    14. ^ "Ο Μάης του Facebook και με ομπρέλες". ethnos.gr. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
    15. ^ "Απομακρύνθηκαν οι "Αγανακτισμένοι" από τον Λευκό Πύργο". protothema.gr. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
    16. ^ "Beyond Spontaneity". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
    17. ^ "Greece passes key austerity vote". BBC. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
    18. ^ Siddique, Haroon; Batty, David (29 June 2011). "Greece austerity vote and demonstrations – Wednesday 29 June 2011". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
    19. ^ Smith, Helena (1 July 2011). "Greek police face investigation after protest violence". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
    20. ^ "TEAR GAS FIRED AS GREEK POLICE CLASH WITH ATHENS PROTESTERS". amnesty.org. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    21. ^ "GREECE URGED NOT TO USE EXCESSIVE FORCE DURING PROTESTS". amnesty.org. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
    22. ^ "Back when peaceful demonstrations in Greece were massive and meaningful..." CNN. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
    23. ^ Donadio, Rachel; Sayare, Scott (29 June 2011). "Violent Clashes in the Streets of Athens". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
    24. ^ Παρέμβαση της Εισαγγελίας Πρωτοδικών για τα χημικά στα επεισόδια (in Greek). skai.gr. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
     
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    6 May 1954Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

    Four-minute mile

    Blue plaque recording the first ever sub-four-minute mile run by Roger Bannister on 6 May 1954 at Oxford University's Iffley Road Track.

    A four-minute mile is the completion of a mile run (1,760 yards, or 1,609.344 metres) in four minutes or less. It was first achieved in 1954 by Roger Bannister in 3:59.4.[1] The "four-minute barrier" has since been broken by over 1,400 male athletes,[2] and is now the standard of all male professional middle distance runners in cultures that use Imperial units. In the 64 years since, the mile record has been lowered by almost 17 seconds, and currently stands at 3:43.13.[3] Running a mile in four minutes translates to a speed of 15 miles per hour (24.14 km/h, or 2:29.13 minutes per kilometre, or 14.91 seconds per 100 metres).[4] It also equals 22 feet per second (1320 feet per minute).

    1. ^ "Sports: Bannister stuns world with 4-minute mile". Sptimes.com. 17 December 1999. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
    2. ^ "World Sub-4 Mile Alphabetic Register".
    3. ^ "Most Popular". CNN. 8 May 2000.
    4. ^ "Finding the Next Roger Bannister". Cameron Poetzscher's Sports Blog. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
     
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    8 May 1912Paramount Pictures is founded.

    Paramount Pictures

    Paramount Pictures Corporation (also known simply as Paramount) is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world,[1] the second oldest in the United States, and the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood.

    In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo.[2] In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only.[3] The company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, California, United States.[4]

    Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).[5]

    1. ^ Richard Abel (1994). The Ciné Goes to Town: French Cinema, 1896–1914. University of California Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-520-07936-1.
    2. ^ http://ocgirl.net/wp-content/uploads/image/paramount/paramount-2.jpg
    3. ^ Fingas, Jon (January 19, 2014). "Paramount now releases movies only in digital form".
    4. ^ "Directions". The Studios at Paramount.
    5. ^ "Motion Picture Association of America – Who We Are - Our Story". MPAA. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
     
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    9 May 1949Rainier III becomes Prince of Monaco.

    Rainier III, Prince of Monaco

    Prince Rainier III (Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi; 31 May 1923 – 6 April 2005) ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs in European history.

    Though internationally known for his marriage to American actress Grace Kelly, he was also responsible for reforms to Monaco's constitution and for expanding the principality's economy from its traditional casino gambling base to its current tax haven role. Gambling accounts for only approximately three percent of the nation's annual revenue today; when Rainier ascended the throne in 1949, it accounted for more than 95 percent.[1]

    1. ^ "Prince Rainier III of Monaco". The Daily Telegraph. London. 7 April 2005.
     
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    10 May 1940 – World War II: Invasion of Iceland by the United Kingdom.

    Invasion of Iceland

    The invasion of Iceland by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines occurred on 10 May 1940, during World War II. The invasion was performed because the British government feared that the island would be used by the Germans, who had recently overrun Denmark, Iceland's possessing country. The Government of Iceland issued a protest, charging that its neutrality had been "flagrantly violated" and "its independence infringed".[This quote needs a citation]

    At the start of the war, the UK imposed strict export controls on Icelandic goods, preventing profitable shipments to Germany, as part of its naval blockade. The UK offered assistance to Iceland, seeking cooperation "as a belligerent and an ally",[This quote needs a citation] but Reykjavík refused and reaffirmed its neutrality. The German diplomatic presence in Iceland, along with the island's strategic importance, alarmed the UK government.[1]

    After failing to persuade the Icelandic government to join the Allies, the UK invaded on the morning of 10 May 1940. The initial force of 746 Royal Marines commanded by Colonel Robert Sturges disembarked at the capital Reykjavík. Meeting no resistance, the troops moved quickly to disable communication networks, secure strategic locations, and arrest German citizens. Requisitioning local transport, the troops moved to Hvalfjörður, Kaldaðarnes, Sandskeið, and Akranes to secure potential landing areas against the possibility of a German counterattack.

    1. ^ Stone, Bill (1998). "Iceland in the Second World War". Stone & Stone. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
     
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    11 May 1998 – India conducts three underground atomic tests in Pokhran.

    Pokhran-II

    The Pokhran-II tests were a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.[2] It was the second instance of nuclear testing conducted by India; the first test, code-named Smiling Buddha, was conducted in May 1974.[3]

    Pokhran-II consisted of five detonations, the first of which was a fusion bomb while the remaining four were fission bombs.[2] The tests were initiated on 11 May 1998, under the assigned code name Operation Shakti, with the detonation of one fusion and two fission bombs.[2] On 13 May 1998, two additional fission devices were detonated,[4] and the Indian government led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee shortly convened a press conference to declare India a full-fledged nuclear state.[4] The tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states, including Japan and the United States.[5]

    Many names have been assigned to these tests; originally these were collectively called Operation Shakti–98, and the five nuclear bombs were designated Shakti-I through to Shakti-V. More recently, the operation as a whole has come to be known as Pokhran II, and the 1974 explosion as Pokhran-I.[4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nwa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c CNN India Bureau (17 May 1998). "India releases pictures of nuclear tests". CNN India Bureau, 1998. CNN India Bureau. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
    3. ^ "Official press release by India". meadev.gov.in/. Ministry of External Affairs, 1998. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
    4. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Nuclear politics was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC America was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    12 May 1949Cold War: The Soviet Union lifts its blockade of Berlin.

    Berlin Blockade

    Berliners watch a Douglas C-54 Skymaster land at Tempelhof Airport, 1948

    The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche Mark from West Berlin.

    The Western Allies organised the Berlin airlift (26 June 1948–30 September 1949) to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the size of the city's population.[1][2] Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the French Air Force,[3] the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and the South African Air Force[4]:338 flew over 200,000 sorties in one year, providing to the West Berliners up to 12,941 tons of necessities in a day, such as fuel and food, with the original plan being to lift 3,475 tons of supplies. However, by the end of the airlift, that number was often met twofold.[5] The Soviets did not disrupt the airlift for fear this might lead to open conflict, even though they far outnumbered the allies in Germany and especially Berlin.[6] [7]

    By the spring of 1949, the airlift was clearly succeeding, and by April it was delivering more cargo than had previously been transported into the city by rail. On 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin, although for a time the U.S., U.K and France continued to supply the city by air anyway because they were worried that the Soviets were simply going to resume the blockade and were only trying to disrupt western supply lines. The Berlin Blockade served to highlight the competing ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe and was the first major multinational skirmish of the cold war.

    1. ^ Journey Across Berlin (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
    2. ^ Air Force Story, The Cold War, 1948–1950 (1953). Universal Newsreel. 1953. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
    3. ^ Jacques Bariéty (1994). "La France et la crise internationale du blocus de Berlin". Histoire, économie et société; Volume 13; numéro 1. pp. 29–44. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
    4. ^ "5 – National Security". South Africa: a country study (PDF). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1997. ISBN 0-8444-0796-8. Archived from the original (pdf) on 4 September 2012.
    5. ^ The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. P 828.
    6. ^ Michael Laird, "Wars averted: Chanak 1922, Burma 1945–47, Berlin 1948." The Journal of Strategic Studies (1996) 19#3 pp. 343–64.
    7. ^ Tusa, Ann, and John Tusa. The Berlin Airlift. Spellmount Publishers Ltd, 2008.
     
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    13 May 1971 – Over 900 unarmed Bengali Hindus are murdered in the Demra massacre.

    Demra massacre

    Demra massacre (Bengali: ডেমরা হত্যাকান্ড) in Bangladesh was the massacre of unarmed Hindu residents of the villages under Demra Union in present-day Faridpur Upazila in Pabna District by the occupying Pakistan Army aided by local collaborators on 13 May 1971. It is estimated that 800–900 people were killed in a single day.[1][2] Rape and plunder were also carried out, and mosques, temples, schools and houses were set on fire.[1]

    1. ^ a b Md. Habibullah (2012). "Faridpur Upazila". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal (ed.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference tds07112010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    14 May 1973Skylab, the United States' first space station, is launched.

    Skylab

    Skylab was the first space station launched and operated by NASA,[2] occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974; it was the only space station that the United States has operated exclusively. It fell back to Earth amid worldwide media attention in 1979. Skylab included a workshop, a solar observatory, and several hundred life science and physical science experiments.

    Skylab was launched unmanned into low Earth orbit by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a weight of 170,000 pounds (77,000 kg). This was the final mission for the Saturn V rocket, famous for carrying the manned Moon landing missions.[3] Three subsequent missions delivered three-astronaut crews in the Apollo command and service module (Apollo CSM) launched by the smaller Saturn IB rocket. For the final two manned missions to Skylab, NASA assembled a backup Apollo CSM/Saturn IB in case an in-orbit rescue mission was needed, but this vehicle was never flown. The station was damaged during launch when the micrometeoroid shield tore away from the workshop, taking one of the main solar panel arrays with it and jamming the other main array. This deprived Skylab of most of its electrical power and also removed protection from intense solar heating, threatening to make it unusable. The first crew deployed a replacement heat shade and freed the jammed solar panels to save Skylab. This was the first time that a repair of this magnitude was performed in space.

    Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount (a multi-spectral solar observatory), a multiple docking adapter with two docking ports, an airlock module with extravehicular activity (EVA) hatches, and the orbital workshop, the main habitable space inside Skylab. Electrical power came from solar arrays and fuel cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large waste tank, propellant tanks for maneuvering jets, and a heat radiator. Astronauts conducted numerous experiments aboard Skylab during its operational life. The telescope significantly advanced solar science, and observation of the sun was unprecedented. Astronauts took thousands of photographs of Earth, and the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) viewed Earth with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. The record for human time spent in orbit was extended beyond the 23 days set by the Soyuz 11 crew aboard Salyut 1 to 84 days by the Skylab 4 crew.

    Later plans to reuse Skylab were stymied by delays in development of the Space Shuttle, and Skylab's decaying orbit could not be stopped. Skylab's atmospheric reentry began on July 11, 1979.[4] Before re-entry, NASA ground controllers tried to adjust Skylab's orbit to minimize the risk of debris landing in populated areas,[5] targeting the south Indian Ocean, which was partially successful. Debris showered Western Australia, and recovered pieces indicated that the station had disintegrated lower than expected.[6] As the Skylab program drew to a close, NASA's focus had shifted to the development of the Space Shuttle. NASA space station and laboratory projects included Spacelab, Shuttle-Mir, and Space Station Freedom, which was merged into the International Space Station.

    1. ^ "EP-107 Skylab: A Guidebook". NASA. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
    2. ^ https://history.nasa.gov/SP-400/sp400.htm
    3. ^ "SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE FLIGHT EVALUATION REPORT SA-513 SKYLAB 1" (PDF). NASA. 1973. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference benson371 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference time19790716 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference lewis1984 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    15 May 1648The Treaty of Westphalia is signed.

    Peace of Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, largely ending the European wars of religion, including the Thirty Years' War. The treaties of Westphalia brought to an end a calamitous period of European history which caused the deaths of approximately eight million people.[1] Scholars have identified Westphalia as the beginning of the modern international system, based on the concept of Westphalian sovereignty, though this interpretation has been seriously challenged.[2]

    The negotiation process was lengthy and complex. Talks took place in two different cities, as each side wanted to meet on territory under its own control. A total of 109 delegations arrived to represent the belligerent states, but not all delegations were present at the same time. Three treaties were signed to end each of the overlapping wars: the Peace of Münster, the Treaty of Münster, and the Treaty of Osnabrück. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, with the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies on one side, battling the Protestant powers (Sweden, Denmark, Dutch, and Holy Roman principalities) allied with France (Catholic but anti-Habsburg). The treaties also ended the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch.

    The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peace established by diplomatic congress. A new system of political order arose in central Europe, based upon peaceful coexistence among sovereign states. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power, and a norm was established against interference in another state's domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order.[3]

    1. ^ Clodfelter, Michael (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015. McFarland. p. 40. ISBN 978-0786474707.
    2. ^ Osiander, Andreas (2001). "Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth". International Organization. 55 (2): 251–287.
    3. ^ Henry Kissinger (2014). "Introduction and Chpt 1". World Order: Reflections on the Character of Nations and the Course of History. Allen Lane. ISBN 0241004268.
     
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    16 May 1920 – In Rome, Pope Benedict XV canonizes Joan of Arc.

    Canonization of Joan of Arc

    Joan of Arc (1412–1431) was formally canonized as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church on 16 May 1920 by Pope Benedict XV in his bull Divina disponente,[4] which concluded the canonization process that the Sacred Congregation of Rites instigated after a petition of 1869 of the French Catholic hierarchy. Although pro-English clergy had Joan burnt at the stake for heresy in 1431, she was rehabilitated in 1456 after a posthumous retrial. Subsequently, she became a folk saint among French Catholics and soldiers inspired by her story of being commanded by God to fight for France against England. Many French regimes encouraged her cult, and the Third Republic was sympathetic to the canonization petition prior to the 1905 separation of church and state.

    1. ^ (See Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January").
    2. ^ "Chemainus Theatre Festival > The 2008 Season > Saint Joan > Joan of Arc Historical Timeline". Chemainustheatrefestival.ca. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
    3. ^ Church of England Holy Days
    4. ^ Pope Benedict XV, Divina Disponente (Latin), 16 May 1920, http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xv/la/bulls/documents/hf_ben-xv_bulls_19200516_divina-disponente.html.
     
  32. Admin2

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    17 May 1984Prince Charles calls a proposed addition to the National Gallery, London, a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved and elegant friend", sparking controversies on the proper role of the Royal Family and the course of modern architecture.

    Charles, Prince of Wales

    Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, and is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history.[2] He is also the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958.[3]

    Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William (b. 1982)—later to become Duke of Cambridge—and Prince Harry (b. 1984)—later to become Duke of Sussex. In 1996, the couple divorced following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, Charles married long-time partner Camilla Parker Bowles.

    As Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of the Queen and the Commonwealth realms. Charles founded The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president and a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. As an environmentalist, he raises awareness of organic farming and climate change which has earned him awards and recognition from environmental groups.[4][5][6][7] His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community[8][9] and his views on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings have received considerable attention from British architects and design critics.[10][11][12] Since 1993, Charles has worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his preferences. He is also an author and co-author of a number of books.

    1. ^ "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
    2. ^ "Prince Charles becomes longest-serving heir apparent". BBC News. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
    3. ^ Bryan, Nicola. "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
    4. ^ Rourke, Matt (28 January 2007). "Prince Charles to receive environmental award in NYC". USA Today. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
    5. ^ Alderson, Andrew (14 March 2009). "Prince Charles given 'friend of the forest' award". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    6. ^ Lange, Stefan (29 April 2009). "Prince Charles collects award in Germany". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    7. ^ "2012 Lifetime Achievement Award Winner – HRH The Prince of Wales". greenawards.com. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
    8. ^ Weissmann, Gerald (September 2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–1758. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
    9. ^ Brady, Brian (21 July 2013). "He's at it again: Prince Charles accused of lobbying Health Secretary over homeopathy". The Independent. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
    10. ^ "Profession reacts to Prince Charles' 10 design principles". architectsjournal.co.uk. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
    11. ^ Forgey, Benjamin (22 February 1990). "Prince Charles, Architecture's Royal pain". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
    12. ^ "How the Poundbury project became a model for innovation". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 July 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=fn> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=fn}} template (see the help page).

     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 May 1984Prince Charles calls a proposed addition to the National Gallery, London, a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved and elegant friend", sparking controversies on the proper role of the Royal Family and the course of modern architecture.

    Charles, Prince of Wales

    Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, and is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history.[2] He is also the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958.[3]

    Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William (b. 1982)—later to become Duke of Cambridge—and Prince Harry (b. 1984)—later to become Duke of Sussex. In 1996, the couple divorced following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, Charles married long-time partner Camilla Parker Bowles.

    As Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of the Queen and the Commonwealth realms. Charles founded The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president and a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. As an environmentalist, he raises awareness of organic farming and climate change which has earned him awards and recognition from environmental groups.[4][5][6][7] His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community[8][9] and his views on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings have received considerable attention from British architects and design critics.[10][11][12] Since 1993, Charles has worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his preferences. He is also an author and co-author of a number of books.

    1. ^ "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
    2. ^ "Prince Charles becomes longest-serving heir apparent". BBC News. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
    3. ^ Bryan, Nicola. "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
    4. ^ Rourke, Matt (28 January 2007). "Prince Charles to receive environmental award in NYC". USA Today. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
    5. ^ Alderson, Andrew (14 March 2009). "Prince Charles given 'friend of the forest' award". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    6. ^ Lange, Stefan (29 April 2009). "Prince Charles collects award in Germany". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
    7. ^ "2012 Lifetime Achievement Award Winner – HRH The Prince of Wales". greenawards.com. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
    8. ^ Weissmann, Gerald (September 2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–1758. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
    9. ^ Brady, Brian (21 July 2013). "He's at it again: Prince Charles accused of lobbying Health Secretary over homeopathy". The Independent. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
    10. ^ "Profession reacts to Prince Charles' 10 design principles". architectsjournal.co.uk. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
    11. ^ Forgey, Benjamin (22 February 1990). "Prince Charles, Architecture's Royal pain". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
    12. ^ "How the Poundbury project became a model for innovation". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 July 2018.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=fn> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=fn}} template (see the help page).

     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 May 1863American Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg begins.

    Siege of Vicksburg

    The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Mississippi, led by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

    Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River; therefore, capturing it completed the second part of the Northern strategy, the Anaconda Plan. When two major assaults against the Confederate fortifications, on May 19 and 22, were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. After holding out for more than forty days, with their supplies nearly gone, the garrison surrendered on July 4. The successful ending of the Vicksburg Campaign significantly degraded the ability of the Confederacy to maintain its war effort. This action, combined with the surrender of Port Hudson to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks on July 9, yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict.

    The Confederate surrender on July 4, is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen. Robert E. Lee's defeat at Gettysburg by Maj. Gen. George Meade the previous day, the turning point of the war. It cut off the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas from the rest of the Confederate States, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two for the duration of the war. The Union victory also permanently severed communication between the Trans-Mississippi Department and the balance of the Confederacy.

    1. ^ National Park Service. Grant's army arrived at the outskirts of Vicksburg on May 19, but formal siege operations began with Grant's Special Order No. 140 on May 25 (Simon, p. 267).
    2. ^ See: Rawley, pp. 145-169.
    3. ^ Kennedy, p. 172.
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference K173 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 May 1991Croatians vote for independence in a referendum.

    1991 Croatian independence referendum

    Croatia held an independence referendum on 19 May 1991, following the Croatian parliamentary elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia. With 83 percent turnout, voters approved the referendum, with 93 percent in favor of independence. Subsequently, Croatia declared independence and the dissolution of its association with Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991, but it introduced a three-month moratorium on the decision when urged to do so by the European Community and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe through the Brioni Agreement. The war in Croatia escalated during the moratorium, and on 8 October 1991, the Croatian Parliament severed all remaining ties with Yugoslavia. In 1992, the countries of the European Economic Community granted Croatia diplomatic recognition and Croatia was admitted to the United Nations.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Referendum-1991-result was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 May 1940The Holocaust: The first prisoners arrive at a new concentration camp at Auschwitz.

    Auschwitz concentration camp

    The Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of Auschwitz I, the main camp (Stammlager) and administrative headquarters in Oświęcim; Auschwitz II–Birkenau, a combined concentration and extermination camp three kilometers away in Brzezinka; Auschwitz III–Monowitz, a labor camp created to staff an IG Farben synthetic-rubber factory; and dozens of other subcamps.[2]

    After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, sparking World War II, the Germans converted Auschwitz I, a former army barracks, to hold Polish political prisoners.[3] The first prisoners, German criminals brought to the camp as functionaries, arrived in May 1940,[4] and the first gassing of prisoners took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I in September 1941. Auschwitz II–Birkenau went on to become a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question. From early 1942 until late 1944, transport trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to the camp's gas chambers. Of the estimated 1.3 million people sent to Auschwitz, at least 1.1 million died,[5] around 90 percent of them Jews.[6] Approximately one in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp.[7] Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 non-Jewish Poles, 23,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah's Witnesses, tens of thousands of others of diverse nationalities, and an unknown number of gay men. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died because of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, and medical experiments.

    In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel (SS), approximately 12 percent of whom were later convicted of war crimes; several, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss, were executed. The Allies did not act on early reports of atrocities at the camp, and their failure to bomb the camp or its railways remains controversial. At least 802 prisoners tried to escape from Auschwitz, 144 successfully, and on 7 October 1944 two Sonderkommando units, consisting of prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers, launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising.

    As Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of its population was sent west on a death march. The remaining prisoners were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In the following decades, survivors such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947 Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, and in 1979 it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

    1. ^ "The unloading ramps and selections". Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019.
    2. ^ "Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Auschwitz III-Monowitz". Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Archived from the original on 22 January 2019.
    3. ^ Dwork & van Pelt 2002, p. 166.
    4. ^ Iwaszko 2000a, p. 15.
    5. ^ Piper 1998b, pp. 70–71.
    6. ^ "Ethnic origins and number of victims of Auschwitz". Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019.
    7. ^ Snyder 2010, p. 377.
     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 May 1966 – The Ulster Volunteer Force declares war on the Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland.

    Ulster Volunteer Force

    The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is an Ulster loyalist paramilitary group. It emerged in 1966. Its first leader was Gusty Spence, a former British soldier. The group undertook an armed campaign of almost thirty years during the Troubles. It declared a ceasefire in 1994 and officially ended its campaign in 2007, although some of its members have continued to engage in violence and criminal activities. The group is classified as a terrorist organisation by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, and United States.[5][6]

    The UVF's declared goals were to combat Irish republicanism – particularly the Irish Republican Army (IRA) – and to maintain Northern Ireland's status as part of the United Kingdom. It was responsible for more than 500 deaths. The vast majority (more than two-thirds)[7][8] of its victims were Irish Catholic civilians, who were often killed at random. During the conflict, its deadliest attack in Northern Ireland was the 1971 McGurk's Bar bombing, which killed fifteen civilians. The group also carried out attacks in the Republic of Ireland from 1969 onward. The biggest of these was the 1974 Dublin and Monaghan bombings, which killed 34 civilians, making it the deadliest terrorist attack of the conflict. The no-warning car bombings had been carried out by units from the Belfast and Mid-Ulster brigades. The Mid-Ulster Brigade was also responsible for the 1975 Miami Showband killings, in which three members of the popular Irish cabaret band were shot dead at a bogus military checkpoint by gunmen in British Army uniforms. Two UVF men were accidentally blown up in this poorly planned attack. The UVF's last major attack was the 1994 Loughinisland massacre, in which its members shot dead six Catholic civilians in a rural pub. Until recent years,[9] it was noted for secrecy and a policy of limited, selective membership.[10][11][12][13][14] The other main loyalist paramilitary group during the conflict was the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), which had a much larger membership.

    Since the ceasefire, the UVF has been involved in rioting, drug dealing and organised crime.[15] Some members have also been found responsible for orchestrating a series of racist attacks.[16]

    1. ^ Mr N.J. HAAGERUP (1983–1984). "Report drawn up on behalf of the Political Affairs Committee on the situation in Northern Ireland" (PDF). EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. European Communities.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
    2. ^ McDonald, Henry; Cusack, Jim (30 June 2016). "UVF - The Endgame". Poolbeg Press Ltd – via Google Books.
    3. ^ Aaron Edwards - UVF: Behind the Mask p.206,207
    4. ^ 21:00 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TfGe4WO8yok
    5. ^ "Terrorism Act 2000". Schedule 2, Act No. 11 of 2000.
    6. ^ Terrorist Exclusion List, US State Department
    7. ^ "Sutton Index of Deaths: Organisation responsible for the death". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 1 September 2014.
    8. ^ "Sutton Index of Deaths: Crosstabulations". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 1 September 2014. (choose "religion summary" + "status" + "organisation")
    9. ^ "Inside the UVF: Money, murders and mayhem - the loyalist gang's secrets unveiled". Belfast Telegraph. 13 October 2014.
    10. ^ Taylor, Peter (1999). Loyalists. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p.34 ISBN 0-7475-4519-7
    11. ^ Jim Cusack & Henry McDonald, UVF, Poolbeg, 1997, p. 107
    12. ^ Wood, Ian S., Crimes of Loyalty, Edinburgh University Press, 2006, p.6 & p.191 ISBN 978-0748624270
    13. ^ Bruce, Steve. The Edge of the Union: The Ulster Loyalist Political Vision, Oxford University Press, 1994, p.4, ISBN 978-0198279761
    14. ^ Boulton, David, U.V.F. 1966–73: An Anatomy of Loyalist Rebellion, Gill & MacMillan, 1973, p.3 ISBN 978-0717106660
    15. ^ "Police to investigate 'UVF gangsterism'". BBC News. 3 October 2013.
    16. ^ "UVF 'behind racist attacks in south and east Belfast'". Belfast Telegraph. 3 April 2014.
     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    22 May 826HMS Beagle departs on its first voyage.

    HMS Beagle

    HMS Beagle was a Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class. The vessel, constructed at a cost of £7,803 (£613,000 in today's currency), was launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom, and for that occasion is said to have been the first ship to sail completely under the old London Bridge.[2][3] There was no immediate need for Beagle so she "lay in ordinary", moored afloat but without masts or rigging. She was then adapted as a survey barque and took part in three survey expeditions.

    The second voyage of HMS Beagle is notable for carrying the recently graduated naturalist Charles Darwin around the world. While the survey work was carried out, Darwin travelled and researched geology, natural history and ethnology onshore. He gained fame by publishing his diary journal, best known as The Voyage of the Beagle, and his findings played a pivotal role in the formation of his scientific theories on evolution and natural selection.[3][4]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Fitz17–18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Taylor 2008, pp. 22–24, 36
    3. ^ a b "HMS 'Beagle' (1820–70)". Royal Museums Greenwich. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
    4. ^ Howitt, William (1865). "Voyages of Captains Wickham, Fitzroy, and Stokes, in the Beagle, round the Australian Coasts, from 1837 to 1843". The History of Discovery in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand: From the Earliest Date to the Present Day. 1. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green. p. 332.
     

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