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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 October 2009 – The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kill 155 and wounds at least 721.

    October 2009 Baghdad bombings

    The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings were attacks in Baghdad, Iraq which killed 155 people and injured at least 721 people.[1]

    1. ^ a b c "Baghdad bomb fatalities pass 150". BBC News. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
    2. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (27 October 2009). "Extremist group claims responsibility for Baghdad bombs". Washington Post. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    26 October 1863The Football Association is founded.

    The Football Association

    The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.

    The FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the county football associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, and youth national football teams.

    The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which is responsible for the Laws of the Game. As the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London. The FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.[1]

    All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules.[2] The English Football League, made up of the three fully professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions.

    1. ^ "Team GB decision reached". TheFA.com. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
    2. ^ "The Premier League and Other Football Bodies". Premier League. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 October 2004 – The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals to win their first World Series in 86 years.

    2004 World Series

    The 2004 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2004 season. The 100th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the American League (AL) champion Boston Red Sox and the National League (NL) champion St. Louis Cardinals;[1] the Red Sox swept the Cardinals in four games. The series was played from October 23 to 27, 2004, at Fenway Park and Busch Memorial Stadium, broadcast on Fox, and watched by an average of just under 25.5 million viewers. The Red Sox's World Series championship was their first since 1918.

    The Cardinals earned their berth into the playoffs by winning the NL Central division title, and had the best win–loss record in the NL. The Red Sox won the AL wild card to earn theirs. The Cardinals reached the World Series by defeating the Los Angeles Dodgers in the best-of-five NL Division Series and the Houston Astros in the best-of-seven NL Championship Series. The Red Sox defeated the Anaheim Angels in the AL Division Series. After trailing three games to none to the New York Yankees in the AL Championship Series, the Red Sox came back to win the series, advancing to their first World Series since 1986. The Cardinals made their first appearance in the World Series since 1987. With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII, the World Series victory made Boston the first city to have Super Bowl and World Series championship teams in the same year (2004) since Pittsburgh in 1979.[2] The Red Sox became the third straight wild card team to win the World Series; the Anaheim Angels won in 2002 and the Florida Marlins won in 2003.[3]

    The Red Sox had home-field advantage in the World Series by nature of the AL winning the 2004 All-Star Game. In game one, Mark Bellhorn helped the Red Sox win with a home run, while starter Curt Schilling led the team to a game two victory by pitching six innings and allowing just one run. The Red Sox won the first two games despite committing four errors in each. The Red Sox won game three, aided by seven shutout innings by Pedro Martínez. A home run by Johnny Damon in the first inning helped to win game four for the Red Sox to secure the series. The Cardinals did not lead in any of the games in the series. Manny Ramírez was named the series' Most Valuable Player. The Red Sox and Cardinals faced each other again in the 2013 World Series, which the Red Sox also won, this time 4 games to 2.

    1. ^ Shaughnessy 2005, pp. 212–214
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pittsburgh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "How Many MLB Wild-Card Teams Have Won the World Series?". The Cheat Sheet. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 October 2009 – The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.

    28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing

    The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing occurred in Peshawar, Pakistan, when a car bomb was detonated in a Mina Bazar (Market for women and children) of the city. The bomb killed 137 people and injured more than 200 others, making it the deadliest attack in Peshawar's history. Pakistani government officials believe the Taliban to be responsible, but both Taliban and Al-Qaeda sources have denied involvement in the attack.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference IT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Hazrat Bacha, Ali (30 October 2009). "Death toll from Peshawar blast rises to 117". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 October 2015China announces the end of One-child policy after 35 years.

    One-child policy

    China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its rapidly growing population.[1] Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want), it set a limit on the number of births parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning. It was introduced in 1979 (after a decade-long two-child policy),[2] modified beginning in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before being eliminated at the end of 2015. When this policy was first introduced 6.1 million families that had already given birth to a child were given the "One Child Honorary Certificates." This was a pledge they had to make to ensure they would not have more children.[3] The policy also allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities. Therefore, the term "one-child policy" is a misnomer, because for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed (1979–2015), about half of all parents in China were allowed to have a second child.[4][5][6]

    To enforce existing birth limits (of one or two children), provincial governments could, and did, require the use of contraception, sterilizations and abortions to ensure compliance, and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to promote the program and monitor compliance. China also rewarded families with only one child. From 1982 onwards, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning issued by the CPC central committee and the state council in that year, regulations awarded 5 yuan per month for families with one child. Parents who had only one child would also get a "one-child glory certificate".[7]

    According to China's government, 400 million births were prevented. Originally, this estimate referred to the full birth program starting from 1970, although more recently the numbers have been attributed to one-child restrictions since 1980. Several scholars have disputed the official claim, contending that the one-child program had little effect on birth rates or the size of the total population when one considers the large drop in fertility in the two-child decade preceding it.[8][9][10] China has been compared to countries such as Thailand, along with the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which experienced similar declines of fertility without a one-child policy.[11] Another study takes such arguments even further based on a model which implies that the one-child program, contrary to popular belief and its government's intentions, had a pronatal effect that raised birth rates above what they otherwise would have been.[12] Yet this latter study has itself been disputed as an implausible "erasure of the impact of this program from history.[13] Moreover, the comparative models proposed by those dismissing official estimates as exaggerations [12][9] imply that China's birth planning since 1970 has already averted between 600 and 700 million births, a number projected to grow to one billion or more by 2060 given the averted descendants of the births originally averted by policy.[14][15][16][13] The real dispute concerns what portion of these total averted births (and population) are due to China's tightened one-child program as opposed to the two-child program that preceded it.

    Although 76% of Chinese people said that they supported the policy in a 2008 survey, it was controversial outside of China.[17]. Effective from January 2016, the national birth planning policy became a universal two-child policy that allowed each couple to have two children.

    China's population since 1950
    1. ^ "One Child Nation". Amazon Studios. 2019.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Scharping was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Zang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Lucy (2017). Handbook on the Family and Marriage in China. Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781785368196.00016. ISBN 978-1-78536-819-6.
    4. ^ Hesketh, T; Zhu, SX (1997). "The one-child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 314 (7095): 1685–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7095.1685. PMC 2126838. PMID 9193296.
    5. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2001). "Fresh Winds in Beijing: Chinese Feminists Speak Out on the One-child Policy and Women's Lives". Signs. 26 (3): 847–886. doi:10.1086/495630. JSTOR 3175541. PMID 17607875.
    6. ^ Lauster, Nathaneal; Allen, Graham (2011). The End of Children? Changing Trends in Childbearing and Childhood. UBC Press. p. 1980.
    7. ^ "China’s One-Child Policy: Urban and Rural Pressures, Anxieties, and Problems". World Report News. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
    8. ^ Feng, Wang; Yong, Cai; Gu, Baochang (2012). "Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's One-Child Policy?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 38: 115–29. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x.
    9. ^ a b Whyte, Martin K.; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yong (2015). "Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). The China Journal.
    10. ^ Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen (2006). "How effective is the one-child policy in China?" (PDF). Working Paper Series. doi:10.1920/wp.cem.2006.1606.
    11. ^ Sen, Amartya (June 2012). "Population: Delusion and Reality" (PDF). Richard R Guzmán.
    12. ^ a b Gietel-Basten, Stuart; Han, Xuehui; Cheng, Yuan (6 November 2019). "Assessing the impact of the "one-child policy" in China: A synthetic control approach". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0220170. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220170. ISSN 1932-6203.
    13. ^ a b Goodkind, Daniel (6 November 2019). "Formal comment on "Assessing the impact of the 'one-child policy' in China: A synthetic control approach"". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0222705. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222705. ISSN 1932-6203.
    14. ^ Daniel Goodkind. 2017. The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions. Demography 54: 1375-1399 doi: 10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x
    15. ^ "Analysis of China's one-child policy sparks uproar". 18 October 2017.
    16. ^ Goodkind, Daniel (2018). "If Science Had Come First: A Billion Person Fable for the Ages". Demography. 55 (2): 743–768. doi:10.1007/s13524-018-0661-z. PMID 29623609.
    17. ^ "The Chinese Celebrate Their Roaring Economy, As They Struggle With Its Costs". 22 July 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 October 1947 – The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is founded.

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."

    The GATT was first discussed during the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). It was signed by 23 nations in Geneva on 30 October 1947, and took effect on 1 January 1948. It remained in effect until the signature by 123 nations in Marrakesh on 14 April 1994, of the Uruguay Round Agreements which established the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 1 January 1995. The WTO is the successor to the GATT, and the original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in effect under the WTO framework, subject to the modifications of GATT 1994.[1][2] Nations that were not party in 1995 to the GATT need to meet the minimum conditions spelled out in specific documents before they can accede; in September 2019, the list contained 36 nations.[3]

    The GATT, and its successor the WTO, have successfully reduced tariffs. The average tariff levels for the major GATT participants were about 22% in 1947, but were 5% after the Uruguay Round in 1999.[4] Experts attribute part of these tariff changes to GATT and the WTO.[5][6][7]

    1. ^ "WTO legal texts: The Uruguay Round agreements". World Trade Organization.
    2. ^ "Uruguay Round - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994". World Trade Organization.
    3. ^ "ACCESSIONS: Protocols of accession for new members since 1995, including commitments in goods and services". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Tomz, Michael; Goldstein, Judith L; Rivers, Douglas (2007). "Do We Really Know That the WTO Increases Trade? Comment". American Economic Review. 97 (5): 2005–2018. doi:10.1257/aer.97.5.2005. ISSN 0002-8282.
    6. ^ Goldstein, Judith L.; Rivers, Douglas; Tomz, Michael (2007). "Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade". International Organization. 61 (1): 37–67. doi:10.1017/S0020818307070014. ISSN 1531-5088.
    7. ^ Irwin, Douglas A. (9 April 2007). "GATT Turns 60". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    31 October 1863 – The New Zealand Wars resume as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron begin their Invasion of the Waikato.

    New Zealand Wars

    The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the Colonial government and allied Māori on one side and Māori and Māori-allied settlers on the other. They were previously commonly referred to as the Land Wars or the Māori Wars[2] while Māori language names for the conflicts included Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa ("the great New Zealand wars") and Te riri Pākehā ("the white man's anger").[2] Historian James Belich popularised the name "New Zealand Wars" in the 1980s,[3] although the term was first used by historian James Cowan in the 1920s.[4]

    Though the wars were initially localised conflicts triggered by tensions over disputed land purchases, they escalated dramatically from 1860 as the government became convinced it was facing united Māori resistance to further land sales and a refusal to acknowledge Crown sovereignty. The colonial government summoned thousands of British troops to mount major campaigns to overpower the Kīngitanga (Māori King) movement and also acquire farming and residential land for British settlers.[5][6] Later campaigns were aimed at quashing the so-called Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Mārire religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity.[7]

    At the peak of hostilities in the 1860s, 18,000 British troops, supported by artillery, cavalry and local militia, battled about 4,000 Māori warriors[8] in what became a gross imbalance of manpower and weaponry.[9] Although outnumbered, the Māori were able to withstand their enemy with techniques that included anti-artillery bunkers and the use of carefully placed , or fortified villages, that allowed them to block their enemy's advance and often inflict heavy losses, yet quickly abandon their positions without significant loss. Guerrilla-style tactics were used by both sides in later campaigns, often fought in dense bush. Over the course of the Taranaki and Waikato campaigns, the lives of about 1,800 Māori and 800 Europeans were lost,[5] and total Māori losses over the course of all the wars may have exceeded 2,100.

    Violence over land ownership broke out first in the Wairau Valley in the South Island in June 1843, but rising tensions in Taranaki eventually led to the involvement of British military forces at Waitara in March 1860. The war between the government and Kīngitanga Māori spread to other areas of the North Island, with the biggest single campaign being the invasion of the Waikato in 1863–1864, before hostilities concluded with the pursuits of Riwha Tītokowaru in Taranaki (1868–1869) and Rangatira (chief) Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki on the east coast (1868–1872).

    Although Māori were initially fought by British forces, the New Zealand government developed its own military force, including local militia, rifle volunteer groups, the specialist Forest Rangers and kūpapa (pro-government Māori). The government also responded with legislation to imprison Māori opponents and confiscate expansive areas of the North Island for sale to settlers, with the funds used to cover war expenses[10][11]—punitive measures that on the east and west coasts provoked an intensification of Māori resistance and aggression.

    1. ^ "End of the New Zealand Wars". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
    2. ^ a b "Story: New Zealand Wars".
    3. ^ "The end of the war".
    4. ^ O'Malley 2019, p. 29.
    5. ^ a b King, Michael (1977). Te Puea: A Biography. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 26. ISBN 0-340-22482-7.
    6. ^ Dalton, B.J. (1967). War and Politics in New Zealand 1855–1870. Sydney: Sydney University Press. p. 179.
    7. ^ Belich, James (1986x). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict (1st ed.). Auckland: Penguin. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0-14-011162-X.
    8. ^ Belich, James (1986a). The New Zealand Wars. Auckland: Penguin. pp. 126–133. ISBN 0-14-027504-5.
    9. ^ Belich 1986a, pp. 24–25.
    10. ^ Belich 1986a, p. 126.
    11. ^ Dalton 1967, pp. 181–182.
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 November 1993 – The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.

    Maastricht Treaty

    The Maastricht Treaty (officially the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Communities in Maastricht, Netherlands, to further European integration.[1] On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty.[2] The treaty founded the European Union and established its pillar structure which stayed in place until the Lisbon Treaty came into force in 2009. The treaty also greatly expanded the competences of the EEC/EU and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro.

    The Maastricht Treaty reformed and amended the treaties establishing the European Communities, the EU's first pillar. It renamed European Economic Community to European Community to reflect its expanded competences beyond economic matters. The Maastricht Treaty also created two new pillars of the EU on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs (respectively the second and third pillars), which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination.

    The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2007). Today it is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

    1. ^ "1990–1999". The history of the European Union – 1990–1999. Europa. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    2. ^ "1991". The EU at a glance – The History of the European Union. Europa. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
     
  9. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    2 November 1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating Martin Luther King, Jr. Day.

    Martin Luther King Jr. Day

    Martin Luther King Jr. Day (officially Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.,[1] and sometimes referred to as MLK Day) is an American federal holiday marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. It is observed on the third Monday of January each year, which is around King's birthday, January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. The earliest Monday for this holiday is January 15 and the latest is January 21.

    King was the chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which successfully protested racial discrimination in federal and state law. The campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, and it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays. It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000.

    1. ^ "Federal Holidays". Opm.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
     
  10. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    4 Novemeber 2015 – A building collapses in the Pakistani city of Lahore resulting in at least 45 deaths, and at least 100 injured.

    2015 Lahore factory disaster

    The 2015 Lahore factory disaster resulted when a shopping bag factory located at Sundar Industrial Estate[1] near Lahore, Pakistan collapsed[5][6][2] on 4 November 2015, killing at least 45 people[3] and trapping about 150.[2] The recovery was led by the Board of Management Sundar Industrial Estate with support from the Pakistan Army, Rescue 1122 and Bahria Town Rescue Team.

    A large rescue operation included a team of army engineers and urban search-and-rescue personnel.[2][3] Messages had been received via mobile phones from people trapped in the rubble.[2] The challenge of getting heavy machinery to the site of the collapse hampered the rescue effort, according to an official as of 4 November .[3]

    The disaster has had a seminal effect on the operation and management of all industrial estates and their bye laws.

    1. ^ a b "Pakistan Lahore factory collapse: Hopes dim for survivors". BBC. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g AFP (5 November 2015). "Race to find survivors after deadly factory collapse in Pakistan". 24France. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    3. ^ a b c d e f "Hunt for survivors at collapsed Pakistan building site". Al Jazeera English. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
    4. ^ Gabol, Imran (7 November 2015). "Lahore factory collapse: Search for survivors continues as death toll climbs to 45". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
    5. ^ Gabol, Imran (5 November 2015). "At least 25 dead as rescuers scrabble through Lahore factory rubble". Dawn. Pakistan. AFP. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
    6. ^ Shahzad, Muhammad (5 November 2015). "At least 23 killed in Lahore factory collapse; rescue operations underway". The Express Tribune. Pakistan. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    5 November 1943 – World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

    Bombing of the Vatican

    Map of Vatican City showing the buildings of the Governatorate, the Tribunal, and the Archpriest, and the railway station, which were damaged on 5 November 1943. The mosaic workshop, which received a direct hit, is positioned between the railway station and the residence of the archpriest.

    Bombing of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II. The first occasion was on the evening of 5 November 1943, when a plane dropped bombs on the area south-west of Saint Peter's Basilica, causing considerable damage but no casualties. The second bombing, which affected only the outer margin of the city, was at about the same hour on 1 March 1944, and caused the death of one person and the injury of another.[1]

     
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  14. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 November 1929 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

    Museum of Modern Art

    The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.

    MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modern art, and is often identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world.[3] MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, prints, illustrated books and artist's books, film, and electronic media.[4]

    The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, and over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups.[5] The archives hold primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art.[6]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference artnewspaper2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Top 100 Art Museum Attendance Archived April 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Art Newspaper, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
    3. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2005). "The Development of Modernist Art: The Early 20th Century". Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 796. ISBN 0-495-00478-2. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City is consistently identified as the institution most responsible for developing modernist art ... the most influential museum of modern art in the world.
    4. ^ Museum of Modern Art – New York Art World Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
    5. ^ "MoMA". Archived from the original on February 5, 2016.
    6. ^ "MoMA". Archived from the original on February 13, 2016.
     
  15. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 November 2002Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441: The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face "serious consequences".

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).[1] It provided a justification for what was subsequently termed the US invasion of Iraq.[2]

    Resolution 1441 stated that Iraq was in material breach of the ceasefire terms presented under the terms of Resolution 687. Iraq's breaches related not only to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but also the known construction of prohibited types of missiles, the purchase and import of prohibited armaments, and the continuing refusal of Iraq to compensate Kuwait for the widespread looting conducted by its troops during the 1990–1991 invasion and occupation. It also stated that "...false statements or omissions in the declarations submitted by Iraq pursuant to this resolution and failure by Iraq at any time to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of, this resolution shall constitute a further material breach of Iraq's obligations."

    1. ^ "Text of U.N. resolution on Iraq - Nov. 8, 2002". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
    2. ^ "Gulf war - PBS Frontline Interviews". PBS Frontline. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
     
  16. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 November 1994 – The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.

    Darmstadtium

    Darmstadtium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of approximately 12.7 seconds. Darmstadtium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near the city of Darmstadt, Germany, after which it was named.

    In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 10 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to platinum in group 10 as the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Darmstadtium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, nickel, palladium, and platinum.

    1. ^ "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
    2. ^ "darmstadtium". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
    3. ^ a b c d e f Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.
    4. ^ a b Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B. 84 (11). Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84k3104O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104.
    5. ^ a b Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
    6. ^ Chemical Data. Darmstadtium - Ds, Royal Chemical Society
     
  17. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 November 1989 – Germans begin to tear down the Berlin Wall.

    Berlin Wall

    Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
    West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˈliːnɐ ˈmaʊ̯ɐ] (About this soundlisten)) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.[1] Construction of the Wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin.[2] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[3] accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds", and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.

    GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.[4] Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[5]

    Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, over 100,000[5] people attempted to escape, and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136[7] to more than 200[5][8] in and around Berlin.

    In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Wall.[9] After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.[5] The Brandenburg Gate in the Berlin Wall was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in November 1991. The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.[5]

    1. ^ "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall". Chicago Tribune. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    2. ^ Video: Berlin, 1961/08/31 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    3. ^ Jack Marck Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine "Over the Wall: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience" American Heritage, October 2006.
    4. ^ "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know". The Telegraph. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    5. ^ a b c d e Library, C. N. N. "Berlin Wall Fast Facts". CNN.
    6. ^ "Freedom!". Time. 20 November 1989. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chronik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference contemporary research was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Mary Elise Sarotte, Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014
     
  18. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 November 2004New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is dedicated at the National War Memorial, Wellington.

    New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior

    Coordinates: 41°17′55.78″S 174°46′37.99″E / 41.2988278°S 174.7772194°E / -41.2988278; 174.7772194

    The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in June 2012

    The New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is at the National War Memorial in Buckle Street, Wellington.

    On 6 November 2004, the remains of an unknown New Zealand soldier were exhumed from the (CWGC) Caterpillar Valley Cemetery, and laid to rest in the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Wellington, New Zealand. He represents over 18,000 members of New Zealand forces who lost their lives during the First World War. A special headstone marks his original resting place in Plot 14, Row A, Grave 27.

     
  19. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

  20. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 November 1994 – In a referendum, voters in Sweden decide to join the European Union.

    1994 Swedish European Union membership referendum

    A non-binding referendum on membership for the European Union was held in Sweden on 13 November 1994.[1]

    The voter turnout was 83.3%, and the result was 52.3% for and 46.8% against.[1]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference scb was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  21. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 November 2012Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip, as hostilities with Hamas escalate.

    Operation Pillar of Defense

    Operation Pillar of Defense (Hebrew: עַמּוּד עָנָן, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud")[22] was an eight-day Israel Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.[23][24][25][26]

    The operation was preceded by a period with a number of mutual Israeli–Palestinian responsive attacks.[27] According to the Israeli government, the operation began in response to the launch of over 100 rockets at Israel during a 24-hour period,[28][29] an attack by Gaza militants on an Israeli military patrol jeep within Israeli borders,[citation needed] and an explosion caused by IEDs, which occurred near Israeli soldiers, on the Israeli side of a tunnel passing under the Israeli West Bank barrier.[30][31] The Israeli government stated that the aims of the military operation were to halt rocket attacks against civilian targets originating from the Gaza Strip[32][33] and to disrupt the capabilities of militant organizations.[34] The Palestinians blamed the Israeli government for the upsurge in violence, accusing the IDF of attacks on Gazan civilians in the days leading up to the operation.[35] They cited the blockade of the Gaza Strip and the occupation of West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as the reason for rocket attacks.[23]

    During the course of the operation, the IDF claimed to have struck more than 1,500 sites in the Gaza Strip,[36] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities, and apartment blocks.[37] According to a UNHCR report, 174 Palestinians were killed and hundreds were wounded.[38] Many families were displaced.[16][39][40][41] One airstrike[42] killed ten members of the al-Dalu family. Some Palestinian casualties were caused by misfired Palestinian rockets landing inside the Gaza Strip.[43] Eight Palestinians were executed by members of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades for alleged collaboration with Israel.[44][45][46]

    During the operation, Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) further intensified their rocket attacks on Israeli cities and towns, in an operation code named Operation Stones of Baked Clay (Arabic: حجارة سجيل‎, ḥijārat sijīl) by the al-Qassam Brigades,[47] firing over 1,456 rockets into Israel, and an additional 142 which fell inside Gaza itself.[48] Palestinian militant groups used weapons including Iranian-made Fajr-5, Russian-made Grad rockets, Qassams, and mortars.[citation needed] Some of these weapons were fired into Rishon LeZion, Beersheba, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and other population centers. Tel Aviv was hit for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, and rockets were fired at Jerusalem.[49] The rockets killed three Israeli civilians in a direct hit on a home in Kiryat Malachi.[24][45][50] By the end of the operation, six Israelis had been killed, two hundred forty were injured, and more than two hundred had been treated for anxiety by Magen David Adom.[55] About 421 rockets were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system, another 142 fell on Gaza itself, 875 fell in open areas, and 58 hit urban areas in Israel.[48][56] A bus in Tel Aviv was bombed by an Arab-Israeli, injuring 28 civilians.[57]

    Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western countries expressed support for what they considered Israel's right to defend itself, or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[69] China,[70] Iran, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned the Israeli operation.[75] The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session on the situation, but did not reach a decision.[76] After days of negotiations between Hamas and Israel, a ceasefire mediated by Egypt was announced on 21 November.[77][78][79] Both sides claimed victory. Israel said that it had achieved its aim of crippling Hamas's rocket-launching ability,[80] while Hamas stated that Israel's option of invading Gaza had ended.[81][82] According to Human Rights Watch, both sides violated the laws of war during the fighting.[83][84][85]

    1. ^ "IDF believes Hamas, Islamic Jihad will honor cease-fire". Jerusalem Post. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    2. ^ a b "PFLP says fighters will continue to strike Israel". Ma'an News Agency. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ "Occupied Quds City Targeted by Palestinian Missile". Fars News Agency. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    4. ^ "Fatah: We also fought against Israel in Pillar of Defense". Jerusalem Post. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    5. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Birnbaum, Michael (21 November 2012). "After Israel, Hamas reach Gaza cease-fire, both sides claim victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    6. ^ Kalman, Matthew; Sengupta, Kim (21 November 2012). "Fragile truce deal hailed as a victory on both sides". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    7. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 November 2012). "Israel says it 'fulfilled all its goals,' while Hamas hails an 'exceptional victory'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    8. ^ Lyon, Alistair, ed. (21 November 2012). "Israel's battle damage report says Hamas crippled". Jewish Journal. Reuters. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    9. ^ Balmer, Crispian (21 November 2012). "Analysis: Relief at Gaza ceasefire can't mask its frailty". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    10. ^ Ravid, Barak (22 November 2012). "Israel's Pillar of Defense achieved its goals". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    11. ^ "Israel eases restrictions on Gaza fishing – Middle East – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    12. ^ Williams, Dan (22 March 2013). "Hamas appeals to Egypt after Israel halves Gaza fishing zone". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    13. ^ "Rocket fired from Gaza lands near Jerusalem". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    14. ^ "The main armed groups in Gaza". gulfnews.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    15. ^ a b "The total numbers of victims". Palestinian Center for Human Rights. 24 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    17. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
    18. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence Report". B'tselem. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
    19. ^ "Gaza baby 'only knew how to smile'". BBC News. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
    20. ^ "Hamas executes six suspected informants for Israel on Gaza street". The Guardian. Associated press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    21. ^ a b "Israel under fire – November 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    22. ^ "Chief of Staff Declares 'Operation Pillar of Cloud'". Arutz Sheva. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    23. ^ a b "Q&A: Israel-Gaza violence". BBC News. 20 November 2012.
    24. ^ a b "Day 2: 300+ Rockets Fired at Israel Since Start of Operation Pillar of Defense" (live updates). Algemeiner. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    25. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (14 November 2012). "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    26. ^ Kalman, Matthew (15 November 2012). "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haaretz_blame_mullet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. 11 December 2012.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference pound was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "Israel: Tunnel Explodes on Gaza Border". ABC News. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
    31. ^ "Operation Pillar of Defense – Selected statements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, israel. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNHCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (16 November 2012). "Jerusalem and Tel Aviv under rocket fire, Netanyahu warns Gaza". Chicago Tribune.
    34. ^ "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    35. ^ "Israel warns Hamas of 'heavy price' for Gaza rockets". 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    36. ^ "LIVE BLOG: Day 8 of Israel-Gaza conflict 2012". Haaretz. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
    37. ^ "Factbox: Gaza targets bombed by Israel". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    38. ^ Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the implementation of Human Rights Council resolutions S-9/1 and S-12/1, Addendum, 6 March 2013.
    39. ^ "Israel Gaza Attacks Intensify Despite Truce Talks". The Huffington Post. The Associated Press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    40. ^ Initial Findings: 40 of the Palestinians killed by the Israeli military up to the night of 19 Nov. were civilians, among them 19 minors., B'Tselem 21 November 2012 Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    41. ^ "Escalation in Hostilities, Gaza and southern Israel" (PDF). Situation Report. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
    42. ^ "Dalu Family in Gaza Mourns Dead After Israel Bombs House". The Huffington Post. Reuters. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    43. ^ "Israeli forces prepare for war as troops mass on Gaza border". Telegraph. London. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    44. ^ Mistaken Lull, Simple Errand, Death in Gaza, New York Times, 16 November 2012
    45. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference toi7b was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    46. ^ JODI RUDOREN. "Collaborators fall prey to both sides in Gaza ; Price of being suspected, much less convicted, can be fatal – and gruesome." International Herald Tribune. 2012
    47. ^ "كتائب القسام تبدأ عملية "حجارة سجيل" ضد إسرائيل". Al-sharq.com. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    48. ^ a b Ban Ki-moon; UN Secretary General (21 November 2012). "Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council [as delivered]". Tel Aviv. Retrieved 22 November 2012. Overall, in that same time period, more than 1,456 rockets have been fired from Gaza into Israel. 142 have fallen inside Gaza itself. Approximately 409 were intercepted by the Iron Dome anti-missile system. (...) Since Israel's targeted assassination from the air, on 14 November, of Ahmed Jaabari, chief of Hamas' military wing, and with Israel's offensive in Gaza in its eighth day, the Israel Defense Forces publicly reported that it has conducted strikes at more than 1,450 targets in Gaza.
    49. ^ Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (15 November 2012). "Gaza rocket hits area south of Tel Aviv for first time". The Jerusalem Post.
    50. ^ Cite error: The named reference gu18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    51. ^ Rettig, Haviv (21 November 2012). "Title: After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test. TOI. Nov 2012". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    52. ^ "MDA: 16 injured in South on sixth day of operation". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    53. ^ 70 Israelis injured in rocket attacks in last 24 hours, Jerusalem Post 15 November 2012
    54. ^ Oster, Marcy (22 November 2012). "Title: six Israelis die in Operation Pillar of Defense. JTA. 12 Nov". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    55. ^ [21][51][52][53][54]
    56. ^ Levinson, Charles; Adam Entous (26 November 2012). "Israel's Iron Dome Defense Battled to Get Off the Ground". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
    57. ^ "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
    58. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem Post.
    59. ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    60. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    61. ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    62. ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). AU: Fairfax Media. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    63. ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    64. ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel and the Gaza Strip". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    65. ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas and Stands with Israel" (Press release). CA: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    66. ^ Statement of MFA on Israel and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012
    67. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012
    68. ^ a b "Russia condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. LB. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    69. ^ [58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68]
    70. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on November 19, 2012". Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in New York. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    71. ^ "At the UN, Pakistan slams Israel's offensive in Gaza". The Express Tribune. PK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    72. ^ "Morocco Strongly Condemns Israeli Raids on Gaza". Rabat, BH. Bahrain News Agency. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    73. ^ "Sudanese president condemns Israeli strikes on Gaza". Global Times. CN. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    74. ^ "Lebanese president: Israeli attack on Gaza obstructs peace". NOW Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    75. ^ [68][71][72][73][74]
    76. ^ "Gaza toll rises as UN calls for end to the bloodshed". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    77. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Rudoren, Jodi (21 November 2012). "Cease-Fire Between Israel and Hamas Takes Effect". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    78. ^ Owen, Paul. "Israel-Gaza: truce talks ongoing in Cairo – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    79. ^ Iron Dome protects Tel Aviv as army warns of long fight ahead, Times of Israel 17 November 2012
    80. ^ Israel dealt Hamas 'a heavy blow' and is prepared to resume offensive if need be, Netanyahu says, Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    81. ^ Gaza leader Haniyeh thanks Iran for helping make Israel ‘scream with pain', Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    82. ^ IBRAHIM BARZAK and KARIN LAUB The Associated Press (22 November 2012). "Hamas claims victory as ceasefire starts". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    83. ^ Sarah Leah Whitson; Middle East director (20 December 2012). "Israel/Gaza: Unlawful Israeli Attacks on Palestinian Media". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    84. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWHamas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    85. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWreport was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  22. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 November 2012Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip, as hostilities with Hamas escalate.

    Operation Pillar of Defense

    Operation Pillar of Defense (Hebrew: עַמּוּד עָנָן, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud")[22] was an eight-day Israel Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.[23][24][25][26]

    The operation was preceded by a period with a number of mutual Israeli–Palestinian responsive attacks.[27] According to the Israeli government, the operation began in response to the launch of over 100 rockets at Israel during a 24-hour period,[28][29] an attack by Gaza militants on an Israeli military patrol jeep within Israeli borders,[citation needed] and an explosion caused by IEDs, which occurred near Israeli soldiers, on the Israeli side of a tunnel passing under the Israeli West Bank barrier.[30][31] The Israeli government stated that the aims of the military operation were to halt rocket attacks against civilian targets originating from the Gaza Strip[32][33] and to disrupt the capabilities of militant organizations.[34] The Palestinians blamed the Israeli government for the upsurge in violence, accusing the IDF of attacks on Gazan civilians in the days leading up to the operation.[35] They cited the blockade of the Gaza Strip and the occupation of West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as the reason for rocket attacks.[23]

    During the course of the operation, the IDF claimed to have struck more than 1,500 sites in the Gaza Strip,[36] including rocket launchpads, weapon depots, government facilities, and apartment blocks.[37] According to a UNHCR report, 174 Palestinians were killed and hundreds were wounded.[38] Many families were displaced.[16][39][40][41] One airstrike[42] killed ten members of the al-Dalu family. Some Palestinian casualties were caused by misfired Palestinian rockets landing inside the Gaza Strip.[43] Eight Palestinians were executed by members of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades for alleged collaboration with Israel.[44][45][46]

    During the operation, Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) further intensified their rocket attacks on Israeli cities and towns, in an operation code named Operation Stones of Baked Clay (Arabic: حجارة سجيل‎, ḥijārat sijīl) by the al-Qassam Brigades,[47] firing over 1,456 rockets into Israel, and an additional 142 which fell inside Gaza itself.[48] Palestinian militant groups used weapons including Iranian-made Fajr-5, Russian-made Grad rockets, Qassams, and mortars.[citation needed] Some of these weapons were fired into Rishon LeZion, Beersheba, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and other population centers. Tel Aviv was hit for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, and rockets were fired at Jerusalem.[49] The rockets killed three Israeli civilians in a direct hit on a home in Kiryat Malachi.[24][45][50] By the end of the operation, six Israelis had been killed, two hundred forty were injured, and more than two hundred had been treated for anxiety by Magen David Adom.[55] About 421 rockets were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome missile defense system, another 142 fell on Gaza itself, 875 fell in open areas, and 58 hit urban areas in Israel.[48][56] A bus in Tel Aviv was bombed by an Arab-Israeli, injuring 28 civilians.[57]

    Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other Western countries expressed support for what they considered Israel's right to defend itself, or condemned the Hamas rocket attacks on Israel.[69] China,[70] Iran, Russia, Egypt, Turkey, and several other Arab and Muslim countries condemned the Israeli operation.[75] The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session on the situation, but did not reach a decision.[76] After days of negotiations between Hamas and Israel, a ceasefire mediated by Egypt was announced on 21 November.[77][78][79] Both sides claimed victory. Israel said that it had achieved its aim of crippling Hamas's rocket-launching ability,[80] while Hamas stated that Israel's option of invading Gaza had ended.[81][82] According to Human Rights Watch, both sides violated the laws of war during the fighting.[83][84][85]

    1. ^ "IDF believes Hamas, Islamic Jihad will honor cease-fire". Jerusalem Post. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    2. ^ a b "PFLP says fighters will continue to strike Israel". Ma'an News Agency. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ "Occupied Quds City Targeted by Palestinian Missile". Fars News Agency. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    4. ^ "Fatah: We also fought against Israel in Pillar of Defense". Jerusalem Post. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    5. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Birnbaum, Michael (21 November 2012). "After Israel, Hamas reach Gaza cease-fire, both sides claim victory". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    6. ^ Kalman, Matthew; Sengupta, Kim (21 November 2012). "Fragile truce deal hailed as a victory on both sides". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    7. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 November 2012). "Israel says it 'fulfilled all its goals,' while Hamas hails an 'exceptional victory'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    8. ^ Lyon, Alistair, ed. (21 November 2012). "Israel's battle damage report says Hamas crippled". Jewish Journal. Reuters. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    9. ^ Balmer, Crispian (21 November 2012). "Analysis: Relief at Gaza ceasefire can't mask its frailty". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    10. ^ Ravid, Barak (22 November 2012). "Israel's Pillar of Defense achieved its goals". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    11. ^ "Israel eases restrictions on Gaza fishing – Middle East – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    12. ^ Williams, Dan (22 March 2013). "Hamas appeals to Egypt after Israel halves Gaza fishing zone". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    13. ^ "Rocket fired from Gaza lands near Jerusalem". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    14. ^ "The main armed groups in Gaza". gulfnews.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    15. ^ a b "The total numbers of victims". Palestinian Center for Human Rights. 24 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test". Times of Israel. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    17. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
    18. ^ a b "Operation Pillar of Defence Report". B'tselem. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
    19. ^ "Gaza baby 'only knew how to smile'". BBC News. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
    20. ^ "Hamas executes six suspected informants for Israel on Gaza street". The Guardian. Associated press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    21. ^ a b "Israel under fire – November 2012". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    22. ^ "Chief of Staff Declares 'Operation Pillar of Cloud'". Arutz Sheva. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    23. ^ a b "Q&A: Israel-Gaza violence". BBC News. 20 November 2012.
    24. ^ a b "Day 2: 300+ Rockets Fired at Israel Since Start of Operation Pillar of Defense" (live updates). Algemeiner. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    25. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (14 November 2012). "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    26. ^ Kalman, Matthew (15 November 2012). "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    27. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haaretz_blame_mullet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    28. ^ "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. 11 December 2012.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference pound was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "Israel: Tunnel Explodes on Gaza Border". ABC News. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
    31. ^ "Operation Pillar of Defense – Selected statements". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, israel. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    32. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNHCR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    33. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (16 November 2012). "Jerusalem and Tel Aviv under rocket fire, Netanyahu warns Gaza". Chicago Tribune.
    34. ^ "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    35. ^ "Israel warns Hamas of 'heavy price' for Gaza rockets". 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
    36. ^ "LIVE BLOG: Day 8 of Israel-Gaza conflict 2012". Haaretz. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
    37. ^ "Factbox: Gaza targets bombed by Israel". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
    38. ^ Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the implementation of Human Rights Council resolutions S-9/1 and S-12/1, Addendum, 6 March 2013.
    39. ^ "Israel Gaza Attacks Intensify Despite Truce Talks". The Huffington Post. The Associated Press. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    40. ^ Initial Findings: 40 of the Palestinians killed by the Israeli military up to the night of 19 Nov. were civilians, among them 19 minors., B'Tselem 21 November 2012 Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    41. ^ "Escalation in Hostilities, Gaza and southern Israel" (PDF). Situation Report. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
    42. ^ "Dalu Family in Gaza Mourns Dead After Israel Bombs House". The Huffington Post. Reuters. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
    43. ^ "Israeli forces prepare for war as troops mass on Gaza border". Telegraph. London. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    44. ^ Mistaken Lull, Simple Errand, Death in Gaza, New York Times, 16 November 2012
    45. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference toi7b was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    46. ^ JODI RUDOREN. "Collaborators fall prey to both sides in Gaza ; Price of being suspected, much less convicted, can be fatal – and gruesome." International Herald Tribune. 2012
    47. ^ "كتائب القسام تبدأ عملية "حجارة سجيل" ضد إسرائيل". Al-sharq.com. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    48. ^ a b Ban Ki-moon; UN Secretary General (21 November 2012). "Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council [as delivered]". Tel Aviv. Retrieved 22 November 2012. Overall, in that same time period, more than 1,456 rockets have been fired from Gaza into Israel. 142 have fallen inside Gaza itself. Approximately 409 were intercepted by the Iron Dome anti-missile system. (...) Since Israel's targeted assassination from the air, on 14 November, of Ahmed Jaabari, chief of Hamas' military wing, and with Israel's offensive in Gaza in its eighth day, the Israel Defense Forces publicly reported that it has conducted strikes at more than 1,450 targets in Gaza.
    49. ^ Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (15 November 2012). "Gaza rocket hits area south of Tel Aviv for first time". The Jerusalem Post.
    50. ^ Cite error: The named reference gu18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    51. ^ Rettig, Haviv (21 November 2012). "Title: After eight days of fighting, ceasefire is put to the test. TOI. Nov 2012". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    52. ^ "MDA: 16 injured in South on sixth day of operation". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    53. ^ 70 Israelis injured in rocket attacks in last 24 hours, Jerusalem Post 15 November 2012
    54. ^ Oster, Marcy (22 November 2012). "Title: six Israelis die in Operation Pillar of Defense. JTA. 12 Nov". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    55. ^ [21][51][52][53][54]
    56. ^ Levinson, Charles; Adam Entous (26 November 2012). "Israel's Iron Dome Defense Battled to Get Off the Ground". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
    57. ^ "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
    58. ^ Lazaroff, Tovah (16 November 2012). "Ashton, Merkel say Israel has right to defend itself". The Jerusalem Post.
    59. ^ "Gaza Rocket Attacks" (Press release). US: Department of State. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
    60. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on Gaza and southern Israel". UK: Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    61. ^ al-Mughrabi, Nidal (14 November 2012). "UPDATE 8-Rockets hits near Tel Aviv as Gaza death toll rises". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    62. ^ Hall, Bianca (16 November 2012). "Gillard condemns attacks on Israel" (Press release). AU: Fairfax Media. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    63. ^ "Les ministres européens mettent en garde Israël quant à l'escalade de la violence à Gaza" [European ministers warn Israel about escalade of violence in Gaza] (in French). EurActiv. 16 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    64. ^ "Foreign minister Nikolay Mladenov commenting on the situation in southern Israel and the Gaza Strip". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    65. ^ "Canada Condemns Hamas and Stands with Israel" (Press release). CA: Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    66. ^ Statement of MFA on Israel and the Gaza Strip, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic 15 November 2012
    67. ^ Timmermans condemns rocket attacks on Israel from Gaza, Government of the Netherlands 13 November 2012
    68. ^ a b "Russia condemns 'disproportionate' strikes on Gaza". The Daily Star. LB. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    69. ^ [58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68]
    70. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on November 19, 2012". Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in New York. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    71. ^ "At the UN, Pakistan slams Israel's offensive in Gaza". The Express Tribune. PK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
    72. ^ "Morocco Strongly Condemns Israeli Raids on Gaza". Rabat, BH. Bahrain News Agency. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    73. ^ "Sudanese president condemns Israeli strikes on Gaza". Global Times. CN. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    74. ^ "Lebanese president: Israeli attack on Gaza obstructs peace". NOW Lebanon. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    75. ^ [68][71][72][73][74]
    76. ^ "Gaza toll rises as UN calls for end to the bloodshed". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
    77. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Rudoren, Jodi (21 November 2012). "Cease-Fire Between Israel and Hamas Takes Effect". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
    78. ^ Owen, Paul. "Israel-Gaza: truce talks ongoing in Cairo – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
    79. ^ Iron Dome protects Tel Aviv as army warns of long fight ahead, Times of Israel 17 November 2012
    80. ^ Israel dealt Hamas 'a heavy blow' and is prepared to resume offensive if need be, Netanyahu says, Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    81. ^ Gaza leader Haniyeh thanks Iran for helping make Israel ‘scream with pain', Times of Israel 22 November 2012
    82. ^ IBRAHIM BARZAK and KARIN LAUB The Associated Press (22 November 2012). "Hamas claims victory as ceasefire starts". The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    83. ^ Sarah Leah Whitson; Middle East director (20 December 2012). "Israel/Gaza: Unlawful Israeli Attacks on Palestinian Media". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
    84. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWHamas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    85. ^ Cite error: The named reference HRWreport was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  23. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 November 2006Al Jazeera English launches worldwide.

    Al Jazeera English

    Al Jazeera English (AJE) is a Qatari pay television news channel owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar. It is the first English-language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East.[1] Instead of being run centrally, news management rotates between broadcasting centres in Doha and London.

    1. ^ "Al-Jazeera Says Its English-Language News Channel Will Launch November 15". The Post-Star. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009.
     
  24. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 November 1945UNESCO is founded.

    UNESCO

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO;[1] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris, France. Its declared purpose is to contribute to promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.[2] It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.[3]

    UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members.[4] Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.

    UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[5]

    UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".[6] Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[7]

    The broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities.

    1. ^ "UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
    2. ^ "UNESCO history". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
    3. ^ Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period]. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne. (English summary).
    4. ^ "List of UNESCO members and associates". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
    5. ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
    6. ^ "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
    7. ^ "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011.
     
  25. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 November 2012 – At least 50 schoolchildren are killed in an accident at a railway crossing near Manfalut, Egypt.

    Manfalut railway accident

    The Manfalut railway accident occurred on 17 November 2012 when a school bus, which was carrying about 70 school children between four and six years old, was hit by a train on a rail crossing near Manfalut, Egypt, 350 km (230 miles) south of the Egyptian capital Cairo.[1] At least 50 children and the bus driver died in the crash,[2] and about 17 people were injured.[3] Witnesses reported that barriers at the crossing were not closed when the crash occurred.[4]

    After the crash, a number of people began searching along the tracks to find the remains of their children and victims they knew.[1] Additionally, schoolbags and schoolbooks were scattered across the tracks.[2] Police did not arrive until two hours after the accident, and by the time the first ambulance came, most of the children were dead.[3] Afterwards, the families of the victims protested at the crash site.[5]

    The Egyptian minister of transportation, Mohammad Rashad Al Matini, and the head of the railways authority resigned after the accident.[1][4] President Mohamed Morsi pledged to hold those responsible accountable. The crossing worker, who was allegedly asleep, has been detained,[5] and Ibrahim El-Zaafrani, the secretary-general of the relief committee of the Arab Doctors Union, said that 10,000 Egyptian pounds (about $1,600)[6] will be awarded to families of the dead and 5,000 pounds (about $800) to families of the injured.[3]

    1. ^ a b c "Egypt bus crash kills 50 children near Manfalut". BBC News. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    2. ^ a b "Scores of schoolchildren die in Egypt crash". Al Jazeera. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    3. ^ a b c "Protesters demand Assiut governor resign over fatal bus-train collision". Ahram Online. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
    4. ^ a b "Train slams into school bus in Egypt, killing 48 children, injuring 27 others". Haaretz. Cairo. Reuters. 18 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    5. ^ a b "Dozens Killed, Mostly Children, in Egypt Crash". The New York Times. 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
    6. ^ Mohamed Fadel Fahmy (18 November 2012). "Bus, train crash in Egypt kills 51 -- mostly children". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
     
  26. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 November 1755 – The Corsican Constitution is voted.

    Corsican Constitution

    The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769. It was written in Tuscan Italian the language of elite culture and people in Corsica at the time.[1]

    It was drafted by Pasquale Paoli , and inspired by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who, commissioned by the Corsicans wrote "Projet de constitution pour la Corse," in 1763. [2]

    The second Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1794 for the short-lived (1794–96) Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and introduced universal suffrage for property owners. It was also considered a highly democratic constitution for its time.

    1. ^ Blackwood, Robert J. & Tufi, Stefania (2015). The Linguistic Landscape of the Mediterranean: French and Italian Coastal Cities. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 130. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Linguistic_Landscape_of_the_Mediterr.html?id=SGmkCgAAQBAJ
    2. ^ Carrington, Dorothy (July 1973). "The Corsican constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755–1769)". The English Historical Review. 88 (348): 481–503. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxviii.cccxlviii.481. JSTOR 564654.
     
  27. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 November 1755 – The Corsican Constitution is voted.

    Corsican Constitution

    The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769. It was written in Tuscan Italian the language of elite culture and people in Corsica at the time.[1]

    It was drafted by Pasquale Paoli , and inspired by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who, commissioned by the Corsicans wrote "Projet de constitution pour la Corse," in 1763. [2]

    The second Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1794 for the short-lived (1794–96) Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and introduced universal suffrage for property owners. It was also considered a highly democratic constitution for its time.

    1. ^ Blackwood, Robert J. & Tufi, Stefania (2015). The Linguistic Landscape of the Mediterranean: French and Italian Coastal Cities. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 130. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Linguistic_Landscape_of_the_Mediterr.html?id=SGmkCgAAQBAJ
    2. ^ Carrington, Dorothy (July 1973). "The Corsican constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755–1769)". The English Historical Review. 88 (348): 481–503. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxviii.cccxlviii.481. JSTOR 564654.
     
  28. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    19 November 1989 – Germans begin to tear down the Berlin Wall.

    Berlin Wall

    Satellite image of Berlin, with the Wall's location marked in yellow
    West and East Berlin borders overlaying a current road map (interactive map)

    The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˈliːnɐ ˈmaʊ̯ɐ] (About this soundlisten)) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.[1] Construction of the Wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin.[2] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[3] accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds", and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.

    GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement.[4] Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[5]

    Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[6] During this period, over 100,000[5] people attempted to escape, and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136[7] to more than 200[5][8] in and around Berlin.

    In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Wall.[9] After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.[5] The Brandenburg Gate in the Berlin Wall was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in November 1991. The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.[5]

    1. ^ "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall". Chicago Tribune. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
    2. ^ Video: Berlin, 1961/08/31 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    3. ^ Jack Marck Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine "Over the Wall: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Experience" American Heritage, October 2006.
    4. ^ "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know". The Telegraph. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    5. ^ a b c d e Library, C. N. N. "Berlin Wall Fast Facts". CNN.
    6. ^ "Freedom!". Time. 20 November 1989. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chronik was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference contemporary research was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Mary Elise Sarotte, Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014
     
  29. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    20 November 1985Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.

    Windows 1.0

    Windows 1.0 is a graphical personal computer operating environment developed by Microsoft. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple's January 1984 original Macintosh, the first mass-produced personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) that enabled users to see user friendly icons on screen. Windows 1.0 was released on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line. It runs as a graphical, 16-bit multi-tasking shell on top of an existing MS-DOS installation. It provides an environment which can run graphical programs designed for Windows, as well as existing MS-DOS software. Its development was spearheaded by the company founder Bill Gates after he saw a demonstration of a similar software suite known as Visi On at COMDEX.

    Despite positive responses to its early presentations and support from a number of hardware and software makers, Windows 1.0 was received poorly by critics. Critics felt Windows 1.0 did not meet their expectations. In particular, they felt that Windows 1.0 put too much emphasis on mouse input at a time when mouse use was not yet widespread; not providing enough resources for new users; and for performance issues, especially on systems with lower computer hardware specifications. Despite these criticisms, Windows 1.0 was an important milestone for Microsoft, as it introduced the Microsoft Windows line.[3] Windows 1.0 was declared obsolete and Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for the system on December 31, 2001.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference microsoft-obs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference obsolete-prod was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnet-flop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
  30. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    21 November 2009 – A mine explosion in Heilongjiang, China kills 108.

    2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion

    The 2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion (Chinese: 鹤岗新兴煤矿爆炸事故; pinyin: Hègǎng Xīnxīng méikuàng bàozhà shìgù) was a mining accident that occurred on November 21, 2009, near Hegang in Heilongjiang province, northeastern China, which killed 108 people.[1] A further 29 were hospitalised.[2][3] The explosion occurred in the Xinxing coal mine shortly before dawn, at 02:30 CST, when 528 people were believed to be in the pit. Of these, 420 are believed to have been rescued.

    1. ^ "Mine Explosion Killed 108" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
    2. ^ Bradsher, Keith (22 November 2009). "At least 87 dies in Chinese mine explosion". New York: New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
    3. ^ "At least 89 killed in coal mine blast". USA: Statesman.com. 22 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
     
  31. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1963 – The Beatles release With the Beatles.

    With the Beatles

    With the Beatles is the second studio album by the English rock band the Beatles. It was released on 22 November 1963 on Parlophone, exactly eight months after the band's debut Please Please Me. Produced by George Martin, the album features eight original compositions (seven by Lennon–McCartney and "Don't Bother Me", George Harrison's first recorded solo composition and his first released on a Beatles album) and six covers (mostly of Motown, rock and roll, and R&B hits). The cover photograph was taken by the fashion photographer Robert Freeman and has since been mimicked by several music groups over the years. A different cover was used for the Australian release of the album, which the Beatles were displeased with.

    In the United States, the album's tracks were unevenly split over the group's first two albums released on Capitol Records: Meet the Beatles! and The Beatles' Second Album. It was also released in Canada under the name Beatlemania! With the Beatles. The album was ranked number 420 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003,[4] and was included in Robert Dimery's 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[5] It was voted number 275 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.[6]

    1. ^ O'Dell, Denis; Neaverson, Bob (2002). At the Apple's core: the Beatles from the inside. Peter Owen Limited. p. 27. the first truly convincing British rock and roll album, With The Beatles
    2. ^ Harrington, Richard (6 February 2004). "It was 40 years ago ..." The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
    3. ^ Howlett, Kevin; Heatley, Mike (2009). With the Beatles (CD historical notes). p. 12.
    4. ^ Rolling Stone 2007.
    5. ^ ^ Robert Dimery; Michael Lydon (23 March 2010). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 978-0-7893-2074-2.
    6. ^ Colin Larkin, ed. (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 119. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
     
  32. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1914Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair.

    Mexican Revolution

    The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana), also known as the Mexican Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Mexicana), was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution.[6] Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection.[7] Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí.[8] Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

    The origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa; it expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, and organized labor.[9] In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a free and fair election. Opposition to his regime then grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, and from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative.

    Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, and were assassinated. The counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces. When the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war (1914–1915). The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare. Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza.

    The armed conflict lasted for the better part of a decade, until around 1920, and had several distinct phases.[10] Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with frequently shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces.[11] Although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role.[12] Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1.5 million people died; nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States.[3][13]

    Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework.[14] The period 1920–1940 is often considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, and the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented.[15]

    This armed conflict is often characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century;[16] it resulted in an important program of experimentation and reform in social organization.[17] The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent an economic liberal reform process that started in the 1980s.[18]

    1. ^ "Obregón Salido Álvaro". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    2. ^ "Elías Calles Campuzano Plutarco". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    3. ^ a b Robert McCaa, "Missing millions: the human cost of the Mexican Revolution." Mexican Studies 19#2 (2001). online
    4. ^ Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 39". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    5. ^ a b Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 46". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    6. ^ Alan Knight, "Mexican Revolution: Interpretations" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 2, p. 873. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.
    7. ^ John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1986, p. 327.
    8. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1981, p. 35.
    9. ^ Katz, The Secret War in Mexico p. 35.
    10. ^ "Mexican Revolution 1910–1920".
    11. ^ Christon Archer, "Military, 1821–1914" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 2, p. 910. Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn 1997.
    12. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1981.
    13. ^ Michael LaRosa and German R. Mejia (2007). An Atlas and Survey of Latin American History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7656-2933-3.
    14. ^ John Womack, Jr. “The Mexican Revolution” in Mexico Since Independence, ed. Leslie Bethell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991, p. 125
    15. ^ Knight,"Mexican Revolution: Interpretations", pp. 869–873.
    16. ^ Knight, Alan (1 May 1980). "The Mexican Revolution". History Today. 30 (5): 28. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    17. ^ Cockcroft, James (1992). Mexico: Class Formation, Capital Accumulation, & the State. Monthly Review Press.
    18. ^ Centeno, Ramón I. (1 February 2018). "Zapata reactivado: una visión žižekiana del Centenario de la Constitución". Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos. 34 (1): 36–62. doi:10.1525/msem.2018.34.1.36. ISSN 0742-9797.
     
  33. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    23 November 1914Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair.

    Mexican Revolution

    The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana), also known as the Mexican Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Mexicana), was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution.[6] Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection.[7] Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí.[8] Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

    The origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa; it expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, and organized labor.[9] In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a free and fair election. Opposition to his regime then grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, and from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative.

    Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, and were assassinated. The counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces. When the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war (1914–1915). The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare. Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza.

    The armed conflict lasted for the better part of a decade, until around 1920, and had several distinct phases.[10] Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with frequently shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces.[11] Although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role.[12] Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1.5 million people died; nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States.[3][13]

    Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework.[14] The period 1920–1940 is often considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, and the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented.[15]

    This armed conflict is often characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century;[16] it resulted in an important program of experimentation and reform in social organization.[17] The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent an economic liberal reform process that started in the 1980s.[18]

    1. ^ "Obregón Salido Álvaro". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    2. ^ "Elías Calles Campuzano Plutarco". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
    3. ^ a b Robert McCaa, "Missing millions: the human cost of the Mexican Revolution." Mexican Studies 19#2 (2001). online
    4. ^ Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 39". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    5. ^ a b Rummel, Rudolph. "Tavle 11.1 The Mexican Democide Line 46". Statistics Of Mexican Democide.
    6. ^ Alan Knight, "Mexican Revolution: Interpretations" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 2, p. 873. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.
    7. ^ John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1986, p. 327.
    8. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1981, p. 35.
    9. ^ Katz, The Secret War in Mexico p. 35.
    10. ^ "Mexican Revolution 1910–1920".
    11. ^ Christon Archer, "Military, 1821–1914" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 2, p. 910. Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn 1997.
    12. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1981.
    13. ^ Michael LaRosa and German R. Mejia (2007). An Atlas and Survey of Latin American History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7656-2933-3.
    14. ^ John Womack, Jr. “The Mexican Revolution” in Mexico Since Independence, ed. Leslie Bethell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991, p. 125
    15. ^ Knight,"Mexican Revolution: Interpretations", pp. 869–873.
    16. ^ Knight, Alan (1 May 1980). "The Mexican Revolution". History Today. 30 (5): 28. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    17. ^ Cockcroft, James (1992). Mexico: Class Formation, Capital Accumulation, & the State. Monthly Review Press.
    18. ^ Centeno, Ramón I. (1 February 2018). "Zapata reactivado: una visión žižekiana del Centenario de la Constitución". Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos. 34 (1): 36–62. doi:10.1525/msem.2018.34.1.36. ISSN 0742-9797.
     
  34. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    24 November 1859Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.

    On the Origin of Species

    On the Origin of Species (or, more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),[3] published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.[4] Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.[5]

    Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.

    The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During "the eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.

    1. ^ Darwin 1859, p. iii
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Freeman 1977 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In the 1872 sixth edition "On" was omitted, so the full title is The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. This edition is usually known as The Origin of Species. The 6th is Darwin's final edition; there were minor modifications in the text of certain subsequent issues. See Freeman, R. B. "The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist." In Van Wyhe, John, ed. Darwin Online: On the Origin of Species, 2002.
    4. ^ Desmond & Moore 1991, p. 477.
    5. ^ "Darwin Manuscripts (Digitised notes on Origin)". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
     
  35. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 November 1975 – Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.

    Suriname

    Coordinates: 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56

    Suriname (/ˈsjʊərɪnæm/, US also /-nɑːm/, sometimes spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Dutch: Republiek Suriname [reːpyˌblik syːriˈnaːmə]), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest sovereign state in South America.[note 1] Suriname has a population of approximately 575,990,[8][9] most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

    Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being explored and colonized by European powers from the 16th century, eventually coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century. As the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was primarily a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Society of Suriname between 1683 and 1795.

    In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). While Dutch is the official language of government, business, media, and education,[13] Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a widely used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population. As a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups.

    1. ^ Suriname: An Asian Immigrant and the Organic Creation of the Caribbean's Most Unique Fusion Culture, archived from the original on 20 February 2017, retrieved 19 July 2017
    2. ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014.
    3. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Census statistieken 2012". Statistics-suriname.org. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
    6. ^ "Definitieve Resultaten (Vol I) Etniciteit". Presentatie Evaluatie Rapport CENSUS 8: 42.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference CENSUS2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    9. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    10. ^ a b c d "Suriname". International Monetary Fund.
    11. ^ "2019 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
    12. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  36. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    25 November 1975 – Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.

    Suriname

    Coordinates: 4°N 56°W / 4°N 56°W / 4; -56

    Suriname (/ˈsjʊərɪnæm/, US also /-nɑːm/, sometimes spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Dutch: Republiek Suriname [reːpyˌblik syːriˈnaːmə]), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest sovereign state in South America.[note 1] Suriname has a population of approximately 575,990,[8][9] most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

    Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being explored and colonized by European powers from the 16th century, eventually coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century. As the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was primarily a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Society of Suriname between 1683 and 1795.

    In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). While Dutch is the official language of government, business, media, and education,[13] Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a widely used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population. As a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups.

    1. ^ Suriname: An Asian Immigrant and the Organic Creation of the Caribbean's Most Unique Fusion Culture, archived from the original on 20 February 2017, retrieved 19 July 2017
    2. ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014.
    3. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b "Census statistieken 2012". Statistics-suriname.org. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
    6. ^ "Definitieve Resultaten (Vol I) Etniciteit". Presentatie Evaluatie Rapport CENSUS 8: 42.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference CENSUS2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    9. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    10. ^ a b c d "Suriname". International Monetary Fund.
    11. ^ "2019 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
    12. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  37. Admin2

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    26 November 2004Ruzhou School massacre: A man stabs and kills eight people and seriously wounds another four in a school dormitory in Ruzhou, China.

    Yan Yanming

    Yan Yanming (Chinese: 闫彦明) (1983 – January 18, 2005) was a Chinese mass murderer who entered a dormitory at the Ruzhou Number Two High School in Ruzhou, China on November 26, 2004, with a knife and attacked twelve boys, killing nine of them.[1][2]

    After the attack, Yanming ran away from the school, but was arrested hours later after he failed to commit suicide because his mother had reported his location to the Ruzhou police.[3]

    After trial, Yanming was sentenced to death and executed on January 18, 2005 in Pingdingshan.[4]

     
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    27 November 1978 – The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) is founded in the city of Riha (Urfa) in Turkey.

    Kurdistan Workers' Party

    The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê‎, Turkish: Kürdistan İşçi Partisi [a]) is a Kurdish militant and political organization based in Turkey and Iraq. Since 1984 the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state (with cease-fires in 1999–2004 and 2013–2015), with the initial aim of achieving an independent Kurdish state. The PKK has in March 2016 vowed to overthrow the Turkish "fascist AKP" government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, through the 'Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement'.[16] The PKK has been designated as a terrorist organization by Turkey,[17] the United States,[18] the European Union[19], Australia[20] and Japan.[21]

    The PKK was founded during its foundation congress, which took place for six days in November 1978 in the village of Fis (near Lice), by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan. Öcalan was elected the General Secretary and Hayri Durmuş, Kemal Pir, Cemîl Bayik, Kesire Yildirim, Mazlum Doĝan, Mehmet Karasungur and Şahin Dönmez were part of the Central Committee. It was also decided to publish the Serxwebun as a party organ.[22] In 1979 the PKK made its existence known to the public.[23] The PKK's ideology was originally a fusion of revolutionary socialism and Kurdish nationalism, seeking the foundation of an independent Communist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan. The initial reasons given by the PKK for this were the oppression of Kurds in Turkey and capitalism.[24][25] By then, the use of Kurdish language, dress, folklore, and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas[26] and the words "Kurds" and "Kurdistan" were banned by the Turkish government.[27] Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was officially prohibited in public and private life.[28] Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were arrested and imprisoned.[29] The PKK was then formed, as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's ethnic Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic, cultural, and political rights for Turkey's ethnic Kurdish minority.[30]

    Even though the PKK was engaged in armed conflicts with rival Kurdish groups and suspected collaborators of the Turkish Government from its beginning,[31] the full-scale insurgency did not begin until 15 August 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 have died, most of whom were Turkish Kurdish civilians.[32]

    In 1999, PKK leader Öcalan was captured and imprisoned.[33] In May 2007, former members of the PKK helped form the Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK), an umbrella organisation of Kurds from Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. In 2013, the PKK declared a ceasefire agreement and began slowly withdrawing its fighters to the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq as part of the solution process between the Turkish state and the Kurdish minority.

    Since July 2015, when the ceasefire broke down,[34] violent actions inside Turkey from the government against the PKK and vice versa kept occurring, supplemented with Turkish military action in 2018 against PKK fighters in Iraq, and both in January 2018 and October 2019 against Kurdish political groups (PYD) and forces (YPG and YPJ) in Syria which according to Turkey and some observers[35] are strongly tied to the PKK (see 'clashing' details in: Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)#2015–present).

    1. ^ Jones, Owen (10 March 2015). "Why the revolutionary Kurdish fight against Isis deserves our support". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
    2. ^ Jones, Owen (10 March 2015). "PKK: Kurdistan Workers' party". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
    3. ^ de Jong, Alex. "The New-Old PKK". Jacobin Magazine. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
    4. ^ Tahiri, Hussein. The Structure of Kurdish Society and the Struggle for a Kurdish State. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publications 2007. pp 232 ff
    5. ^ Bila, Fikret (7 November 2007). "Kenan Evren: 'Kürtçeye ağır yasak koyduk ama hataydı'" (in Turkish). Milliyet. Retrieved 30 July 2008. Şimdi İmralı'dan PKK'yı yönetiyor. Cezaevinden avukatları kanalıyla.
    6. ^ "Ojalan: Which way now?". BBC News. 21 November 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
    7. ^ Can, Eyüp (14 July 2013). "PKK Changes Leadership". (trans. Timur Göksel). Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014. Originally published as Karayılan'ı kim niye gönderdi? in Radikal, 11 July 2013.
    8. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profiles – START – National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism". Start.umd.edu. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
    9. ^ Howard, Michael (13 May 2005). "Radical firebrand who led bloody nationalist war". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
    10. ^ a b Jongerden, Joost. "Rethinking Politics and Democracy in the Middle East" (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2013.
    11. ^ a b "War against Isis: PKK commander tasked with the defence of Syrian Kurds claims 'we will save Kobani'". The Independent. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
    12. ^ a b "BREAKING: HPG operation in Sinjar; 20 ISIS dead". Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
    13. ^ "The PKK in Numbers". Sabah (in Turkish). 28 December 2015.
    14. ^ "Interview with the World's First Army of Women: YJA-STAR". Machorka. 17 August 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
    15. ^ "ANF – Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
    16. ^ Behdinan (12 March 2016). "Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement established for a joint struggle". Firat News Agency. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
      (See further details in our article: Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement.)
    17. ^ Cite error: The named reference RadioFrance was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    18. ^ "Rewards for Justice - Wanted for Terrorism - Cemil Bayik". Retrieved 30 November 2019.
    19. ^ "Comission staff working document, Turkey 2019 Report" (PDF). European Comission/EU. p. 5. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
    20. ^ department, Attorney-General's. "Listed terrorist organisations". www.nationalsecurity.gov.au. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
    21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    22. ^ Özcan, Ali Kemal (12 October 2012). Turkey's Kurds: A Theoretical Analysis of the PKK and Abdullah Ocalan. Routledge. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-134-21130-2.
    23. ^ Jongerden, Joost; Akkaya, Ahmet Hamdi (1 June 2012). "The Kurdistan Workers Party and a New Left in Turkey: Analysis of the revolutionary movement in Turkey through the PKK's memorial text on Haki Karer". European Journal of Turkish Studies. Social Sciences on Contemporary Turkey (14). ISSN 1773-0546 – via JSTOR.
    24. ^ Bilgin, Fevzi; Sarihan, Ali, eds. (2013). Understanding Turkey's Kurdish Question. Lexington Books. p. 90. ISBN 9780739184035.
    25. ^ Balci, Ali (2016). The PKK-Kurdistan Workers’ Party's Regional Politics: During and After the Cold War. Springer. p. 96. ISBN 3319422197.
    26. ^ Hannum, Hurst (1996). Autonomy, sovereignty, and self-determination: the accommodation of conflicting rights (Rev. ed.). Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 187–9. ISBN 0-8122-1572-9.
    27. ^ "Kurdish Language Policy in Turkey | Kurdish Academy Of Languages". Retrieved 2 December 2019.
    28. ^ Toumani, Meline. Minority Rules, New York Times, 17 February 2008
    29. ^ Aslan, Senem (2014). Nation Building in Turkey and Morocco. Cambridge University Press. p. 134. ISBN 1107054605.
    30. ^ Joseph, J. (2006). Turkey and the European Union internal dynamics and external challenges. Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 100. ISBN 0230598587.
    31. ^ Özcan, Ali Kemal (12 October 2012). Turkey's Kurds: A Theoretical Analysis of the PKK and Abdullah Ocalan. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-134-21130-2.
    32. ^ Eder, Mine (2016). "Turkey". In Lust, Ellen (ed.). The Middle East (14 ed.). CQ Press. ISBN 1506329306. The Turkish military responded with a ferocious counterinsurgency campaign that led to the deaths of nearly 40,000 people, most of them Turkish Kurdish civilians, and the displacement of more than three million Kurds from southeastern Turkey.
    33. ^ Abdullah Öcalan, "Prison Writings: The Roots of Civilisation", 2007, Pluto Press. (p. 243-277)
    34. ^ "PKK group says Turkish ceasefire over". Rudaw. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
    35. ^ (in Dutch) "The PYD is a branch of the PKK", writes Marcel Kurpershoek, Dutch Arabist and diplomat and former envoy for Syria, in NRC Handelsblad, 13 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    28 November 1979Air New Zealand Flight 901, a DC-10 sightseeing flight over Antarctica, crashes into Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.

    Air New Zealand Flight 901

    Air New Zealand Flight 901 (TE-901)[nb 1] was a scheduled Air New Zealand Antarctic sightseeing flight that operated between 1977 and 1979. The flight would leave Auckland Airport in the morning and spend a few hours flying over the Antarctic continent, before returning to Auckland in the evening via Christchurch. On 28 November 1979, the fourteenth flight of TE-901, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, registration ZK-NZP, flew into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, Antarctica, killing all 237 passengers and 20 crew on board.[1][2] The accident became known as the Mount Erebus disaster.

    The initial investigation concluded the accident was caused by pilot error, but public outcry led to the establishment of a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the crash. The commission, presided over by Justice Peter Mahon QC, concluded that the accident was caused by a correction made to the coordinates of the flight path the night before the disaster, coupled with a failure to inform the flight crew of the change, with the result that the aircraft, instead of being directed by computer down McMurdo Sound (as the crew had been led to believe), was instead re-routed to a path toward Mount Erebus. Justice Mahon's report accused Air New Zealand of presenting "an orchestrated litany of lies" and this led to changes in senior management at the airline. The Privy Council later ruled that the finding of a conspiracy was a breach of natural justice and not supported by the evidence.

    The accident is New Zealand's deadliest peacetime disaster, as well as the deadliest accident in the history of Air New Zealand.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=nb}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Accident description for ZK-NZP at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 24 August 2011.
    2. ^ "DC-10 playbacks awaited". Flight International: 1987. 15 December 1979. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. At press time no information had been released concerning the flightdata and cockpit-voice recorder of Air New Zealand McDonnell Douglas DC-10 ZK-NZP which crashed on Mount Erebus on 28 November.
     
  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    29 November 1987 – North Korean agents plant a bomb on Korean Air Flight 858, which kills all 115 passengers and crew.

    Korean Air Flight 858

    Korean Air Flight 858 was a scheduled international passenger flight between Baghdad, Iraq and Seoul, South Korea. On 29 November 1987, the aircraft flying that route exploded in mid-air upon the detonation of a bomb planted inside an overhead storage bin in the airplane's passenger cabin by two North Korean agents.

    The agents, acting upon orders from the North Korean government, planted the device before disembarking from the aircraft during the first stop-over in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. While the aircraft was flying over the Andaman Sea to its second stop-over in Bangkok, Thailand, the bomb detonated and destroyed the Korean Air Boeing 707-3B5C. Everyone aboard the airliner perished, a total of 104 passengers and 11 crew members (almost all killed were South Koreans). The attack occurred 34 years after the Korean Armistice Agreement that ended the hostilities of the Korean War on 27 July 1953.

    The two bombers were traced to Bahrain, where they both took ampules of cyanide hidden in cigarettes when they realized they were about to be taken into custody. The man died, but the woman, Kim Hyon-hui, survived and later confessed to the bombing. She was sentenced to death after being put on trial for the attack, but was later pardoned by the President of South Korea, Roh Tae-woo, because it was deemed that she had been brainwashed in North Korea. Kim's testimony implicated Kim Jong-il, who at that time was the future leader of North Korea, as the person ultimately responsible for the incident. The United States Department of State specifically refers to the bombing of KAL 858 as a "terrorist act" and, except between 2008 and 2017, has included North Korea on its State Sponsors of Terrorism list.

    Since the attack, diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea have not significantly improved, although some progress has been made in the form of four Inter-Korean summits. Kim Hyon-hui later released a book, The Tears of My Soul, in which she recalled being trained in an espionage school run by the North Korean army, and being told personally by Kim Jong-il to carry out the attack. She was branded a traitor by North Korea, and became a critic of North Korea after seeing South Korea. Kim now resides in exile, and under constant tight security, fearing that the North Korean government wants to kill her.[1] "Being a culprit I do have a sense of agony with which I must fight", she said at a press conference in 1990. "In that sense I must still be a prisoner or a captive—of a sense of guilt."[2]

    1. ^ "North Korean ex-spy who blew up jetliner: Don't trust Kim Jong Un". NBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Huidresses was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     

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