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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 October 2009 – The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kill 155 and wounds at least 721.

    October 2009 Baghdad bombings

    The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings were attacks in Baghdad, Iraq which killed 155 people and injured at least 721 people.[1]

    1. ^ a b c "Baghdad bomb fatalities pass 150". BBC News. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
    2. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (27 October 2009). "Extremist group claims responsibility for Baghdad bombs". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 October 1863The Football Association is founded.

    The Football Association

    The Football Association (also known as The FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.

    The FA facilitates all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the county football associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, and youth national football teams.

    The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which is responsible for the Laws of the Game. As the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London. The FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.[1]

    All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules.[2] The English Football League, made up of the three fully professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions.

    1. ^ "Team GB decision reached". TheFA.com. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
    2. ^ "The Premier League and Other Football Bodies". Premier League. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 October 2004 – The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals to win their first World Series in 86 years.

    2004 World Series

    The 2004 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2004 season. The 100th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the American League (AL) champion Boston Red Sox and the National League (NL) champion St. Louis Cardinals;[1] the Red Sox swept the Cardinals in four games. The series was played from October 23 to 27, 2004, at Fenway Park and Busch Memorial Stadium, broadcast on Fox, and watched by an average of just under 25.5 million viewers. The Red Sox's World Series championship was their first since 1918, ending the Curse of the Bambino.

    The Cardinals earned their berth into the playoffs by winning the NL Central division title, and had the best win–loss record in the NL. The Red Sox won the AL wild card to earn theirs. The Cardinals reached the World Series by defeating the Los Angeles Dodgers in the best-of-five NL Division Series and the Houston Astros in the best-of-seven NL Championship Series. The Red Sox defeated the Anaheim Angels in the AL Division Series. After trailing three games to none to the New York Yankees in the AL Championship Series, the Red Sox came back to win the series, advancing to their first World Series since 1986. The Cardinals made their first appearance in the World Series since 1987. With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII, the World Series victory made Boston the first city to have Super Bowl and World Series championship teams in the same year (2004) since Pittsburgh in 1979.[2] The Red Sox became the third straight wild card team to win the World Series; the Anaheim Angels won in 2002 and the Florida Marlins won in 2003.[3]

    The Red Sox had home-field advantage in the World Series by nature of the AL winning the 2004 All-Star Game. In game one, Mark Bellhorn helped the Red Sox win with a home run, while starter Curt Schilling led the team to a game two victory by pitching six innings and allowing just one run. The Red Sox won the first two games despite committing four errors in each. The Red Sox won game three, aided by seven shutout innings by Pedro Martínez. A home run by Johnny Damon in the first inning helped to win game four for the Red Sox to secure the series. The Cardinals did not lead in any of the games in the series. Manny Ramírez was named the series' Most Valuable Player. The Red Sox and Cardinals faced each other again in the 2013 World Series, which the Red Sox also won, this time 4 games to 2.

    1. ^ Shaughnessy 2005, pp. 212–214
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pittsburgh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "How Many MLB Wild-Card Teams Have Won the World Series?". The Cheat Sheet. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 October 2009 – The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.

    28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing

    The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing occurred in Peshawar, Pakistan, when a car bomb was detonated in a Mina Bazar (Market for women and children) of the city. The bomb killed 137 people and injured more than 200 others, making it the deadliest attack in Peshawar's history. Pakistani government officials believe the Taliban to be responsible, but both Taliban and Al-Qaeda sources have denied involvement in the attack.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference IT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Hazrat Bacha, Ali (30 October 2009). "Death toll from Peshawar blast rises to 117". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 October 2015China announces the end of One-child policy after 35 years.

    One-child policy

    A propaganda painting of the family planning policies of China
    China's population growth since 1950

    The one-child policy (Chinese: 一孩政策) was part of a broad program designed to control the size of the rapidly growing population of the People's Republic of China.[1] Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries, which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want, it set a limit on the number of births parents could have, making it the world's most extreme example of population planning. One-child families were first encouraged in some areas in 1978 by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping,[2][3][4][5] although strict enforcements did not begin until 1980 (after a decade-long two-child policy).[6] The policy was modified beginning in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before the government announced in late 2015 a reversion to a two-child limit.[7][8] The policy also allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities. Thus, the term "one-child policy" has been called a "misnomer", because for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed (1979–2015), about half of all parents in China faced instead a two-child limit.[9][10][11]

    To enforce existing birth limits (of one or two children), provincial governments could, and did, require the use of contraception, abortion, and sterilization to ensure compliance, and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to promote the program and monitor compliance. China also provided a nominal reward to families with one child, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning issued by the Communist Party Central Committee and the State Council in that year, regulations awarded 5 yuan per month for families with one child. Parents who had only one child would also get a "one-child glory certificate".[12]

    The impact of China's birth restrictions has been hotly debated. According to its government, 400 million births were prevented. That statistic originally referred to all births averted since 1970,[13] although later it referred to just the one-child era beginning around 1980. Some scholars have disputed the official estimates. They claim that the one-child program had little effect on birth rates or the size of the total population when one considers the large drop in fertility during the two-child decade preceding it and that other countries – such as Thailand and the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu – experienced notable fertility declines without official birth quotas.[14][15][16][17] A recent study even suggests that, contrary to popular belief and its government's intentions, the one-child phase of the birth program had a pronatal effect that raised birth rates above what they otherwise would have been.[18] Yet this study has itself been disputed as an implausible "erasure of the impact of this program from history."[19] Moreover, the comparative models proposed by those dismissing official estimates as exaggerations[18][15] imply that, even when China's rapid development is considered, its birth program since 1970 has already averted at least 600 million births, a number projected to grow to one billion or more by 2060 when one tallies the averted descendants of the births originally averted by policy.[20][21][22][19] Thus, there is little dispute about the massive demographic impact of China's half-century campaign to control its population. The real debate concerns what portion of the averted births (and population) should be attributed to the tightened one-child limits (and related enforcements) after 1980, as opposed to the two-child program that preceded it.

    1. ^ "One Child Nation". Amazon Studios. 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
    2. ^ Zhang, Alice. "Understanding China's Former One-Child Policy". Investopedia. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
    3. ^ Goldman, Russell; Boehler, Patrick (29 October 2015). "China's One-Child Policy" – via NYTimes.com.
    4. ^ G, S. "As China ends the one-child policy, what is its legacy?". The Conversation.
    5. ^ Goitom, Hanibal (27 June 2011). "China's One Child Policy | In Custodia Legis: Law Librarians of Congress". blogs.loc.gov.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Scharping was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Top legislature amends law to allow all couples to have two children". Xinhua News Agency. 27 December 2016. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
    8. ^ "China officially ends one-child policy, signing into law bill allowing married couples to have two children". ABC Online. 27 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
    9. ^ Hesketh, T; Zhu, SX (1997). "The one-child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 314 (7095): 1685–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7095.1685. PMC 2126838. PMID 9193296.
    10. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2001). "Fresh Winds in Beijing: Chinese Feminists Speak Out on the One-child Policy and Women's Lives". Signs. 26 (3): 847–886. doi:10.1086/495630. JSTOR 3175541. PMID 17607875. S2CID 45095877.
    11. ^ Lauster, Nathaneal; Allen, Graham (2011). The End of Children? Changing Trends in Childbearing and Childhood. UBC Press. p. 1980.
    12. ^ "China’s One-Child Policy: Urban and Rural Pressures, Anxieties, and Problems". World Report News. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
    13. ^ Xinhua, 2006 March 21. "Family planning policy helps prevents 400 million births". Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
    14. ^ Feng, Wang; Yong, Cai; Gu, Baochang (2012). "Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's One-Child Policy?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 38: 115–29. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
    15. ^ a b Whyte, Martin K.; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yong (2015). "Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). The China Journal. 74: 144–159. doi:10.1086/681664. PMC 6701844. PMID 31431804. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
    16. ^ Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen (2006). "How effective is the one-child policy in China?" (PDF). Working Paper Series. doi:10.1920/wp.cem.2006.1606. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
    17. ^ Sen, Amartya (June 2012). "Population: Delusion and Reality" (PDF). Richard R Guzmán. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
    18. ^ a b Gietel-Basten, Stuart; Han, Xuehui; Cheng, Yuan (6 November 2019). "Assessing the impact of the "one-child policy" in China: A synthetic control approach". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0220170. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1420170G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220170. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6834373. PMID 31693666.
    19. ^ a b Goodkind, Daniel (6 November 2019). "Formal comment on 'Assessing the impact of the "one-child policy" in China: A synthetic control approach'". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0222705. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1422705G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222705. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6834372. PMID 31693668.
    20. ^ Goodkind, Daniel (2017). "The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions". Demography. 54 (4): 1375–1399. doi:10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x. PMID 28762036. S2CID 13656899.
    21. ^ "Analysis of China's one-child policy sparks uproar". 18 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
    22. ^ Goodkind, Daniel (2018). "If Science Had Come First: A Billion Person Fable for the Ages". Demography. 55 (2): 743–768. doi:10.1007/s13524-018-0661-z. S2CID 4615529.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 October 1947 – The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is founded.

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."

    The GATT was first discussed during the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). It was signed by 23 nations[failed verification] in Geneva on October 30th, 1947, and was applied on a provisional basis January 1st, 1948.[1] It remained in effect until January 1st, 1995, when the World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after agreement by 123 nations in Marrakesh on April 15th, 1994, as part of the Uruguay Round Agreements. The WTO is the successor to the GATT, and the original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in effect under the WTO framework, subject to the modifications of GATT 1994.[2][3] Nations that were not party in 1995 to the GATT need to meet the minimum conditions spelled out in specific documents before they can accede; in September 2019, the list contained 36 nations.[4]

    The GATT, and its successor the WTO, have succeeded in reducing tariffs. The average tariff levels for the major GATT participants were about 22% in 1947, but were 5% after the Uruguay Round in 1999.[5] Experts attribute part of these tariff changes to GATT and the WTO.[6][7][8]

    1. ^ a b c "General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Treaty data". Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
    2. ^ "WTO legal texts: The Uruguay Round agreements". World Trade Organization.
    3. ^ "Uruguay Round - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994". World Trade Organization.
    4. ^ "ACCESSIONS: Protocols of accession for new members since 1995, including commitments in goods and services". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Tomz, Michael; Goldstein, Judith L; Rivers, Douglas (2007). "Do We Really Know That the WTO Increases Trade? Comment". American Economic Review. 97 (5): 2005–2018. doi:10.1257/aer.97.5.2005. ISSN 0002-8282.
    7. ^ Goldstein, Judith L.; Rivers, Douglas; Tomz, Michael (2007). "Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade". International Organization. 61 (1): 37–67. doi:10.1017/S0020818307070014. ISSN 1531-5088.
    8. ^ Irwin, Douglas A. (9 April 2007). "GATT Turns 60". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 October 1863 – The New Zealand Wars resume as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron begin their Invasion of the Waikato.

    New Zealand Wars

    The New Zealand Wars took place from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand Colonial government and allied Māori on one side and Māori and Māori-allied settlers on the other. They were previously commonly referred to as the Land Wars or the Māori Wars[2] while Māori language names for the conflicts included Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa ("the great New Zealand wars") and Te riri Pākehā ("the white man's anger").[2] Historian James Belich popularised the name "New Zealand Wars" in the 1980s,[3] although the term was first used by historian James Cowan in the 1920s.[4]

    Though the wars were initially localised conflicts triggered by tensions over disputed land purchases, they escalated dramatically from 1860 as the government became convinced it was facing united Māori resistance to further land sales and a refusal to acknowledge Crown sovereignty. The colonial government summoned thousands of British troops to mount major campaigns to overpower the Kīngitanga (Māori King) movement and also acquire farming and residential land for British settlers.[5][6] Later campaigns were aimed at quashing the so-called Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Mārire religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity.[7]

    At the peak of hostilities in the 1860s, 18,000 British troops, supported by artillery, cavalry and local militia, battled about 4,000 Māori warriors[8] in what became a gross imbalance of manpower and weaponry.[9] Although outnumbered, the Māori were able to withstand their enemy with techniques that included anti-artillery bunkers and the use of carefully placed , or fortified villages, that allowed them to block their enemy's advance and often inflict heavy losses, yet quickly abandon their positions without significant loss. Guerrilla-style tactics were used by both sides in later campaigns, often fought in dense bush. Over the course of the Taranaki and Waikato campaigns, the lives of about 1,800 Māori and 800 Europeans were lost,[5] and total Māori losses over the course of all the wars may have exceeded 2,100.

    Violence over land ownership broke out first in the Wairau Valley in the South Island in June 1843, but rising tensions in Taranaki eventually led to the involvement of British military forces at Waitara in March 1860. The war between the government and Kīngitanga Māori spread to other areas of the North Island, with the biggest single campaign being the invasion of the Waikato in 1863–1864, before hostilities concluded with the pursuits of Riwha Tītokowaru in Taranaki (1868–1869) and Rangatira (chief) Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki on the east coast (1868–1872).

    Although Māori were initially fought by British forces, the New Zealand government developed its own military force, including local militia, rifle volunteer groups, the specialist Forest Rangers and kūpapa (pro-government Māori). The government also responded with legislation to imprison Māori opponents and confiscate expansive areas of the North Island for sale to settlers, with the funds used to cover war expenses[10][11]—punitive measures that on the east and west coasts provoked an intensification of Māori resistance and aggression.

    1. ^ "End of the New Zealand Wars". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
    2. ^ a b "Story: New Zealand Wars".
    3. ^ "The end of the war".
    4. ^ O'Malley 2019, p. 29.
    5. ^ a b King, Michael (1977). Te Puea: A Biography. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 26. ISBN 0-340-22482-7.
    6. ^ Dalton, B.J. (1967). War and Politics in New Zealand 1855–1870. Sydney: Sydney University Press. p. 179.
    7. ^ Belich, James (1986x). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (1st ed.). Auckland: Penguin. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0-14-011162-X.
    8. ^ Belich, James (1986a). The New Zealand Wars. Auckland: Penguin. pp. 126–133. ISBN 0-14-027504-5.
    9. ^ Belich 1986a, pp. 24–25.
    10. ^ Belich 1986a, p. 126.
    11. ^ Dalton 1967, pp. 181–182.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 November 1993 – The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.

    Maastricht Treaty

    The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the 12 member states of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. In the wake of the Eurozone debt crisis unfolding from 2009, the most enduring reference to the Maastricht Treaty has been to the rules of compliance – the "Maastricht criteria" – for the currency union.

    Against the background of the end of the Cold War and the re-unification of Germany, and in anticipation of accelerated globalisation, the treaty negotiated tensions between member states seeking deeper integration and those wishing to retain greater national control. The resulting compromise faced what was to be the first in a series of EU treaty ratification crises.

    1. ^ Council of European Communities, Commission of the European Communities (1992). Treaty on European Union (PDF). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. p. 2. ISBN 92-824-0959-7.
     
  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    2 November 1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating Martin Luther King, Jr. Day.

    Martin Luther King Jr. Day

    Martin Luther King Jr. Day (officially Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.,[1] and sometimes referred to as MLK Day) is a federal holiday in the United States marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. It is observed on the third Monday of January each year. Born in 1929, King's actual birthday is January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. The earliest Monday for this holiday is January 15 and the latest is January 21.

    King was the chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which protested racial discrimination in federal and state law. The campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, and it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays. It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000.

    1. ^ "Federal Holidays". Opm.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
     
  10. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    3 November 1982 – The Salang Tunnel fire in Afghanistan kills up to 2,000 people.

    Salang Tunnel fire

    A distance view of the Salang Tunnel in March 2010

    The Salang Tunnel fire occurred on 3 November 1982 in Afghanistan's Salang Tunnel during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Details are uncertain and officially the number of casualties was recorded as between 168–176 Soviet and Afghan soldiers and civilians. Despite this, contemporary Western media claimed the incident may have been the deadliest known road accident, and one of the deadliest fires of modern times, with the death toll estimated at 2,700 to 3,000 people.[1]

    1. ^ "Truck explosion kills 3,000 in Afghanistan". History Channel. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
     
  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    4 Novemeber 2015 – A building collapses in the Pakistani city of Lahore resulting in at least 45 deaths, and at least 100 injured.

    2015 Lahore factory disaster

    The 2015 Lahore factory disaster resulted when a shopping bag factory located at Sundar Industrial Estate[1] near Lahore, Pakistan collapsed[5][6][2] on 4 November 2015, killing at least 45 people[3] and trapping about 150.[2] The recovery was led by the Board of Management Sundar Industrial Estate with support from the Pakistan Army, Rescue 1122 and Bahria Town Rescue Team.

    A large rescue operation included a team of army engineers and urban search-and-rescue personnel.[2][3] Messages had been received via mobile phones from people trapped in the rubble.[2] The challenge of getting heavy machinery to the site of the collapse hampered the rescue effort, according to an official as of 4 November .[3]

    The disaster has had a seminal effect on the operation and management of all industrial estates and their bye laws.

    1. ^ a b "Pakistan Lahore factory collapse: Hopes dim for survivors". BBC. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g AFP (5 November 2015). "Race to find survivors after deadly factory collapse in Pakistan". 24France. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    3. ^ a b c d e f "Hunt for survivors at collapsed Pakistan building site". Al Jazeera English. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    4. ^ Gabol, Imran (7 November 2015). "Lahore factory collapse: Search for survivors continues as death toll climbs to 45". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
    5. ^ Gabol, Imran (5 November 2015). "At least 25 dead as rescuers scrabble through Lahore factory rubble". Dawn. Pakistan. AFP. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
    6. ^ Shahzad, Muhammad (5 November 2015). "At least 23 killed in Lahore factory collapse; rescue operations underway". The Express Tribune. Pakistan. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    5 November 1943 – World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

    Bombing of the Vatican

    Map of Vatican City showing the buildings of the Governatorate, the Tribunal, and the Archpriest, and the railway station, which were damaged on 5 November 1943. The mosaic workshop, which received a direct hit, is positioned between the railway station and the residence of the archpriest.

    Bombings of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II. The first occasion was on the evening of 5 November 1943, when a plane dropped bombs on the area south-west of Saint Peter's Basilica, causing considerable damage but no casualties. The second bombing, which affected only the outer margin of the city, was at about the same hour on 1 March 1944, and caused the death of one person and the injury of another.[1]

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 November 1929 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

    Museum of Modern Art

    The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.

    It plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art, and is often identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world.[2] MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, prints, illustrated books and artist's books, film, and electronic media.[3]

    The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, more than 1,000 periodical titles, and more than 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups.[4] The archives hold primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art.[5]

    It attracted 706,060 visitors in 2020, a drop of sixty-five percent from 2019, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It ranked twenty-fifth on the List of most visited art museums in the world in 2020.[6]

    1. ^ The Art Newspaper, List of most-visited museums in 2020, March 31, 2021
    2. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2005). "The Development of Modernist Art: The Early 20th Century". Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 796. ISBN 978-0-4950-0478-3. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City is consistently identified as the institution most responsible for developing modernist art ... the most influential museum of modern art in the world.
    3. ^ Museum of Modern Art – New York Art World Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
    4. ^ "Library". MoMA. Archived from the original on February 5, 2016.
    5. ^ "About the Archives". MoMA. Archived from the original on February 13, 2016.
    6. ^ The Art Newspaper annual museum visitor survey, published March 31, 2021
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 November 2002Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441: The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face "serious consequences".

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).[1] It provided a justification for what was subsequently termed the US invasion of Iraq.[2]

    Resolution 1441 stated that Iraq was in material breach of the ceasefire terms presented under the terms of Resolution 687. Iraq's breaches related not only to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but also the known construction of prohibited types of missiles, the purchase and import of prohibited armaments, and the continuing refusal of Iraq to compensate Kuwait for the widespread looting conducted by its troops during the 1990–1991 invasion and occupation. It also stated that "...false statements or omissions in the declarations submitted by Iraq pursuant to this resolution and failure by Iraq at any time to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of, this resolution shall constitute a further material breach of Iraq's obligations."

    1. ^ "Text of U.N. resolution on Iraq - Nov. 8, 2002". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
    2. ^ "Gulf war - PBS Frontline Interviews". PBS Frontline. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 November 1994 – The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.

    Darmstadtium

    Darmstadtium is a chemical element with the symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of approximately 12.7 seconds. Darmstadtium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in the city of Darmstadt, Germany, after which it was named.

    In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 10 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to platinum in group 10 as the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Darmstadtium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, nickel, palladium, and platinum.

    1. ^ "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
    2. ^ "darmstadtium". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
    3. ^ a b c d e Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.
    4. ^ a b Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B. 84 (11): 113104. Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84k3104O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104.
    5. ^ Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Sikka, S. K. (May 10, 2011). "Physical properties of the 6 d -series elements from density functional theory: Close similarity to lighter transition metals". Physical Review B. 83 (17): 172101. Bibcode:2011PhRvB..83q2101G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.172101.
    6. ^ Kratz; Lieser (2013). Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications (3rd ed.). p. 631.
    7. ^ Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. Structure and Bonding. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. ISBN 978-3-540-07109-9. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
    8. ^ Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. Structure and Bonding. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. ISBN 978-3-540-07109-9. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
    9. ^ Chemical Data. Darmstadtium - Ds, Royal Chemical Society
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 November 1989 – Germans begin to tear down the Berlin Wall.

    Berlin Wall

    Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
    West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˌliːnɐ ˈmaʊ̯ɐ] (About this soundlisten)) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.[1] Construction of the wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin.[2] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[3] accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, beds of nails and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" from building a socialist state in East Germany.

    GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.[4] Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to physically symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[5]

    Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, over 100,000[citation needed] people attempted to escape, and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136[7] to more than 200[5][8] in and around Berlin.

    In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany.[9] In particular, the Pan-European Picnic in August 1989 set in motion a peaceful development during which the Iron Curtain largely broke, the rulers in the East came under pressure, the Berlin Wall fell and finally the Eastern Bloc fell apart.[10][11][12] After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.[5] The Brandenburg Gate, a few meters from the Berlin Wall, was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1994.[1] The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.[5]

    1. ^ a b c "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall". Chicago Tribune. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    2. ^ Video: Berlin, 1961/08/31 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    3. ^ Marck, Jack (October 2006). "Over the Wall: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience". American Heritage. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008.
    4. ^ "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know". The Telegraph. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    5. ^ a b c d "Berlin Wall Fast Facts". CNN.
    6. ^ "Freedom!". Time. 20 November 1989. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chronik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference contemporary research was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Mary Elise Sarotte, Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014
    10. ^ Hilde Szabo: Die Berliner Mauer begann im Burgenland zu bröckeln (The Berlin Wall began to crumble in Burgenland - German), in Wiener Zeitung 16 August 1999; Otmar Lahodynsky: Paneuropäisches Picknick: Die Generalprobe für den Mauerfall (Pan-European picnic: the dress rehearsal for the fall of the Berlin Wall - German), in: Profil 9 August 2014.
    11. ^ Thomas Roser: DDR-Massenflucht: Ein Picknick hebt die Welt aus den Angeln (German - Mass exodus of the GDR: A picnic clears the world) in: Die Presse 16 August 2018.
    12. ^ Der 19. August 1989 war ein Test für Gorbatschows“ (German - August 19, 1989 was a test for Gorbachev), in: FAZ 19 August 2009.
     
  18. Admin2

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  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 November 1991Santa Cruz massacre: Indonesian forces open fire on a crowd of student protesters in Dili, East Timor.

    Santa Cruz massacre

    The Santa Cruz massacre (also known as the Dili massacre) was the shooting of at least 250 East Timorese pro-independence demonstrators in the Santa Cruz cemetery in the capital, Dili, on 12 November 1991, during the Indonesian occupation of East Timor and is part of the East Timorese genocide.

     
  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 November 1994 – In a referendum, voters in Sweden decide to join the European Union.

    1994 Swedish European Union membership referendum

    A non-binding referendum on membership for the European Union was held in Sweden on 13 November 1994.[1]

    The voter turnout was 83.3%, and the result was 52.3% for and 46.8% against.[1]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference scb was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  22. Admin2

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  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 November 2006Al Jazeera English launches worldwide.

    Al Jazeera English

    Al Jazeera English (AJE) is a television news channel broadcast to the world by the Al Jazeera Media Network. It is the first English-language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East.[3] Instead of being run centrally, news management rotates between broadcasting centres in Doha and London.

    1. ^ Habib Toumi (13 July 2011). "Al Jazeera turning into private media organisation". Gulf News. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
    2. ^ Bridges, Scott (19 October 2012). "How Al Jazeera took on the (English-speaking) world". Retrieved 13 January 2021.
    3. ^ "Al-Jazeera Says Its English-Language News Channel Will Launch November 15". The Post-Star. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009.
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 November 1945UNESCO is founded.

    UNESCO

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO[1] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, the sciences, and culture.[2][3] It has 193 member states and 11 associate members,[4] as well as partners in the nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private sector.[5] Headquartered at the World Heritage Centre in Paris, France, UNESCO has 53 regional field offices[6] and 199 national commissions[7] that facilitate its global mandate.

    UNESCO was founded in 1945 as the successor to the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.[8] Its constitution establishes the agency's goals, governing structure, and operating framework.[9] UNESCO's founding mission, which was shaped by the Second World War, is to advance peace, sustainable development and human rights by facilitating collaboration and dialogue among nations.[9] It pursues this objective through five major program areas: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. UNESCO sponsors projects that improve literacy, provide technical training and education, advance science, protect independent media and press freedom, preserve regional and cultural history, and promote cultural diversity.

    As a focal point for world culture and science, UNESCO's activities have broadened over the years; it assists in the translation and dissemination of world literature, helps establish and secure World Heritage Sites of cultural and natural importance, works to bridge the worldwide digital divide, and creates inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[10] UNESCO has launched several initiatives and global movements, such as Education For All, to further advance its core objectives.

    UNESCO is governed by the General Conference, composed of member states and associate members, which meets biannually to set the agency's programmes and the budget. It also elects members of the Executive Board, which manages UNESCO's work, and appoints every four years Director-General, who serves as UNESCO's chief administrator. UNESCO is a member of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group,[11] a coalition of UN agencies and organisations aimed at fulfilling the Sustainable Development Goals.

    1. ^ "UNESCO". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
    2. ^ "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
    3. ^ "UNESCO history". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
    4. ^ "List of UNESCO members and associates". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
    5. ^ "Partnerships". UNESCO. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
    6. ^ "Field offices". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
    7. ^ https://plus.google.com/+UNESCO (28 September 2012). "National Commissions". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
    8. ^ Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period]. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2019. (English summary Archived 22 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine).
    9. ^ a b "UNESCO. General Conference, 39th, 2017 [892]". unesdoc.unesco.org. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
    10. ^ "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
    11. ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 November 2012 – At least 50 schoolchildren are killed in an accident at a railway crossing near Manfalut, Egypt.

    Manfalut railway accident

    The Manfalut railway accident occurred on 17 November 2012 when a school bus, which was carrying about 70 school children between four and six years old, was hit by a train on a rail crossing near Manfalut, Egypt, 350 km (230 miles) south of the Egyptian capital Cairo.[1] At least 50 children and the bus driver died in the crash,[2] and about 17 people were injured.[3] Witnesses reported that barriers at the crossing were not closed when the crash occurred.[4]

    After the crash, a number of people began searching along the tracks to find the remains of their children and victims they knew.[1] Additionally, schoolbags and schoolbooks were scattered across the tracks.[2] Police did not arrive until two hours after the accident, and by the time the first ambulance came, most of the children were dead.[3] Afterwards, the families of the victims protested at the crash site.[5]

    The Egyptian minister of transportation, Mohammad Rashad Al Matini, and the head of the railways authority resigned after the accident.[1][4] President Mohamed Morsi pledged to hold those responsible accountable. The crossing worker, who was allegedly asleep, has been detained,[5] and Ibrahim El-Zaafrani, the secretary-general of the relief committee of the Arab Doctors Union, said that 10,000 Egyptian pounds (about $1,600)[6] will be awarded to families of the dead and 5,000 pounds (about $800) to families of the injured.[3]

    1. ^ a b c "Egypt bus crash kills 50 children near Manfalut". BBC News. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    2. ^ a b "Scores of schoolchildren die in Egypt crash". Al Jazeera. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ a b c "Protesters demand Assiut governor resign over fatal bus-train collision". Ahram Online. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    4. ^ a b "Train slams into school bus in Egypt, killing 48 children, injuring 27 others". Haaretz. Cairo. Reuters. 18 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    5. ^ a b "Dozens Killed, Mostly Children, in Egypt Crash". The New York Times. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    6. ^ Mohamed Fadel Fahmy (18 November 2012). "Bus, train crash in Egypt kills 51 -- mostly children". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
     
  26. Admin2

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    18 November 1755 – The Corsican Constitution is voted.

    Corsican Constitution

    The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769. It was written in Tuscan Italian the language of elite culture and people in Corsica at the time.[1]

    It was drafted by Pasquale Paoli , and inspired by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who, commissioned by the Corsicans wrote "Projet de constitution pour la Corse," in 1763. [2]

    The second Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1794 for the short-lived (1794–96) Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and introduced universal suffrage for property owners. It was also considered a highly democratic constitution for its time.

    1. ^ Blackwood, Robert J. & Tufi, Stefania (2015). The Linguistic Landscape of the Mediterranean: French and Italian Coastal Cities. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 130. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Linguistic_Landscape_of_the_Mediterr.html?id=SGmkCgAAQBAJ
    2. ^ Carrington, Dorothy (July 1973). "The Corsican constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755–1769)". The English Historical Review. 88 (348): 481–503. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxviii.cccxlviii.481. JSTOR 564654.
     
  27. Admin2

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    18 November 1755 – The Corsican Constitution is voted.

    Corsican Constitution

    The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769. It was written in Tuscan Italian the language of elite culture and people in Corsica at the time.[1]

    It was drafted by Pasquale Paoli , and inspired by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who, commissioned by the Corsicans wrote "Projet de constitution pour la Corse," in 1763. [2]

    The second Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1794 for the short-lived (1794–96) Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and introduced universal suffrage for property owners. It was also considered a highly democratic constitution for its time.

    1. ^ Blackwood, Robert J. & Tufi, Stefania (2015). The Linguistic Landscape of the Mediterranean: French and Italian Coastal Cities. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 130. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Linguistic_Landscape_of_the_Mediterr.html?id=SGmkCgAAQBAJ
    2. ^ Carrington, Dorothy (July 1973). "The Corsican constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755–1769)". The English Historical Review. 88 (348): 481–503. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxviii.cccxlviii.481. JSTOR 564654.
     
  28. Admin2

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    19 November 1989 – Germans begin to tear down the Berlin Wall.

    Berlin Wall

    Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
    West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˌliːnɐ ˈmaʊ̯ɐ] (About this soundlisten)) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.[1] Construction of the wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin.[2] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[3] accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, beds of nails and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" from building a socialist state in East Germany.

    GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.[4] Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to physically symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[5]

    Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, over 100,000[citation needed] people attempted to escape, and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136[7] to more than 200[5][8] in and around Berlin.

    In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany.[9] In particular, the Pan-European Picnic in August 1989 set in motion a peaceful development during which the Iron Curtain largely broke, the rulers in the East came under pressure, the Berlin Wall fell and finally the Eastern Bloc fell apart.[10][11][12] After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.[5] The Brandenburg Gate, a few meters from the Berlin Wall, was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1994.[1] The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.[5]

    1. ^ a b c "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall". Chicago Tribune. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    2. ^ Video: Berlin, 1961/08/31 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    3. ^ Marck, Jack (October 2006). "Over the Wall: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience". American Heritage. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008.
    4. ^ "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know". The Telegraph. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    5. ^ a b c d "Berlin Wall Fast Facts". CNN.
    6. ^ "Freedom!". Time. 20 November 1989. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chronik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference contemporary research was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Mary Elise Sarotte, Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014
    10. ^ Hilde Szabo: Die Berliner Mauer begann im Burgenland zu bröckeln (The Berlin Wall began to crumble in Burgenland - German), in Wiener Zeitung 16 August 1999; Otmar Lahodynsky: Paneuropäisches Picknick: Die Generalprobe für den Mauerfall (Pan-European picnic: the dress rehearsal for the fall of the Berlin Wall - German), in: Profil 9 August 2014.
    11. ^ Thomas Roser: DDR-Massenflucht: Ein Picknick hebt die Welt aus den Angeln (German - Mass exodus of the GDR: A picnic clears the world) in: Die Presse 16 August 2018.
    12. ^ Der 19. August 1989 war ein Test für Gorbatschows“ (German - August 19, 1989 was a test for Gorbachev), in: FAZ 19 August 2009.
     
  29. Admin2

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    20 November 1985Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.

    Windows 1.0

    Windows 1.0 is a graphical operating environment for personal computers, developed by Microsoft. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple's 1984 original Macintosh, the first mass-produced personal computer with a graphical user-interface (GUI) that enabled users to see user-friendly icons on screen. Microsoft released Windows 1.0 on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line. It runs as a graphical, 16-bit multi-tasking shell on top of an existing MS-DOS installation, providing an environment which can run graphical programs designed for Windows, as well as existing MS-DOS software. Microsoft's founder Bill Gates spearheaded the development of Windows 1.0 after he saw a demonstration of a similar software suite, Visi On, at COMDEX in 1982.

    Despite positive responses to early presentations and support from a number of hardware- and software-makers, critics received Windows 1.0 poorly, feeling that it did not meet their expectations. In particular, they raised concerns about the lack of resources for new users, and performance issues, especially on systems with lower hardware specifications.

    Despite the criticisms, Windows 1.0 proved an important milestone for Microsoft, as it introduced the Microsoft Windows line.[3]

    On December 31, 2001, Microsoft declared Windows 1.0 obsolete and stopped providing support and updates for the system.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference microsoft-obs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference obsolete-prod was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnet-flop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  30. Admin2

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    21 November 2009 – A mine explosion in Heilongjiang, China kills 108.

    2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion

    The 2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion (Chinese: 鹤岗新兴煤矿爆炸事故; pinyin: Hègǎng Xīnxīng méikuàng bàozhà shìgù) was a mining accident that occurred on November 21 2009, near Hegang in the Heilongjiang province, northeastern China, which killed over 108 people.[1] A further of 29 people were hospitalised.[2][3] The explosion occurred in the Xinxing coal mine shortly before dawn, at 02:30 CST, when 528 people were believed to be in the pit. Of these, 420 are believed to have been rescued.

    1. ^ "Mine Explosion Killed 108" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
    2. ^ Bradsher, Keith (22 November 2009). "At least 87 dies in Chinese mine explosion". New York Times. New York. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
    3. ^ "At least 89 killed in coal mine blast". USA: Statesman.com. 22 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1963 – The Beatles release With the Beatles.

    With the Beatles

    With the Beatles is the second studio album by the English rock band the Beatles. It was released on 22 November 1963 on Parlophone, exactly eight months after the band's debut Please Please Me. Produced by George Martin, the album features eight original compositions (seven by Lennon–McCartney and "Don't Bother Me", George Harrison's first recorded solo composition and his first released on a Beatles album) and six covers (mostly of Motown, rock and roll, and R&B hits). The cover photograph was taken by the fashion photographer Robert Freeman and has since been mimicked by several music groups over the years. A different cover was used for the Australian release of the album, which the Beatles were displeased with.

    In the United States, the album's tracks were unevenly split over the group's first two albums released on Capitol Records: Meet the Beatles! and The Beatles' Second Album. It was also released in Canada under the name Beatlemania! With the Beatles. The album was ranked number 420 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003,[4] and was included in Robert Dimery's 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[5] It was voted number 275 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.[6] It was rated the 29th greatest album in the book Paul Gambaccini Presents the Top 100 Albums. This book "canvassed a panel of experts in seven countries" to determine the greatest albums.[7]

    1. ^ O'Dell, Denis; Neaverson, Bob (2002). At the Apple's core: the Beatles from the inside. Peter Owen Limited. p. 27. the first truly convincing British rock and roll album, With The Beatles
    2. ^ Harrington, Richard (6 February 2004). "It was 40 years ago ..." The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
    3. ^ Howlett, Kevin; Heatley, Mike (2009). With the Beatles (CD historical notes). p. 12.
    4. ^ "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2007. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
    5. ^ ^ Robert Dimery; Michael Lydon (23 March 2010). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 978-0-7893-2074-2.
    6. ^ Colin Larkin, ed. (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 119. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
    7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
     
  32. Admin2

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    23 November 1914Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair.

    Mexican Revolution

    The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution that included a sequence of armed struggles that transformed Mexican culture and government. The outbreak of the revolution in 1910 resulted from the increasing unpopularity of the 31-year regime of Porfirio Díaz and the regime's failure to find a controlled solution to the issue of presidential succession. That resulted in a power struggle among competing elites, which provided the opportunity for agrarian insurrection.[6] The wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election and, following the rigged results, revolted under the October 1910 Plan of San Luis Potosí.[7]

    Armed conflict broke out in earnest in November 1910 starting in northern Mexico, led by Madero, Pascual Orozco, and Pancho Villa. These Maderista forces received support from portions of the middle class, the peasantry, and organized labor,[7] enabling them to pursue a military campaign in the north ending with Orozco's capture of Ciudad Juárez in May 1911. Díaz was forced out of office shortly thereafter by the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez in which he resigned and went into exile, new elections were scheduled for the fall, and Francisco León de la Barra became the interim president. The elections took place in October 1911 in a free and fair vote. Madero overwhelmingly won the presidential contest and took office in November.

    Opposition to Madero's regime then grew from the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, and from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative.

    During a chaotic period in February 1913, known as the Ten Tragic Days (Spanish: La Decena Trágica), Madero and Vice President Pino Suárez were forced to resign and were assassinated. The counterrevolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by US Ambassador, Henry Lane Wilson,[8] vocal business interests, and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces, including the forces of Pancho Villa and those of Emiliano Zapata.

    The wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza had gathered together the Constitutionalist political faction, and with military forces under the leadership of Álvaro Obregón, he played an important part in defeating Huerta.[9] When the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war (1914–15). Carranza, again with Obregon's military leadership, emerged as the victor in 1915 by defeating the revolutionary forces of his former ally Pancho Villa and forcing Zapata to return to guerrilla warfare.[10] (In 1919, agents of President Carranza assassinated Zapata.)

    The sequence of armed conflicts saw an evolution of military technology from Villa's cavalry charges to Obregon's early use of an airplane and also of machine-gun nests protected by barbed wire.[11] One major result of the revolution was the dissolution in 1914 of Mexico's Federal Army, which Madero had kept intact when elected in 1911 and Huerta had used to oust Madero. Although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers, which had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico, figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role.[12] The losses amongst Mexico's population of 15 million were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1.5 million people died, and nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States.[3][13]

    Many[quantify] scholars regard the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 (Spanish: Constitucion de 1917) as the end of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions," with the constitution providing that framework.[14] 1920–40 is often[quantify] considered[by whom?] to be a phase of the revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked[by whom?] in the 1920s, and the 1917 constitution was implemented.[15]

    This armed conflict is often characterized[by whom?] as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and as one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century.[16]

    1. ^ "Obregón Salido Álvaro". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    2. ^ "Elías Calles Campuzano Plutarco". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    3. ^ a b Robert McCaa, "Missing millions: the human cost of the Mexican Revolution." Mexican Studies 19#2 (2001). online
    4. ^ Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 39". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    5. ^ a b Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 46". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    6. ^ John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, p. 327.
    7. ^ a b Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 35.
    8. ^ Tuñon Pablos, Mexican Revolution: February 1913 – October 1915, p. 855
    9. ^ McLynn, Frank (2001). "The Revolt Against Huerta". Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. United States: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8.
    10. ^ McLynn, Frank (2001). "Villa at His Zenith; The End of Huerta; The Convention of Aguascalientes". Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. United States: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8.
    11. ^ McLynn, Frank (2001). Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. United States: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8.
    12. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
    13. ^ LaRosa, Michael; Mejia, German R. (2007). An Atlas and Survey of Latin American History. M. E. Sharpe. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7656-2933-3.
    14. ^ John Womack, Jr. "The Mexican Revolution" in Mexico Since Independence, ed. Leslie Bethell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 125
    15. ^ Knight,"Mexican Revolution: Interpretations", pp. 869–873.
    16. ^ Knight, Alan (1 May 1980). "The Mexican Revolution". History Today. 30 (5): 28. Retrieved 5 November 2011.[dead link]
     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1914Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair.

    Mexican Revolution

    The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution that included a sequence of armed struggles that transformed Mexican culture and government. The outbreak of the revolution in 1910 resulted from the increasing unpopularity of the 31-year regime of Porfirio Díaz and the regime's failure to find a controlled solution to the issue of presidential succession. That resulted in a power struggle among competing elites, which provided the opportunity for agrarian insurrection.[6] The wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election and, following the rigged results, revolted under the October 1910 Plan of San Luis Potosí.[7]

    Armed conflict broke out in earnest in November 1910 starting in northern Mexico, led by Madero, Pascual Orozco, and Pancho Villa. These Maderista forces received support from portions of the middle class, the peasantry, and organized labor,[7] enabling them to pursue a military campaign in the north ending with Orozco's capture of Ciudad Juárez in May 1911. Díaz was forced out of office shortly thereafter by the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez in which he resigned and went into exile, new elections were scheduled for the fall, and Francisco León de la Barra became the interim president. The elections took place in October 1911 in a free and fair vote. Madero overwhelmingly won the presidential contest and took office in November.

    Opposition to Madero's regime then grew from the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, and from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative.

    During a chaotic period in February 1913, known as the Ten Tragic Days (Spanish: La Decena Trágica), Madero and Vice President Pino Suárez were forced to resign and were assassinated. The counterrevolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by US Ambassador, Henry Lane Wilson,[8] vocal business interests, and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces, including the forces of Pancho Villa and those of Emiliano Zapata.

    The wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza had gathered together the Constitutionalist political faction, and with military forces under the leadership of Álvaro Obregón, he played an important part in defeating Huerta.[9] When the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war (1914–15). Carranza, again with Obregon's military leadership, emerged as the victor in 1915 by defeating the revolutionary forces of his former ally Pancho Villa and forcing Zapata to return to guerrilla warfare.[10] (In 1919, agents of President Carranza assassinated Zapata.)

    The sequence of armed conflicts saw an evolution of military technology from Villa's cavalry charges to Obregon's early use of an airplane and also of machine-gun nests protected by barbed wire.[11] One major result of the revolution was the dissolution in 1914 of Mexico's Federal Army, which Madero had kept intact when elected in 1911 and Huerta had used to oust Madero. Although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers, which had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico, figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role.[12] The losses amongst Mexico's population of 15 million were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1.5 million people died, and nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States.[3][13]

    Many[quantify] scholars regard the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 (Spanish: Constitucion de 1917) as the end of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions," with the constitution providing that framework.[14] 1920–40 is often[quantify] considered[by whom?] to be a phase of the revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked[by whom?] in the 1920s, and the 1917 constitution was implemented.[15]

    This armed conflict is often characterized[by whom?] as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and as one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century.[16]

    1. ^ "Obregón Salido Álvaro". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    2. ^ "Elías Calles Campuzano Plutarco". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    3. ^ a b Robert McCaa, "Missing millions: the human cost of the Mexican Revolution." Mexican Studies 19#2 (2001). online
    4. ^ Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 39". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    5. ^ a b Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 46". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    6. ^ John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, p. 327.
    7. ^ a b Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 35.
    8. ^ Tuñon Pablos, Mexican Revolution: February 1913 – October 1915, p. 855
    9. ^ McLynn, Frank (2001). "The Revolt Against Huerta". Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. United States: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8.
    10. ^ McLynn, Frank (2001). "Villa at His Zenith; The End of Huerta; The Convention of Aguascalientes". Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. United States: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8.
    11. ^ McLynn, Frank (2001). Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. United States: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8.
    12. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
    13. ^ LaRosa, Michael; Mejia, German R. (2007). An Atlas and Survey of Latin American History. M. E. Sharpe. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7656-2933-3.
    14. ^ John Womack, Jr. "The Mexican Revolution" in Mexico Since Independence, ed. Leslie Bethell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 125
    15. ^ Knight,"Mexican Revolution: Interpretations", pp. 869–873.
    16. ^ Knight, Alan (1 May 1980). "The Mexican Revolution". History Today. 30 (5): 28. Retrieved 5 November 2011.[dead link]
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 November 1859Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.

    On the Origin of Species

    On the Origin of Species (or, more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),[3] published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin that is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.[4] Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. The book presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had collected on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.[5]

    Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.

    The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During "the eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.

    1. ^ Darwin 1859, p. iii
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Freeman 1977 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In the 1872 sixth edition "On" was omitted, so the full title is The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. This edition is usually known as The Origin of Species. The 6th is Darwin's final edition; there were minor modifications in the text of certain subsequent issues. See Freeman, R. B. "The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist." In Van Wyhe, John, ed. Darwin Online: On the Origin of Species, 2002.
    4. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 477.
    5. ^ "Darwin Manuscripts (Digitised notes on Origin)". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 November 1975 – Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.

    Suriname

    Coordinates: 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56

    Suriname (/ˈsjʊərɪnæm, -nɑːm/) or Surinam, officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Dutch: Republiek Suriname [reːpyˌblik ˌsyːriˈnaːmə]), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest sovereign state in South America.[note 1] Suriname has a population of approximately 575,990,[8][9] most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

    Situated slightly north of the Equator, Suriname is a tropical country dominated by rain forests. Its extensive tree cover is vital to the country's efforts to mitigate climate change and maintain carbon negativity.[13][note 2] A developing country with a high level of human development, Suriname's economy is heavily dependent on its abundant natural resources, namely bauxite, gold, petroleum and agricultural products.

    Suriname was inhabited as early as the fourth millennium BC by various indigenous peoples, including the Arawaks, Caribs, and Wayana. Europeans arrived in the 16th century, with the Dutch establishing control over much of the country's current territory by the late 17th century. During the Dutch colonial period, Suriname was a lucrative source of sugar, its plantation economy driven by African slave labor and, after abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25 November 1975, Suriname left the Kingdom to become an independent state, but continues to maintain close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties.

    Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside of Europe where Dutch is the official and prevailing language of government, business, media, and education.[14] Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a widely used lingua franca.

    1. ^ Suriname: An Asian Immigrant and the Organic Creation of the Caribbean's Most Unique Fusion Culture, archived from the original on 20 February 2017, retrieved 19 July 2017
    2. ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014.
    3. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Census statistieken 2012". Statistics-suriname.org. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
    6. ^ "Definitieve Resultaten (Vol I) Etniciteit". Presentatie Evaluatie Rapport CENSUS 8: 42.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference CENSUS2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    9. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    10. ^ a b c d "Suriname". International Monetary Fund.
    11. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
    12. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
    13. ^ "Suriname's climate promise, for a sustainable future". UN News. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 November 1975 – Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.

    Suriname

    Coordinates: 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56

    Suriname (/ˈsjʊərɪnæm, -nɑːm/) or Surinam, officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Dutch: Republiek Suriname [reːpyˌblik ˌsyːriˈnaːmə]), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest sovereign state in South America.[note 1] Suriname has a population of approximately 575,990,[8][9] most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

    Situated slightly north of the Equator, Suriname is a tropical country dominated by rain forests. Its extensive tree cover is vital to the country's efforts to mitigate climate change and maintain carbon negativity.[13][note 2] A developing country with a high level of human development, Suriname's economy is heavily dependent on its abundant natural resources, namely bauxite, gold, petroleum and agricultural products.

    Suriname was inhabited as early as the fourth millennium BC by various indigenous peoples, including the Arawaks, Caribs, and Wayana. Europeans arrived in the 16th century, with the Dutch establishing control over much of the country's current territory by the late 17th century. During the Dutch colonial period, Suriname was a lucrative source of sugar, its plantation economy driven by African slave labor and, after abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25 November 1975, Suriname left the Kingdom to become an independent state, but continues to maintain close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties.

    Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside of Europe where Dutch is the official and prevailing language of government, business, media, and education.[14] Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a widely used lingua franca.

    1. ^ Suriname: An Asian Immigrant and the Organic Creation of the Caribbean's Most Unique Fusion Culture, archived from the original on 20 February 2017, retrieved 19 July 2017
    2. ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014.
    3. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Census statistieken 2012". Statistics-suriname.org. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
    6. ^ "Definitieve Resultaten (Vol I) Etniciteit". Presentatie Evaluatie Rapport CENSUS 8: 42.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference CENSUS2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    9. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    10. ^ a b c d "Suriname". International Monetary Fund.
    11. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
    12. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
    13. ^ "Suriname's climate promise, for a sustainable future". UN News. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  37. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 November 2004Ruzhou School massacre: A man stabs and kills eight people and seriously wounds another four in a school dormitory in Ruzhou, China.

    Yan Yanming

    Yan Yanming (Chinese: 闫彦明) (1983 – January 18, 2005) was a Chinese mass murderer who entered a dormitory at the Ruzhou Number Two High School in Ruzhou, China on November 26, 2004, with a knife and attacked twelve boys, killing nine of them.[1][2]

    After the attack, Yanming ran away from the school, but was arrested hours later after he failed to commit suicide because his mother had reported his location to the Ruzhou police.[3]

    After trial, Yanming was sentenced to death and executed on January 18, 2005 in Pingdingshan.[4]

     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 November 1978 – The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) is founded in the city of Riha (Urfa) in Turkey.

    Kurdistan Workers' Party

    The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Kurmanji Kurdish: Partîya Karkerên Kurdistanê[a]) is a Kurdish militant political organization and armed guerrilla movement, which has historically operated throughout Greater Kurdistan, but is now primarily based in the mountainous Kurdish-majority regions of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq. Since 1984, the PKK has been involved in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (with cease-fires in 1999–2004 and 2013–2015), utilizing asymmetric warfare to seek various goals, including an independent Kurdish state, autonomy and increased human rights for Kurds within Turkey.

    The PKK was founded in November 1978 in the village of Fis (near Lice), by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan. Öcalan was elected the General Secretary and Kemal Pir, Cemîl Bayik, and Mazlum Doğan were part of the Central Committee.[18][19] It announced its existence the following year.[20] The PKK's ideology was originally a fusion of revolutionary socialism and Marxism-Leninism with Kurdish nationalism, seeking the foundation of an independent communist Kurdistan. The initial reasons given by the PKK for this were the oppression of Kurds in Turkey and under capitalism.[21][22] At this time, the use of the Kurdish language, dress, folklore, and names were banned by the Turkish state,[23] including the words "Kurds" and "Kurdistan".[24] Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was officially prohibited in public and private life.[25] Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were arrested and imprisoned.[26] The PKK was formed as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic, cultural, and political rights for the Kurdish minority.[27]

    The PKK has been involved in armed clashes with Turkish security forces since its foundation, but the full-scale insurgency did not begin until 15 August 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 people have died, most of whom were Kurdish civilians.[28][29] In 1999, PKK leader Öcalan was captured and imprisoned.[30] In May 2007, serving and former members of the PKK set up the Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK), an umbrella organisation of Kurdish organisations in Turkish, Iraqi, Iranian, and Syrian Kurdistan. In 2013, the PKK declared a ceasefire and began slowly withdrawing its fighters to Iraqi Kurdistan as part of a peace process with the Turkish state. The ceasefire broke down in July 2015.[31] In March 2016, the PKK joined the Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement, an alliance with the aim of overthrowing the Turkish government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[32]

    Both the PKK and the Turkish state have been accused of engaging in terror tactics and targeting civilians. The PKK has historically bombed city centres,[33][34][35] while Turkey has burned down thousands of Kurdish villages and massacred Kurds in an attempt to root out PKK militants.[36][37][38][39][40] The PKK is designated as a terrorist organization by Turkey, the United States, the EU, Japan, Australia, and other countries.[41][42][43][44][45] However, the labeling of the PKK as a terrorist organization is controversial; as an array of organizations, people, and NGOs contend that the PKK does not engage in organized terrorist activities, or systemically target civilians.[46][47][48][49][50][51] In 2008 and in 2018 the EU court of Justice ruled the PKK was classified as a terror organization with a lack of due process.[52][53] However, the EU still classifies the PKK as a terror organization.[54] In 2020, the supreme court of Belgium ruled that the PKK was not a terrorist organization, instead labeling the group as an actor in an internal armed conflict.[55][56]

    1. ^ de Jong, Alex. "The New-Old PKK". Jacobin Magazine. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
    2. ^ de Jong, Alex (18 March 2016). "The New-Old PKK". Jacobin Magazine. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
    3. ^ "Kurdistan Workers' Party". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 September 2020. Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) (...) militant Kurdish nationalist organization (...)
    4. ^ "Handbuch Extremismusprävention". Federal Criminal Office. 10 July 2020. p. 159. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020. (...) der inzwischen stärker durch kurdischen Nationalismus geprägten PKK. [(...) the PKK, which is now more strongly influenced by Kurdish nationalism.]
    5. ^ "Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)". Counter Extremism Project. Retrieved 15 May 2021. In 2003, Öcalan reformulated the ideological basis of the PKK. Inspired by eco-anarchists Murray Bookchin and Janet Beihl, he advocated for a new anti-nationalist approach he referred to as "democratic confederalism."
    6. ^ O'Connor, Francis (1 January 2017). "The Kurdish Movement in Turkey: Between Political Differentiation and Violent Confrontation". Peace Research Institute Frankfurt: 16–17. The PKK has explicitly renounced its demand for an independent state... [Öcalan] describes [his theory] as "an anti-Nationalist movement [...]"
    7. ^ Wali, Zhelwan Z. "Kurd vs Kurd: Fears of full-scale war rise in northern Iraq". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 April 2021. The PKK has an estimated 5,000 fighters stationed largely in Iraqi Kurdish region’s rugged mountainous areas
    8. ^ "Country Reports on Terrorism 2019". United States Department of State. Retrieved 19 April 2021. The PKK is estimated to consist of 4,000 to 5,000 members
    9. ^ "Terrorism Profile – Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)". The Mackenzie Institute. Retrieved 19 April 2021. The exact number of fighters in the PKK is unknown, however, it is widely believed to be approximately 7000
    10. ^ "Increasing tensions see resurgence of Turkey's far-right street movements". Middle East Eye.
    11. ^ Barbarani, Sofia. "Fighting intensifies between Peshmerga and PKK in northern Iraq". www.aljazeera.com.
    12. ^ "Turkey and Iran vow to target PKK in joint military operations". Middle East Eye.
    13. ^ https://www.state.gov/attacks-by-the-terrorist-pkk-organization-in-the-ikr/
    14. ^ "Turkey using Israeli-upgraded tanks in anti-Kurd offensive in Syria". The Jerusalem Post. 17 October 2019.
    15. ^ "Rebuffing former top general, Netanyahu says Kurdish PKK a terror group". The Times of Israel. 13 September 2017.
    16. ^ "PKK, HDP express solidarity with Palestinian people". Rudaw. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
    17. ^ "Three Kurds killed in Berlin shootout". The Guardian. 17 February 1999.
    18. ^ "Lice'nin Fis köyünde PKK'nın kuruluşunu kutladılar". Hürriyet Daily News. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
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    29. ^ Abadi, Cameron (17 October 2019). "Why Is Turkey Fighting Syria's Kurds?". Foreign Policy.
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    29 November 1987 – North Korean agents plant a bomb on Korean Air Flight 858, which kills all 115 passengers and crew.

    Korean Air Flight 858

    Korean Air Flight 858 was a scheduled international passenger flight between Baghdad, Iraq and Seoul, South Korea. On 29 November 1987, the aircraft flying that route exploded in mid-air upon the detonation of a bomb planted inside an overhead storage bin in the airplane's passenger cabin by two North Korean agents.

    The agents, acting upon orders from the North Korean government, planted the device before disembarking from the aircraft during the first stop-over, in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. While the aircraft was flying over the Andaman Sea to its second stop-over, in Bangkok, Thailand, the bomb detonated and destroyed the Korean Air Boeing 707-3B5C. Everyone aboard the airliner was killed, a total of 104 passengers and 11 crew members (almost all were South Koreans). The attack occurred 34 years after the Korean Armistice Agreement that ended the hostilities of the Korean War on 27 July 1953.

    The two bombers were traced to Bahrain, where they both took ampules of cyanide hidden in cigarettes when they realized they were about to be taken into custody. The man died, but the woman, Kim Hyon-hui, survived and later confessed to the bombing. She was sentenced to death after being put on trial for the attack, but was later pardoned by the President of South Korea, Roh Tae-woo, because it was deemed that she had been brainwashed in North Korea. Kim's testimony implicated Kim Jong-il, who at that time was the future leader of North Korea, as the person ultimately responsible for the incident. The United States Department of State specifically refers to the bombing of KAL 858 as a "terrorist act" and, except between 2008 and 2017, has included North Korea on its State Sponsors of Terrorism list.

    Since the attack, diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea have not significantly improved, although some progress has been made in the form of four Inter-Korean summits. Kim Hyon-hui later released a book, The Tears of My Soul, in which she recalled being trained in an espionage school run by the North Korean army, and being told personally by Kim Jong-il to carry out the attack. She was branded a traitor by North Korea, and became a critic of North Korea after seeing South Korea. Kim now resides in exile, and under constant tight security, fearing that the North Korean government wants to kill her.[1] "Being a culprit, I do have a sense of agony with which I must fight", she said at a press conference in 1990. "In that sense I must still be a prisoner or a captive—of a sense of guilt."[2]

    1. ^ "North Korean ex-spy who blew up jetliner: Don't trust Kim Jong Un". NBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Huidresses was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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