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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 November 1979Pink Floyd's rock opera, The Wall is released.

    The Wall

    The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released 30 November 1979 on Harvest and Columbia Records. It is a rock opera that explores Pink, a jaded rockstar whose eventual self-imposed isolation from society is symbolized by a wall. The album was a commercial success, topping the US charts for 15 weeks, and reaching number three in the UK. It initially received mixed reviews from critics, many of whom found it overblown and pretentious, but later came to be considered one of the greatest albums of all time.

    Bassist Roger Waters conceived The Wall during Pink Floyd's 1977 In The Flesh tour, modeling the character of Pink after himself and former bandmate Syd Barrett. Recording spanned from December 1978 to November 1979. Producer Bob Ezrin helped to refine the concept and bridge tensions during recording, as the band were struggling with personal and financial issues at the time. The Wall is the last album to feature Pink Floyd as a quartet; keyboardist Richard Wright was fired by Waters during production, but stayed on as a salaried musician. Three singles were issued from the album: "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2" (the band's only US number-one single), "Run Like Hell", and "Comfortably Numb". From 1980 to 1981, Pink Floyd performed the full album on a tour that featured elaborate theatrical effects.

    The Wall was adapted into a 1982 feature film of the same name and remains one of the best-known concept albums.[4]. The album has sold more than 24 million copies, is the second best-selling in the band's catalog, and is one of the best-selling of all time. Some of the outtakes from the recording sessions were later used on the group's next album, The Final Cut (1983). In 2000 it was voted number 30 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.[5] In 2003, Rolling Stone listed The Wall at number 87 on its list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". From 2010 to 2013, Waters staged a new Wall live tour that became the highest-grossing tour by a solo musician.

    1. ^ Brown, Jake (2011). Jane's Addiction: In the Studio. SCB Distributors. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9834716-2-2.
    2. ^ Murphy, Sean (17 November 2015). "The 25 Best Classic Progressive Rock Albums". PopMatters. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    3. ^ Breithaupt, Don; Breithaupt, Jeff (2000), Night Moves: Pop Music in the Late '70s, St. Martin's Press, p. 71, ISBN 978-0-312-19821-3
    4. ^ Barker, Emily (8 July 2015). "23 Of The Maddest And Most Memorable Concept Albums". NME. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
    5. ^ Colin Larkin (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 48. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 November 1979Pink Floyd's rock opera, The Wall is released.

    The Wall

    The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released 30 November 1979 on Harvest and Columbia Records. It is a rock opera that explores Pink, a jaded rockstar whose eventual self-imposed isolation from society is symbolized by a wall. The album was a commercial success, topping the US charts for 15 weeks, and reaching number three in the UK. It initially received mixed reviews from critics, many of whom found it overblown and pretentious, but later came to be considered one of the greatest albums of all time.

    Bassist Roger Waters conceived The Wall during Pink Floyd's 1977 In The Flesh tour, modeling the character of Pink after himself and former bandmate Syd Barrett. Recording spanned from December 1978 to November 1979. Producer Bob Ezrin helped to refine the concept and bridge tensions during recording, as the band were struggling with personal and financial issues at the time. The Wall is the last album to feature Pink Floyd as a quartet; keyboardist Richard Wright was fired by Waters during production, but stayed on as a salaried musician. Three singles were issued from the album: "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2" (the band's only US number-one single), "Run Like Hell", and "Comfortably Numb". From 1980 to 1981, Pink Floyd performed the full album on a tour that featured elaborate theatrical effects.

    The Wall was adapted into a 1982 feature film of the same name and remains one of the best-known concept albums.[4]. The album has sold more than 24 million copies, is the second best-selling in the band's catalog, and is one of the best-selling of all time. Some of the outtakes from the recording sessions were later used on the group's next album, The Final Cut (1983). In 2000 it was voted number 30 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.[5] In 2003, Rolling Stone listed The Wall at number 87 on its list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". From 2010 to 2013, Waters staged a new Wall live tour that became the highest-grossing tour by a solo musician.

    1. ^ Brown, Jake (2011). Jane's Addiction: In the Studio. SCB Distributors. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9834716-2-2.
    2. ^ Murphy, Sean (17 November 2015). "The 25 Best Classic Progressive Rock Albums". PopMatters. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    3. ^ Breithaupt, Don; Breithaupt, Jeff (2000), Night Moves: Pop Music in the Late '70s, St. Martin's Press, p. 71, ISBN 978-0-312-19821-3
    4. ^ Barker, Emily (8 July 2015). "23 Of The Maddest And Most Memorable Concept Albums". NME. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
    5. ^ Colin Larkin (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 48. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 December 1988World AIDS Day was proclaimed worldwide by the UN member states.

    World AIDS Day

    World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988,[1] is an international day dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection and mourning those who have died of the disease. Government and health officials, non-governmental organizations, and individuals around the world observe the day, often with education on AIDS prevention and control.

    World AIDS Day is one of the eight official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization (WHO), along with World Health Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Immunization Week, World Tuberculosis Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Malaria Day and World Hepatitis Day.[2]

    As of 2017, AIDS has killed between 28.9 million and 41.5 million people worldwide, and an estimated 36.7 million people are living with HIV,[3] making it one of the most important global public health issues in recorded history. Thanks to recent improved access to antiretroviral treatment in many regions of the world, the death rate from AIDS epidemic has decreased since its peak in 2005 (1 million in 2016, compared to 1.9 million in 2005).[3]

    1. ^ "About World Aids Day". worldaidsday.org. National Aids Trust. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
    2. ^ World Health Organization, WHO campaigns.
    3. ^ a b Fact sheet - Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic UNAIDS. Accessed 30 November 2017.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 December 2001Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

    Enron scandal

    The Enron scandal, publicized in October 2001, eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron was cited as the biggest audit failure.[1]:61

    Enron was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay after merging Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth. Several years later, when Jeffrey Skilling was hired, he developed a staff of executives that – by the use of accounting loopholes, special purpose entities, and poor financial reporting – were able to hide billions of dollars in debt from failed deals and projects. Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow and other executives not only misled Enron's Board of Directors and Audit Committee on high-risk accounting practices, but also pressured Arthur Andersen to ignore the issues.

    Enron shareholders filed a $40 billion lawsuit after the company's stock price, which achieved a high of US$90.75 per share in mid-2000, plummeted to less than $1 by the end of November 2001.[2] The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began an investigation, and rival Houston competitor Dynegy offered to purchase the company at a very low price. The deal failed, and on December 2, 2001, Enron filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. Enron's $63.4 billion in assets made it the largest corporate bankruptcy in U.S. history until WorldCom's bankruptcy the next year.[3]

    Many executives at Enron were indicted for a variety of charges and some were later sentenced to prison. Andersen was found guilty of illegally destroying documents relevant to the SEC investigation, which voided its license to audit public companies and effectively closed the firm. By the time the ruling was overturned at the U.S. Supreme Court, the company had lost the majority of its customers and had ceased operating. Enron employees and shareholders received limited returns in lawsuits, despite losing billions in pensions and stock prices.

    As a consequence of the scandal, new regulations and legislation were enacted to expand the accuracy of financial reporting for public companies.[4] One piece of legislation, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, increased penalties for destroying, altering, or fabricating records in federal investigations or for attempting to defraud shareholders.[5] The act also increased the accountability of auditing firms to remain unbiased and independent of their clients.[4]

    1. ^ Bratton, William W. (May 2002). "Does Corporate Law Protect the Interests of Shareholders and Other Stakeholders?: Enron and the Dark Side of Shareholder Value". Tulane Law Review. New Orleans: Tulane University Law School (1275). SSRN 301475.
    2. ^ "Enron shareholders look to SEC for support in court" (WEB). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. May 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
    3. ^ Benston, George J. (November 6, 2003). "The Quality of Corporate Financial Statements and Their Auditors Before and After Enron" (PDF). Policy Analysis. Washington D.C.: Cato Institute (497): 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
    4. ^ a b Ayala, Astrid; Giancarlo Ibárgüen, Snr (March 2006). "A Market Proposal for Auditing the Financial Statements of Public Companies" (PDF). Journal of Management of Value. Universidad Francisco Marroquín: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
    5. ^ Cohen, Daniel A.; Dey Aiyesha; Thomas Z. Lys (February 2005). "Trends in Earnings Management and Informativeness of Earnings Announcements in the Pre- and Post-Sarbanes Oxley Periods". Evanston, Illinois: Kellogg School of Management: 5. SSRN 658782. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 December 2009 – A suicide bombing at a hotel in Mogadishu, Somalia, kills 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government.

    2009 Hotel Shamo bombing

    The 2009 Hotel Shamo bombing was a suicide bombing at the Hotel Shamo in Mogadishu, Somalia, on 3 December 2009. The bombing killed 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government,[1] and injured 60 more,[2] making it the deadliest attack in Somalia since the Beledweyne bombing on 18 June 2009 that claimed more than 30 lives.[3]

    1. ^ "4th minister dies of wounds". The Straits Times. 6 December 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
    2. ^ "Somalia al-Shabab Islamists deny causing deadly bomb". BBC News. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
    3. ^ Guled, Abdi; Ibrahim Mohamed (4 December 2009). "Bomber kills 19 in Somalia". National Post. Retrieved 4 December 2009.[permanent dead link]
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 December 1954 – The first Burger King is opened in Miami, Florida.

    Burger King

    Burger King (BK) is an American multinational chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. Headquartered in the unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, the company was founded in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida–based restaurant chain. After Insta-Burger King ran into financial difficulties in 1954, its two Miami-based franchisees David Edgerton and James McLamore purchased the company and renamed it "Burger King". Over the next half-century, the company changed hands four times, with its third set of owners, a partnership of TPG Capital, Bain Capital, and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, taking it public in 2002. In late-2010, 3G Capital of Brazil acquired a majority stake in the company, in a deal valued at US$3.26 billion. The new owners promptly initiated a restructuring of the company to reverse its fortunes. 3G, along with partner Berkshire Hathaway, eventually merged the company with the Canadian-based doughnut chain Tim Hortons, under the auspices of a new Canadian-based parent company named Restaurant Brands International.

    The 1970s were the "Golden Age" of the company's advertising, but beginning in the early-1980s Burger King advertising began losing focus. A series of less successful advertising campaigns created by a procession of advertising agencies continued for the next two decades. In 2003, Burger King hired the Miami-based advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CP+B), which completely reorganized its advertising with a series of new campaigns centered on a redesigned Burger King character nicknamed "The King", accompanied by a new online presence. While highly successful, some of CP+B's commercials were derided for perceived sexism or cultural insensitivity. Burger King's new owner, 3G Capital, later terminated the relationship with CP+B in 2011 and moved its advertising to McGarryBowen, to begin a new product-oriented campaign with expanded demographic targeting.

    Burger King's menu has expanded from a basic offering of burgers, French fries, sodas, and milkshakes to a larger and more diverse set of products. In 1957, the "Whopper" became the first major addition to the menu, and it has become Burger King's signature product since. Conversely, Burger King has introduced many products which failed to catch hold in the marketplace. Some of these failures in the United States have seen success in foreign markets, where Burger King has also tailored its menu for regional tastes. From 2002 to 2010, Burger King aggressively targeted the 18–34 male demographic with larger products that often carried correspondingly large amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats. This tactic would eventually damage the company's financial underpinnings, and cast a negative pall on its earnings. Beginning in 2011, the company began to move away from its previous male-oriented menu and introduce new menu items, product reformulations and packaging, as part of its current owner 3G Capital's restructuring plans of the company.[5]

    As of December 31, 2018, Burger King reported it had 17,796 outlets in 100 countries.[6][7] Of these, nearly half are located in the United States, and 99.7% are privately owned and operated,[7] with its new owners moving to an almost entirely franchised model in 2013. Burger King has historically used several variations of franchising to expand its operations. The manner in which the company licenses its franchisees varies depending on the region, with some regional franchises, known as master franchises, responsible for selling franchise sub-licenses on the company's behalf. Burger King's relationship with its franchises has not always been harmonious. Occasional spats between the two have caused numerous issues, and in several instances, the company's and its licensees' relations have degenerated into precedent-setting court cases. Burger King's Australian franchise Hungry Jack's is the only franchise to operate under a different name, due to a trademark dispute and a series of legal cases between the two.

    1. ^ a b c d "Burger King 2015 10-K". sec.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
    2. ^ a b c http://investor.bk.com/download_arquivos.asp?id_arquivo=DC47A05B-9468-4356-8789-F777CDA04DD7.
    3. ^ "RBI 10K report" (PDF). rbi.com. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
    4. ^ "Restarurant Brand International: Burger King". rbi.com. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
    5. ^ Burger King Holdings, Inc. Reports First Quarter 2012 Results
    6. ^ "RESTAURANT BRANDS INTERNATIONAL INC" (PDF).
    7. ^ a b "The World's Largest Fast Food Restaurant Chains". Retrieved June 9, 2018.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 December 1971Battle of Gazipur: Pakistani forces stand defeated as India cedes Gazipur to Bangladesh.

    Battle of Gazipur

    The Battle of Gazipur (Bengali: গাজীপুরের যুদ্ধ) was a military engagement on 4 and 5 December 1971, during the Bangladesh liberation war. It took place at the Gazipur Tea Estate near Kulaura, in the Sylhet District of what was then East Pakistan. The advancing Mitro Bahini (comprising Mukti Bahini and Indian Army) attacked the 22 Baluch Regiment of the Pakistan Army. This battle was a prelude to the Battle of Sylhet.[1]

    1. ^ "Battle of Sylhet". defenceindia.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007.[self-published source]
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 December 1912 – The Nefertiti Bust is discovered.

    Nefertiti Bust

    The Nefertiti Bust is a painted stucco-coated limestone bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten.[1] The work is believed to have been crafted in 1345 B.C. by Thutmose because it was found in his workshop in Amarna, Egypt.[2] It is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women of the ancient world and an icon of feminine beauty.

    A German archaeological team led by Ludwig Borchardt discovered the bust in 1912 in Thutmose's workshop.[3] It has been kept at various locations in Germany since its discovery, including the cellar of a bank, a salt mine in Merkers-Kieselbach, the Dahlem museum, the Egyptian Museum in Charlottenburg, and the Altes Museum.[3] It is currently on display at the Neues Museum in Berlin, where it was originally displayed before World War II.[3]

    The Nefertiti bust has become a cultural symbol of Berlin as well as ancient Egypt. It has also been the subject of an intense argument between Egypt and Germany over Egyptian demands for its repatriation, which began in 1924 once the bust was first displayed to the public. Egyptian inspectors were not shown the actual bust before they let it out of the country.

    1. ^ "Nefertiti - Ancient History - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    2. ^ e.V., Verein zur Förderung des Ägyptischen Museums und Papyrussammlung Berlin. "Nefertiti: (Society for the Promotion of the Egyptian Museum Berlin)". www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    3. ^ a b c Tharoor, Ishaan. "The Bust of Nefertiti: Remembering Ancient Egypt's Famous Queen". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 December 1732 – The Royal Opera House opens at Covent Garden, London, England.

    Royal Opera House

    The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Originally called the Theatre Royal, it served primarily as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

    The current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856.[2] The façade, foyer, and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. The main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. The proscenium is 12.20 m wide and 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building.[3]

    1. ^ Historic England (9 January 1970). "The Royal Opera House (1066392)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
    2. ^ "11 Secrets of London's Royal Opera House". Londonist.
    3. ^ "Royal Opera House (London)" description on theatrestrust.org.uk Retrieved 10 May 2013
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 December 1974 – A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.

    1974 Greek republic referendum

    A referendum on retaining the republic was held in Greece on 8 December 1974.[1] After the collapse of the military junta that ruled the country from 1967, the issue of the form of government remained unsolved. The Junta had already staged a plebiscite held on 29 July 1973, which resulted in the establishment of the Republic. However, after the fall of the military regime, the new government, under Constantine Karamanlis, decided to hold another one, as Junta legal acts were considered illegal. Constantine II, the former King, was banned by the new government from returning to Greece to campaign in the referendum, but the Karamanlis government allowed him to make a televised address to the nation.[2] The proposal was approved by 69.2% of voters with a turnout of 75.6%.[3]

    1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p830 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
    2. ^ Hope, Kevin. Referendum plan faces hurdles. Financial Times 1 November 2011.
    3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p838
     
  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    9 December 1948 – The Genocide Convention is adopted.

    Genocide Convention

    The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260[1]. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951.[2] It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Raphael Lemkin.[3] All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. As of May 2019, 152 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most recently Mauritius on 8 July 2019.[4] One state, the Dominican Republic, has signed but not ratified the treaty.

    1. ^ "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide" (PDF). United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
    2. ^ "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide". United Nations Treaty Series. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
    3. ^ Auron, Yair, The Banality of Denial, (Transaction Publishers, 2004), 9.
    4. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection". Retrieved 16 January 2018.
     
  12. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    10 December 1901 – The first Nobel Prize ceremony is held in Stockholm on the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.

    Nobel Prize

    The Nobel Prize (/ˈnbɛl/, NOH-bel; Swedish: Nobelpriset, [nʊˇbɛlːˌpriːsɛt]; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.[1][3][4] The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.[5][6][7]

    In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. The award is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the bank's 300th anniversary. The first Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969. The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, according to the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since 1901.[8]

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.

    Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations.[1] With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.[1][9] The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, or £836,000.[10]) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.

    The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.[11] A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.[12]

    1. ^ a b c d e "Nobel Prize facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
    2. ^ sold for up to US$4.76 million (see Palermo, Elizabeth. Nobel Prize Medal Fetches Record-Breaking $4.76 Million Live Science, December 5, 2014.)
    3. ^ "Nobel Prizes and Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
    4. ^ "Which country has the best brains?". BBC News. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
    5. ^ "Top Award, ShanghaiRanking Academic Excellence Survey 2018". Shanghai Ranking. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
    6. ^ "IREG List of International Academic Awards" (PDF). IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence.
    7. ^ Shalev, p. 8
    8. ^ "The Noble Prize - Did You Know?". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 31 July 2019. The Noble Prize - Did You Know?
    9. ^ "All Nobel Prizes". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
    10. ^ "Nobel Prize amount is raised by SEK 1 million". Nobel Foundation.
    11. ^ "Montreal-born doctor gets posthumous Nobel honour". CBC News. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
    12. ^ Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2010). "Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th century".
     
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    11 December 1968The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus, featuring the Rolling Stones, Jethro Tull, the Who, Taj Mahal, Marianne Faithfull, and the Dirty Mac with Yoko Ono, is filmed in Wembley, London.

    The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus

    The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus was a concert show organised by the Rolling Stones on 11 December 1968. The show was filmed on a makeshift circus stage with Jethro Tull, the Who, Taj Mahal, Marianne Faithfull, and the Rolling Stones. John Lennon and his fiancee Yoko Ono also performed as part of a one-shot supergroup called the Dirty Mac, featuring Eric Clapton, Mitch Mitchell, and Keith Richards. The original idea for the concert was going to include the Small Faces, the Rolling Stones, and the Who, and the concept of a circus was first thought up between Mick Jagger, Pete Townshend and Ronnie Lane. It was meant to be aired on the BBC, but instead the Rolling Stones withheld it. The Rolling Stones contended they did so because of their substandard performance, clearly exhausted after 15 hours (and some indulgence in drugs).[3] There is also the fact that this was Brian Jones last appearance with the Rolling Stones; he drowned some seven months later while the film was being edited. Some speculate that another reason for not releasing the film was that the Who, who were fresh off a concert tour, seemingly upstaged the Stones on their own production.

    Led Zeppelin was considered for inclusion but the idea was dropped.[4][5][6][7][8] The show was not released commercially until 1996.

    1. ^ a b c "The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved 19 July 2016.
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference nyt96maslin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "The Story of 'The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus'". Ultimate Classic Rock.
    4. ^ "The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus". CD Universe Store.
    5. ^ The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus on IMDb
    6. ^ Brusie, David (12 February 2009). "1996: The Rolling Stones – The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus". Tiny Mix Tapes.
    7. ^ See infobox picture for appearances
    8. ^ Fischer, Russ (4 February 2008). "STONES ON FILM: THE ROLLING STONES ROCK AND ROLL CIRCUS (1968/1996)". Chud.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
     
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    12 December 2015 – The Paris Agreement relating to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is adopted.

    Paris Agreement

    The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris)[3] is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.[4][5] As of November 2019, all UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, 187 have become party to it,[1] and the only significant emitters which are not parties are Iran and Turkey.

    The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. This should be done by peaking emissions as soon as possible, in order to "achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases" in the second half of the 21st century. It also aims to increase the ability of parties to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and make "finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."

    Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming.[6] No mechanism forces[7] a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date,[8] but each target should go beyond previously set targets. In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020, shortly before the end of President Trump's 2016 term. In practice, changes in United States policy that are contrary to the Paris Agreement have already been put in place.[9][10]

    1. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference depo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference dateffect was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Also known as Paris climate accord or Paris climate agreement.
    4. ^ Sutter, John D.; Berlinger, Joshua (12 December 2015). "Final draft of climate deal formally accepted in Paris". CNN. Cable News Network, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
    5. ^ "Paris climate talks: France releases 'ambitious, balanced' draft agreement at COP21". ABC Australia. 12 December 2015.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Article3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Paris climate accord marks shift toward low-carbon economy". Globe and Mail. Toronto, Canada. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC-Kinver was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Lipton, Eric. "As Trump Dismantles Clean Air Rules, an Industry Lawyer Delivers for Ex-Clients". New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
    10. ^ 1973-, Turner, James Morton; Isenberg, Andrew C. (2018). The Republican reversal : conservatives and the environment from Nixon to Trump. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. Epilogue. ISBN 9780674979970. OCLC 1023100262.
     
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    13 December 1988PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat gives a speech at a UN General Assembly meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, after United States authorities refused to grant him a visa to visit UN headquarters in New York.

    Yasser Arafat

    Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (/ˈærəfæt/ ARR-ə-fat, also US: /ˈɑːrəfɑːt/ AR-ə-FAHT;[1] Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني‎‎; 4[2][3] / 24[4][5] August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎, romanizedYāsir ʿArafāt) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار‎, romanized: ʾAbū ʿAmmār), was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) from 1994 to 2004.[6] Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004.

    Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, Egypt, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab nationalist and anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state. Fatah operated within several Arab countries, from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew; in 1967 he joined the PLO and in 1969 was elected chair of the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions.

    From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, and began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories. He engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved.[7][8][9]

    Arafat remains a controversial figure. The majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis[10][11] came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist,[12][13] while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government.

    1. ^ "Arafat". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ The A to Z of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, P R. Kumaraswamy, page 26
    3. ^ "Yasser Arafat Mausoleum |". Alluring World. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    4. ^ Arafat, a Political Biography, Alan Hart, page 67
    5. ^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: A-C, Philip Mattar, page 269, quote: Arafat and his family have always insisted that he was born 4 August 1929. in his mother's family home in Jerusalem. Nevertheless, an Egyptian birth registration exists, suggesting that he was born in Egypt on 24 August 1929– His father had ...
    6. ^ Some sources use the term Chairman, rather than President; the Arabic word for both titles is the same. See President of the Palestinian National Authority for further information.
    7. ^ "Yasser Arafat: French rule out foul play in former Palestinian leader's death". The Guardian. 16 March 2015.
    8. ^ "France drops investigation into Arafat's death". Jerusalem Post. 2 September 2015.
    9. ^ "Yasser Arafat investigation: Russian probe finds death not caused by radiation". CBS News. 26 December 2013.
    10. ^ Major Richard D. Creed Jr., Eighteen Years In Lebanon And Two Intifadas: The Israeli Defense Force And The U.S. Army Operational Environment, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2014 p.53.
    11. ^ As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259.
    12. ^ Kershner, Isabel (4 July 2012). "Palestinians May Exhume Arafat After Report of Poisoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
    13. ^ Hockstader, Lee (11 November 2004). "A Dreamer Who Forced His Cause Onto World Stage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
     
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    13 December 1988PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat gives a speech at a UN General Assembly meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, after United States authorities refused to grant him a visa to visit UN headquarters in New York.

    Yasser Arafat

    Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (/ˈærəfæt/ ARR-ə-fat, also US: /ˈɑːrəfɑːt/ AR-ə-FAHT;[1] Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني‎‎; 4[2][3] / 24[4][5] August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎, romanizedYāsir ʿArafāt) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار‎, romanized: ʾAbū ʿAmmār), was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) from 1994 to 2004.[6] Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004.

    Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, Egypt, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab nationalist and anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state. Fatah operated within several Arab countries, from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew; in 1967 he joined the PLO and in 1969 was elected chair of the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions.

    From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, and began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories. He engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved.[7][8][9]

    Arafat remains a controversial figure. The majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis[10][11] came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist,[12][13] while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government.

    1. ^ "Arafat". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ The A to Z of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, P R. Kumaraswamy, page 26
    3. ^ "Yasser Arafat Mausoleum |". Alluring World. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    4. ^ Arafat, a Political Biography, Alan Hart, page 67
    5. ^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: A-C, Philip Mattar, page 269, quote: Arafat and his family have always insisted that he was born 4 August 1929. in his mother's family home in Jerusalem. Nevertheless, an Egyptian birth registration exists, suggesting that he was born in Egypt on 24 August 1929– His father had ...
    6. ^ Some sources use the term Chairman, rather than President; the Arabic word for both titles is the same. See President of the Palestinian National Authority for further information.
    7. ^ "Yasser Arafat: French rule out foul play in former Palestinian leader's death". The Guardian. 16 March 2015.
    8. ^ "France drops investigation into Arafat's death". Jerusalem Post. 2 September 2015.
    9. ^ "Yasser Arafat investigation: Russian probe finds death not caused by radiation". CBS News. 26 December 2013.
    10. ^ Major Richard D. Creed Jr., Eighteen Years In Lebanon And Two Intifadas: The Israeli Defense Force And The U.S. Army Operational Environment, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2014 p.53.
    11. ^ As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259.
    12. ^ Kershner, Isabel (4 July 2012). "Palestinians May Exhume Arafat After Report of Poisoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
    13. ^ Hockstader, Lee (11 November 2004). "A Dreamer Who Forced His Cause Onto World Stage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
     
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    14 December 1971Bangladesh Liberation War: Over 200 of East Pakistan's intellectuals are executed by the Pakistan Army and their local allies. (The date is commemorated in Bangladesh as Martyred Intellectuals Day.)

    Bangladesh Liberation War

    The Bangladesh Liberation War[note 1] (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The war began after the Pakistani military junta based in West Pakistan launched Operation Searchlight against the people of East Pakistan on the night of 25 March 1971. It pursued the systematic elimination of nationalist Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, religious minorities and armed personnel. The junta annulled the results of the 1970 elections and arrested Prime minister-designate Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The war ended on 16 December 1971 after West Pakistan surrendered.

    Rural and urban areas across East Pakistan saw extensive military operations and air strikes to suppress the tide of civil disobedience that formed following the 1970 election stalemate. The Pakistan Army, which had the backing of Islamists, created radical religious militias – the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams – to assist it during raids on the local populace.[13][14][15][16][17] Urdu-speaking Biharis in Bangladesh (ethnic minority) were also in support of Pakistani military. Members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias engaged in mass murder, deportation and genocidal rape. The capital Dhaka was the scene of numerous massacres, including Operation Searchlight and the Dhaka University massacre. An estimated 10 million Bengali refugees fled to neighbouring India, while 30 million were internally displaced.[18] Sectarian violence broke out between Bengalis and Urdu-speaking immigrants. An academic consensus prevails that the atrocities committed by the Pakistani military were a genocide.

    The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence was proclaimed from Chittagong by members of the Mukti Bahini – the national liberation army formed by Bengali military, paramilitary and civilians. The East Bengal Regiment and the East Pakistan Rifles played a crucial role in the resistance. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the Bangladesh Forces waged a mass guerrilla war against the Pakistani military. They liberated numerous towns and cities in the initial months of the conflict. The Pakistan Army regained momentum in the monsoon. Bengali guerrillas carried out widespread sabotage, including Operation Jackpot against the Pakistan Navy. The nascent Bangladesh Air Force flew sorties against Pakistani military bases. By November, the Bangladesh forces restricted the Pakistani military to its barracks during the night. They secured control of most parts of the countryside.[19]

    The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was formed on 17 April 1971 in Mujibnagar and moved to Calcutta as a government in exile. Bengali members of the Pakistani civil, military and diplomatic corps defected to the Bangladeshi provisional government. Thousands of Bengali families were interned in West Pakistan, from where many escaped to Afghanistan. Bengali cultural activists operated the clandestine Free Bengal Radio Station. The plight of millions of war-ravaged Bengali civilians caused worldwide outrage and alarm. India, which was led by Indira Gandhi, provided substantial diplomatic, economic and military support to Bangladeshi nationalists. British, Indian and American musicians organised the world's first benefit concert in New York City to support the Bangladeshi people. Senator Ted Kennedy in the United States led a congressional campaign for an end to Pakistani military persecution; while U.S. diplomats in East Pakistan strongly dissented with the Nixon administration's close ties to the Pakistani military dictator Yahya Khan.

    India joined the war on 3 December 1971, after Pakistan launched preemptive air strikes on North India. The subsequent Indo-Pakistani War witnessed engagements on two war fronts. With air supremacy achieved in the eastern theatre and the rapid advance of the Allied Forces of Bangladesh and India, Pakistan surrendered in Dacca on 16 December 1971.

    The war changed the geopolitical landscape of South Asia, with the emergence of Bangladesh as the seventh-most populous country in the world. Due to complex regional alliances, the war was a major episode in Cold War tensions involving the United States, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. The majority of member states in the United Nations recognised Bangladesh as a sovereign nation in 1972.

    1. ^ http://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/5312/Instrument+of+Surrender+of+Pakistan+forces+in+Dacca "The Pakistan Eastern Command agree to surrender all Pakistan Armed Forces in Bangladesh to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, General Officer Commanding-in –chief of the Indian and Bangladesh forces in the eastern theatre."
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ACIG was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway By Owen Bennett-Jones, Lindsay Brown, John Mock, Sarina Singh, Pg 30
    4. ^ p. 442 Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 ISBN 81-7062-014-7
    5. ^ Thiranagama, Sharika; Kelly, Tobias, eds. (2012). Traitors : suspicion, intimacy, and the ethics of state-building. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812222371.
    6. ^ a b "Bangladesh Islamist leader Ghulam Azam charged". BBC. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    7. ^ a b c Figures from The Fall of Dacca by Jagjit Singh Aurora in The Illustrated Weekly of India dated 23 December 1973 quoted in Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 ISBN 81-7062-014-7
    8. ^ Khan, Shahnawaz (19 January 2005). "54 Indian PoWs of 1971 war still in Pakistan". Daily Times. Lahore. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
    9. ^ Figure from Pakistani Prisoners of War in India by Col S.P. Salunke p.10 quoted in Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 (ISBN 81-7062-014-7)
    10. ^ Orton, Anna (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. p. 117. ISBN 9789380297156.
    11. ^ Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh, Page 289
    12. ^ Moss, Peter (2005). Secondary Social Studies For Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 9780195977042. OCLC 651126824.
    13. ^ Schneider, B.; Post, J.; Kindt, M. (2009). The World's Most Threatening Terrorist Networks and Criminal Gangs. Springer. p. 57. ISBN 9780230623293.
    14. ^ Kalia, Ravi (2012). Pakistan: From the Rhetoric of Democracy to the Rise of Militancy. Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 9781136516412.
    15. ^ Pg 600. Schmid, Alex, ed. (2011). The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41157-8.
    16. ^ Pg. 240 Tomsen, Peter (2011). The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of Great Powers. Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8.
    17. ^ Roy, Dr Kaushik; Gates, Professor Scott (2014). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781472405791.
    18. ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO. p. 34. ISBN 9780313346422.
    19. ^ Jamal, Ahmed (5–17 October 2008). "Mukti Bahini and the liberation war of Bangladesh: A review of conflicting views" (PDF). Asian Affairs. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    15 December 2001 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after 11 years and $27,000,000 spent to stabilize it, without fixing its famous lean.

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa [ˈtorre di ˈpiːza, - ˈpiːsa]) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its nearly four-degree lean, the result of an unstable foundation. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third-oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo), after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry.

    The height of the tower is 55.86 metres (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres (185.93 feet) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m (8 ft 0.06 in). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons).[1] The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase.

    The tower began to lean during construction in the 12th century, due to soft ground which could not properly support the structure's weight, and it worsened through the completion of construction in the 14th century. By 1990 the tilt had reached 5.5 degrees.[2][3][4] The structure was stabilized by remedial work between 1993 and 2001, which reduced the tilt to 3.97 degrees.

    1. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa Facts". Leaning Tower of Pisa. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
    2. ^ "Europe | Saving the Leaning Tower". BBC News. 15 December 2001. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    3. ^ "Tower of Pisa". Archidose.org. 17 June 2001. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    4. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa (tower, Pisa, Italy) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
     
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    16 December 2013 – A bus falls from an elevated highway in the Philippines capital Manila killing at least 18 people with 20 injured.

    2013 Manila Skyway bus accident

    The 2013 Manila Skyway bus accident occurred on December 16, 2013 in Bicutan, Parañaque, Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, after a bus fell off the Metro Manila Skyway, crushing a delivery van and fatally wounding the van's driver.[1] 18 people died and 20 others were injured.[2] The Highway Patrol Group-National Capital Region-South Luzon Expressway described the incident as the worst to have happened along the Skyway.[3]

    1. ^ "Philippines bus crash kills 21". BBC. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
    2. ^ Mogato, Manuel. "Commuter bus crashes off Philippine highway onto van, 22 dead: police". Reuters. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
    3. ^ Gov’t mulls speed limit devices for PUVs | Manila Bulletin | Latest Breaking News | News Philippines
     
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    17 December 1967Harold Holt, Prime Minister of Australia, disappears while swimming near Portsea, Victoria, and is presumed drowned.

    Disappearance of Harold Holt

    On 17 December 1967, Harold Holt, the Prime Minister of Australia, disappeared while swimming in the sea near Portsea, Victoria. An enormous search operation was mounted in and around Cheviot Beach, but his body was never recovered. Holt was eventually declared dead in absentia, and his memorial service five days later was attended by many world leaders. It is generally agreed that his disappearance was a simple case of an accidental drowning, but a number of conspiracy theories still surfaced, most famously the suggestion that he had been collected by a Chinese submarine. Holt was the third Australian prime minister to die in office, after Joseph Lyons in 1939 and John Curtin in 1945. He was initially replaced in a caretaker capacity by John McEwen, and then by John Gorton following a Liberal Party leadership election. Holt's death has entered Australian folklore, and was commemorated by, among other things, the Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Centre.

     
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    18 December 1958Project SCORE, the world's first communications satellite, is launched.

    SCORE (satellite)

    Eisenhower's recorded message

    Project SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment) was the world's first purpose-built communications satellite. Launched aboard an American Atlas rocket on December 18, 1958, SCORE provided the second test of a communications relay system in space (the first having been provided by the USAF/NASA's Pioneer 1[2]), the first broadcast of a human voice from space, and the first successful use of the Atlas as a launch vehicle. It captured world attention by broadcasting a Christmas message via shortwave radio from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower through an on-board tape recorder.[3] The satellite was popularly dubbed "The Talking Atlas". SCORE, as a geopolitical strategy, placed the United States at an even technological par with the Soviet Union as a highly functional response to the Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 satellites.

    1. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Trajectory Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
    2. ^ Marcus, Gideon. "Pioneering Space II" (PDF). Quest Space Quarterly.
    3. ^ "SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment)". GlobalSecurity.org. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
     
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    19 December 2001 – Argentine economic crisis: December riots: Riots erupt in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    December 2001 riots in Argentina

    The December 2001 crisis, sometimes known as the Argentinazo[2][3][4][5][6] (pronounced [aɾxentiˈnaso]), was a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on 19 and 20 December in the capital, Buenos Aires, Rosario and other large cities around the country. It was preceded by a popular revolt against the Argentine government, rallying behind the motto "All of them must go!" (Spanish: ¡Que se vayan todos!), which caused the resignation of then-president Fernando de la Rúa, giving way to a period of political instability during which five government officials performed the duties of the Argentinian presidency. This period of instability occurred during the larger period of crisis known as the Argentine great depression, an economic, political, and social crisis that lasted from 1998 until 2002.

    The December 2001 crisis was a direct response to the government's imposition of "Corral" policies (Spanish: Corralito) at the behest of economic minister Domingo Cavallo, which restricted people's ability to withdraw cash from banks. Rioting and protests became widespread on 19 December 2001, immediately following the president's declaration of a state of emergency and his resignation on the following day. A state of extreme institutional instability continued for the next twelve days, during which the successor president Adolfo Rodríguez Saá resigned as well. While the degree of instability subsided, the events of December 2001 would become a blow against the legitimacy of the Argentine government that would persist for the following years.[citation needed]

    The majority of the participants in the protests were unaffiliated with any political party or organization. Over the course of the protests, 39 people were killed by police and security forces. Of the 39 killed, nine were minors, which is an indication of the degree of repression ordered by the government to oppose the protests.

    1. ^ Template:Web appointment
    2. ^ Moreno, Federico (27 January 2006). "Four years after the Argentinazo". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    3. ^ Romero, Ricardo (19 December 2016). "'El Argentinazo' de 2001: RT analiza la crisis que cambiaría a Argentina 15 años después". Russia Today. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    4. ^ Klein, Naomi (24 January 2003). "Out of the ordinary". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
    5. ^ Dennis, Rodgers (April 2005). "Unintentional democratisation? The Argentinazo and the politics of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires, 2001-2004". eprints.lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
    6. ^ Sáenz, Robert; Cruz Bernal, Isidora (Spring 2003). "The driving forces behind the 'Argentinazo'". International Socialism Journal. 98 – via Socialist Review and International Socialism Journal Index.
     
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    20 December 1924Adolf Hitler is released from Landsberg Prison.

    Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] (About this soundlisten); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP). He rose to power as the chancellor of Germany in 1933, and as Führer in 1934.[a] During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland on 1 September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler's actions and ideology are almost universally regarded as evil. According to historian Ian Kershaw, "Never in history has such ruination—physical and moral—been associated with the name of one man."[4]

    Hitler was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP), the precursor of the NSDAP, and was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted to seize power in a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. He frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.

    By November 1932, the Nazi Party had the most seats in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, and no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.

    Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people in Eastern Europe, and his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. These gains were gradually reversed after 1941, and in 1945 the Allied armies defeated the German army. On 29 April 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days later, the couple committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army; their corpses were burned.

    Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, and the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history.

    1. ^ Evans 2003, p. 180.
    2. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 226–227.
    3. ^ Overy 2005, p. 63.
    4. ^ Kershaw 2000b, p. 841.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    21 December 1963"Bloody Christmas" begins in Cyprus, ultimately resulting in the displacement of 25,000–30,000 Turkish Cypriots and destruction of more than 100 villages.

    Bloody Christmas (1963)

    Bloody Christmas (Turkish: Kanlı Noel) is a term used mainly, but not exclusively, in Turkish Cypriot and Turkish historiography, referring to the outbreak of intercommunal violence between the Greek Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriots during the Cyprus crisis of 1963–64, on the night of 20–21 December 1963 and the subsequent period of island-wide violence[1] amounting to civil war.[2] The violence led to the deaths of 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek Cypriots.[3] Approximately 25,000 Turkish Cypriots from 104 villages, amounting to a quarter of the Turkish Cypriot population, fled their villages and were displaced into enclaves.[4] Thousands of Turkish Cypriot houses left behind were ransacked or completely destroyed.[5] Around 1,200 Armenian Cypriots and 500 Greek Cypriots were also displaced. The violence precipitated the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the Republic of Cyprus.

    The term Bloody Christmas is not used in official Greek Cypriot and Greek historiography, which contends that the outbreak of violence was a result of a Turkish Cypriot rebellion (Tourkantarsia) against the lawful government of the Republic of Cyprus.[6]

    1. ^ Hadjipavlou 2016, p. 2017; Hazou 2013.
    2. ^ Richter 2010, p. 120.
    3. ^ Oberling 1982, p. 120.
    4. ^ Bryant 2012, p. 5–15; Hoffmeister 2006, p. 17–20; Risini 2018, p. 117; Smit 2012, p. 51; United Nations 1964: "The trade of the Turkish community had considerably deciined during the period, due to the existing situation, and unemployment reached a very high level as approximately 25,000 Turkish Cypriots had beccme refugees"
    5. ^ Bryant 2012, p. 5–15; United Nations 1964.
    6. ^ Tzermias 2001, pp. 60–62.
     
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    22 December 1990Lech Wałęsa is elected President of Poland.

    Lech Wałęsa

    Lech Wałęsa (Polish: [ˈlɛɣ vaˈwɛ̃sa] (About this soundlisten);[1] born 29 September 1943) is a Polish statesman, dissident, union organizer, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1983). A shipyard electrician by trade, he became the leader of Solidarity (NSZZ "Solidarność"), a freedom-oriented social movement and trade union, and later served as the first democratically-elected President of Poland (1990-1995). His nonviolent struggle eventually brought the end to communist rule in Poland and ushered in the end of the Cold War.[2][3][4]

    While working at the Lenin Shipyard (now Gdańsk Shipyard), Wałęsa, an electrician, became a trade-union activist, for which he was persecuted by the Communist authorities, placed under surveillance, fired in 1976, and arrested several times. In August 1980 he was instrumental in political negotiations that led to the ground-breaking Gdańsk Agreement between striking workers and the government. He co-founded the Solidarity trade-union movement which membership rose to over ten million people.[5]

    After martial law was imposed in Poland and Solidarity was outlawed, Wałęsa was again arrested. Released from custody, he continued his activism and was prominent in the establishment of the 1989 Round Table Agreement that led to semi-free parliamentary elections in June 1989 and to a Solidarity-led government.[6]

    After winning the Polish presidential election of 1990, Wałęsa became the first President of Poland ever elected in a popular vote. He presided over Poland's successful transition from communism into a free-market liberal democracy, but his active role in Polish politics diminished after he narrowly lost the 1995 presidential election.[7][8][9]

    In 1995 he established Lech Wałęsa Institute[10].

    Since 1980, Wałęsa has received hundreds of prizes, honors and awards from many countries of the world. He was named the Time Person of the Year (1981), one of Time's 100 most important people of the 20th century (1999), received over forty honorary degrees, including from Harvard University and Columbia University as well as dozens of highest state orders: Presidential Medal of Freedom, Knight Grand Cross of the British Order of the Bath or French Grand Cross of Legion of Honour.[11][12] In 1989, Wałęsa was the first foreign non-head of state to ever address the Joint Meeting of the U.S. Congress.[13] The Gdansk Lech Wałęsa Airport bears his name since 2004[14]

    1. ^ In isolaton, Lech is pronounced [ˈlɛx].
    2. ^ Walker, Drew Hinshaw and Marcus. "Poland's New Nationalist Rulers Are Erasing Lech Walesa From History". WSJ. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
    3. ^ "About Lech Walesa | National Underground Railroad Freedom Center". freedomcenter.org. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
    4. ^ "Lech Walesa | Biography, Solidarity, Nobel Prize, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
    5. ^ "Solidarity | Definition, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
    6. ^ Traynor, Ian (6 February 2019). "Polish round table talks - archive, 1989". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
    7. ^ "Poland's successful transition - OECD Observer". oecdobserver.org. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    8. ^ "How Poland Became Europe's Growth Champion: Insights from the Successful Post-Socialist Transition". World Bank. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    9. ^ "Poland". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    10. ^ "About foundation • Fundacja Instytut Lecha Wałęsy". www.ilw.org.pl. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
    11. ^ Dowd, Maureen; Times, Special To the New York (14 November 1989). "Solidarity's Envoy; BUSH GIVE WALESA MEDAL OF FREEDOM". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    12. ^ "Lech Wałęsa". The Independent Institute. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    13. ^ "Fast Facts | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
    14. ^ "BBC NEWS | Europe | Profile: Lech Walesa". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
     
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    23 December 2007 – An agreement is made for the Kingdom of Nepal to be abolished and the country to become a federal republic with the Prime Minister becoming head of state.

    Kingdom of Nepal

    The Kingdom of Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha or Gorkha Empire (Nepali: गोरखा अधिराज्य) or Asal Hindustan (Real Land of Hindus),[note 1] was a Hindu kingdom, formed in 1768,[5] by the unification of Nepal. Founded by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India,[6] it existed for 240 years until the abolition of the Nepalese monarchy in 2008. During this period, Nepal was formally under the rule of the Shah dynasty, which exercised varying degrees of power during the kingdom's existence.

    After the invasion of Tibet and plundering of Digarcha by Nepali forces under Prince Regent Bahadur Shah in 1792, the Dalai Lama and Chinese Ambans reported to Chinese administration for military support. The Chinese and Tibetan forces under Fu Kang An attacked Nepal but went for negotiation after failure at Nuwakot.[3] MulKaji Damodar Pande was the most influential Kaji among the four Kajis appointed after removal of Bahadur Shah of Nepal even though Chief (Mul) Kaji was Kirtiman Singh Basnyat.[7] MulKaji Damodar Pande tried to protect king Girvan Yuddha Shah and keep Rana Bahadur off of Nepal. However, in 1804, March 4, the former king came back and took over the post of Mukhtiyar and Damodar Pande was then beheaded and killed in Thankot.[8] The 1806 Bhandarkhal massacre instigated upon the death of King Rana Bahadur Shah, set forth the rise of authoritative Mukhtiyar (premier) Bhimsen Thapa[9] who became de facto ruler of Nepal from 1806 to 1837.[10] During the early nineteenth century, however, the expansion of the East India Company's rule in India led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–1816), which resulted in Nepal's defeat. Under the Sugauli Treaty, the kingdom retained its independence, but in exchange for territorial concessions making Mechi River to Mahakali River its boundary under Nepalese rule,[2] sometimes known as "Greater Nepal". In the political scenario, the death of Prime Minister Mathbar Singh ended the Thapa hegemony and set the stage for Kot massacre[11] which resulted in the ascendancy of the Rana dynasty of Khas Rajput (Chhetri) origin, which made the office of Prime Minister of Nepal hereditary in their family for the next century, from 1843 to 1951. Beginning with Jung Bahadur, the first Rana ruler, the Rana dynasty reduced the Shah monarch to a figurehead role. Rana rule was marked by tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation and religious persecution.[12][13]

    In July 1950, the newly independent republic of India signed a friendship treaty in which both nations agreed to respect the other's sovereignty. In November of the same year, India played an important role in supporting King Tribhuhvan, whom the Rana leader Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana had attempted to depose and replace with his infant grandson King Gyanendra. With Indian support for a new government consisting largely of the Nepali Congress, King Tribhuvan ended the rule of the Rana dynasty in 1951.

    Unsuccessful attempts were made to implement reforms and a constitution during the 1960s and 1970s. An economic crisis at the end of the 1980s led to a popular movement which brought about parliamentary elections and the adoption of a constitutional monarchy in 1990. The 1990s saw the beginning of the Nepalese Civil War (1996–2006), a conflict between government forces and the insurgent forces of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The situation for the Nepalese monarchy was further destabilised by the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre, in which Crown Prince Dipendra reportedly shot and killed ten people, including his father King Birendra, and was himself mortally wounded by what was allegedly a self-inflicted gunshot.

    As a result of the massacre, King Gyanendra returned to the throne. His imposition of direct rule in 2005 provoked a protest movement unifying the Maoist insurgency and pro-democracy activists. He was eventually forced to restore Nepal's House of Representatives, which in 2007 adopted an interim constitution greatly restricting the powers of the Nepalese monarchy. Following an election held the next year, the Nepalese Constituent Assembly formally abolished the kingdom in its first session on 28 May 2008, declaring the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal in its place.

    Until the abolition of the monarchy, Nepal was the world's only country to have Hinduism as its state religion; the country is now formally a secular state.[14][15]

    1. ^ History of Kingdom of Nepal
    2. ^ a b "History of Nepal: A Sovereign Kingdom". Official website of Nepal Army. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
    3. ^ a b "Nepal and Tibetan conflict". Official website of Nepal Army.
    4. ^ Acharya, Baburam, Naraharinath, Yogi (2014). Badamaharaj Prithivi Narayan Shah ko Divya Upadesh (2014 Reprint ed.). Kathmandu: Shree Krishna Acharya. pp. 4, 5. ISBN 99933-912-1-2.
    5. ^ Royal Ark
    6. ^ Karl J. Schmidt (20 May 2015). An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. Routledge. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-1-317-47681-8.
    7. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
    8. ^ Nepal:The Struggle for Power (Sourced to U.S. Library of Congress)
    9. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 71-72.
    10. ^ Whelpton 1991, p. 21.
    11. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 11–12.
    12. ^ Dietrich, Angela (1996). "Buddhist Monks and Rana Rulers: A History of Persecution". Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
    13. ^ Lal, C. K. (16 February 2001). "The Rana resonance". Nepali Times. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
    14. ^ Why Monarchy is necessary in Nepal?
    15. ^ George Conger (18 January 2008). "Nepal moves to become a secular republic". Religious Intelligence. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 December 1800 – The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise fails to kill Napoleon Bonaparte.

    Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise

    The Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise, etching

    The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, also known as the Machine infernale plot, was an assassination attempt on the life of the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris on 24 December 1800. It followed the conspiration des poignards of 10 October 1800, and was one of many Royalist and Catholic plots.

    The name of the Machine Infernale, the "infernal device", was in reference to an episode during the sixteenth-century revolt against Spanish rule in Flanders. In 1585, during the Siege of Antwerp by the Spaniards, an Italian engineer in Spanish service had made an explosive device from a barrel bound with iron hoops, filled with gunpowder, flammable materials and bullets, and set off by a sawed-off shotgun triggered from a distance by a string. The Italian engineer called it la macchina infernale.

     
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    25 December 1914 – A series of unofficial truces occur across the Western Front to celebrate Christmas.

    Christmas truce

    A cross, left in Saint-Yves (Saint-Yvon – Ploegsteert; Comines-Warneton in Belgium) in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce. The text reads:
    "1914 – The Khaki Chum's Christmas Truce – 1999 – 85 Years – Lest We Forget"

    The Christmas truce (German: Weihnachtsfrieden; French: Trêve de Noël) was a series of widespread unofficial ceasefires along the Western Front of the First World War around Christmas 1914.

    The truce occurred during the relatively early period of the war (month 5 of 51). Hostilities had lulled as leadership on both sides reconsidered their strategies following the stalemate of the Race to the Sea and the indecisive result of the First Battle of Ypres. In the week leading up to the 25th, French, German, and British soldiers crossed trenches to exchange seasonal greetings and talk. In some areas, men from both sides ventured into no man's land on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day to mingle and exchange food and souvenirs. There were joint burial ceremonies and prisoner swaps, while several meetings ended in carol-singing. Men played games of football with one another,[1] creating one of the most memorable images of the truce. Fighting continued in some sectors, while in others the sides settled on little more than arrangements to recover bodies.

    The following year, a few units arranged ceasefires but the truces were not nearly as widespread as in 1914; this was, in part, due to strongly worded orders from the high commands of both sides prohibiting truces. Soldiers were no longer amenable to truce by 1916. The war had become increasingly bitter after devastating human losses suffered during the battles of the Somme and Verdun, and the use of poison gas.

    The truces were not unique to the Christmas period, and reflected a mood of "live and let live", where infantry close together would stop overtly aggressive behaviour and often engage in small-scale fraternisation, engaging in conversation or bartering for cigarettes. In some sectors, there were occasional ceasefires to allow soldiers to go between the lines and recover wounded or dead comrades; in others, there was a tacit agreement not to shoot while men rested, exercised or worked in view of the enemy. The Christmas truces were particularly significant due to the number of men involved and the level of their participation—even in very peaceful sectors, dozens of men openly congregating in daylight was remarkable—and are often seen as a symbolic moment of peace and humanity amidst one of the most violent events of human history.

     
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    26 December 1805 – Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.

    Peace of Pressburg (1805)

    Contemporary print advertising the Peace of Pressburg

    The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; German: Preßburger Frieden; French: Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 27 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December). A truce was agreed on 4 December, and negotiations for the treaty began. The treaty was signed in Pressburg (Pozsony, today's Bratislava), Hungary, by Johann I Josef, Prince of Liechtenstein, and the Hungarian Count Ignác Gyulay for the Austrian Empire and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for France.

    Beyond the clauses establishing "peace and amity" and the Austrian withdrawal from the Third Coalition, the treaty also mandated substantial European territorial concessions from the Austrian Empire. The gains of the previous treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville were reiterated and Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria were ceded to France. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies: the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, and the Elector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. The most notable territorial exchanges concerned the Tyrol and Vorarlberg, which went to Bavaria, and Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia, which were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, of which Napoleon had become king earlier that year. Augsburg, previously an independent Free Imperial City, was ceded to Bavaria. As a minor compensation, the Austrian Empire received the Electorate of Salzburg.

    The Primate's Palace, where the Peace of Pressburg was signed

    Emperor Francis II also recognized the kingly titles assumed by the Electors of Bavaria and Württemberg, which foreshadowed the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Within months of the signing of the treaty and after a new entity, the Confederation of the Rhine, had been created by Napoleon, Francis II renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor and became Emperor Francis I of Austria. An indemnity of 40 million francs to France was also provided for in the treaty.[1]

    1. ^ Phillipson, Coleman (2008). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. p. 273.
     
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    27 December 1945 – The International Monetary Fund is created with the signing of an agreement by 29 nations.

    International Monetary Fund

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world while periodically depending on the World Bank for its resources.[1] Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes,[6] it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises.[7] Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had XDR 477 billion (about US$667 billion).[8]

    Through the fund and other activities such as the gathering of statistics and analysis, surveillance of its members' economies, and the demand for particular policies,[9] the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries.[10] The organization's objectives stated in the Articles of Agreement are:[11] to promote international monetary co-operation, international trade, high employment, exchange-rate stability, sustainable economic growth, and making resources available to member countries in financial difficulty.[12] IMF funds come from two major sources: quotas and loans. Quotas, which are pooled funds of member nations, generate most IMF funds. The size of a member's quota depends on its economic and financial importance in the world. Nations with larger economic importance have larger quotas. The quotas are increased periodically as a means of boosting the IMF's resources.

    The current Managing Director (MD) and Chairwoman of the International Monetary Fund is Bulgarian Economist Kristalina Georgieva, who has held the post since 1 October 2019.[13]

    Gita Gopinath was appointed as Chief Economist of IMF from 1 October 2018. She received her PhD in economics from Princeton University. Prior to her IMF appointment she was economic adviser to the Chief Minister of Kerala, India.[14]

    1. ^ a b c "About the IMF". IMF. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
    2. ^ Boughton 2001, p. 7 n.5.
    3. ^ "Christine Lagarde Appoints Gita Gopinath as IMF Chief Economist".
    4. ^ "Factsheet: The IMF and the World Bank". IMF. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
    5. ^ "About the IMF Overview". www.imf.org. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
    6. ^ Broughton, James (2002). "IMF working paper" (PDF). imf.org.
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Explaining Change was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "The IMF at a Glance". www.imf.org. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
    9. ^ Schlefer, Jonathan. "There is No Invisible Hand". Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review.
    10. ^ Escobar, Arturo (1980). "Power and Visibility: Development and the Invention and Management of the Third World". Cultural Anthropology 3 (4): 428–443.
    11. ^ "imf.org: "Articles of Agreement, International Monetary Fund" (2011)" (PDF).
    12. ^ "Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund – 2016 Edition".
    13. ^ https://www.apnews.com/3a8293b07f91434193221028f96aea68
    14. ^ https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2018/10/01/pr18386-christine-lagarde-appoints-gita-gopinath-as-imf-chief-economist
     
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    28 December 2014Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 crashes into the Karimata Strait en route from Surabaya to Singapore, killing all 162 people aboard.

    Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501

    Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 was a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Indonesia AirAsia – an AirAsia Group affiliate – from Surabaya, Indonesia, to Singapore. On 28 December 2014, the Airbus A320 flying the route crashed into the Java Sea, killing all 162 people on board.[1][2] When search operations ended in March 2015, only 106 bodies had been recovered.[3]

    In December 2015, the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee (KNKT or NTSC) released a report concluding that a non-critical malfunction in the rudder control system prompted the captain to perform a non-standard reset of the on-board flight control computers. Control of the aircraft was subsequently lost, resulting in a stall and uncontrolled descent into the sea. Miscommunication between the two pilots was cited as a contributing factor.[4][5][6]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Ranter, Harro (28 December 2014). "Database – Accident Description". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network (ASN). Retrieved 29 December 2014.
    2. ^ "AirAsia QZ8501: More bad weather hits AirAsia search". BBC News. 1 January 2015.
    3. ^ "AirAsia 8501 crash: Official search for bodies ends". bbc.com. BBC. 17 March 2015. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
    4. ^ Karmini, Niniek (1 December 2015). "AirAsia crash caused by faulty rudder system, pilot response, Indonesia says". Toronto Star (The Associated Press). Toronto, Canada. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
    5. ^ Sherwell, Philip (1 December 2015). "Pilots responding to malfuctioning plane part caused AirAsia crash which killed 162 passengers off Indonesia". The Telegraphy. London, England. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
    6. ^ Lamb, Kate (1 December 2015). "AirAsia crash: crew lost control of plane after apparent misunderstanding". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
     
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    29 December 1975 – A bomb explodes at LaGuardia Airport in New York City, killing 11 people and injuring 74.

    1975 LaGuardia Airport bombing

    On December 29, 1975, a bomb was detonated near the TWA baggage reclaim terminal at LaGuardia Airport, New York City. The blast killed 11 people and seriously injured 74. The perpetrators were never identified, although investigators and historians believe that Croatian nationalists were the most likely. The attack occurred during a four-year period of heightened terrorist attacks within the United States. 1975 was especially volatile, with bombings in New York City and Washington D.C. early that year and two assassination attempts on US President Gerald Ford.[1]

    The LaGuardia Airport bomb, at the time, was the single most deadly attack by a non-state actor to occur on American soil since the Bath School bombings, which killed 44 people in 1927. It was the deadliest attack in New York City since the Wall Street bombing of 1920, which killed 38, until the September 11 attacks in 2001.[1][2]

    1. ^ a b Joseph T. McCann. Terrorism on American soil : a concise history of plots and perpetrators from the famous to the forgotten. pp. 119–121. ISBN 9781591810490.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    30 December 2006Madrid–Barajas Airport is bombed.

    2006 Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing

    The 2006 Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing occurred on 30 December 2006 when a van bomb exploded in the Terminal 4 parking area at the Madrid–Barajas Airport in Spain, killing two and injuring 52. On 9 January 2007, the Basque nationalist and separatist organisation ETA claimed responsibility for the attack. The attack, one of the most powerful carried out by ETA, damaged the airport terminal and destroyed the entire parking structure. The bombing ended a nine-month ceasefire declared by the armed organisation and prompted the government to halt plans for negotiations with the organisation. Despite the attack, ETA claimed that the ceasefire was still in place and regretted the death of civilians. The organisation eventually announced the end of the ceasefire in June 2007.

    Ordered and planned by then head of commandos Miguel Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina alias Txeroki, the attack was carried out by the "commando Elurra", whose members were arrested in early 2008 and sentenced for the attack in May 2010. Txeroki was arrested in November 2008 and is awaiting trial for the bombing.

     
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    31 December 2014 – A New Year's Eve celebration stampede in Shanghai kills at least 36 people and injures 49 others.

    2014 Shanghai stampede

    On December 31, 2014, a deadly crush occurred in Shanghai, near Chen Yi Square on the Bund, where around 300,000 people had gathered for the new year celebration. 36 people were killed and there were 49 injured, 13 seriously.[1] As of January 3, 2015, 9 remained in a serious condition.[2]

    1. ^ "Shanghai new year crush kills 35". BBC News. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
    2. ^ 上海外滩踩踏重伤员减至9人 所有伤员亲属已找到 (in Chinese). NetEase. 3 January 2015.
     
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    2 January 1971 – The second Ibrox disaster kills 66 fans at a Rangers-Celtic association football (soccer) match

    1971 Ibrox disaster

    The 1971 Ibrox disaster was a crush among the crowd at an Old Firm football game, which led to 66 deaths and more than 200 injuries. It happened on 2 January 1971 in an exit stairway at Ibrox Park (now Ibrox Stadium) in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the worst British football disaster until the Hillsborough disaster in Sheffield, England, in 1989.

    The stadium's owner, Rangers F.C., was later ruled to be at fault in a sheriff's judgement on one of the deaths.[1] Rangers did not dispute this ruling, and was sued for damages in 60 other cases brought by relatives of the dead.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Irvine Smith was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1972/1/3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    3 January 2000 – Final daily edition of the Peanuts comic strip.

    Peanuts

    Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz that ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000, continuing in reruns afterward. Peanuts is among the most popular and influential in the history of comic strips, with 17,897 strips published in all,[1] making it "arguably the longest story ever told by one human being".[2] By the time of Schulz's death in 2000, Peanuts ran in over 2,600 newspapers, with a readership of around 355 million in 75 countries, and was translated into 21 languages.[3] It helped to cement the four-panel gag strip as the standard in the United States,[4] and together with its merchandise earned Schulz more than $1 billion.[1]

    Peanuts focuses entirely on a social circle of young children, where adults exist but are rarely seen or heard. The main character, Charlie Brown, is meek, nervous, and lacks self-confidence. He is unable to fly a kite, win a baseball game, or kick a football held by his irascible friend Lucy, who always pulls it away at the last instant.[5]

    Peanuts is one of the literate strips with philosophical, psychological, and sociological overtones that flourished in the 1950s.[6] Peanuts's humor is psychologically complex, and the characters' interactions formed a tangle of relationships that drove it.

    Peanuts achieved considerable success with its television specials, several of which, including A Charlie Brown Christmas[7] and It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown,[8] won or were nominated for Emmy Awards. The Peanuts holiday specials remain popular and are broadcast on ABC in the U.S. during the appropriate seasons, since 2001. Peanuts also had successful adaptations in theatre, with the stage musical You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown an oft-performed production. In 2013, TV Guide ranked the Peanuts television specials the fourth Greatest TV Cartoon of All Time.[9] A computer-animated feature film based on the comic strip, The Peanuts Movie, was released in 2015.

    1. ^ a b "The man who recalled everything". Maclean's. October 22, 2007.
    2. ^ Brooks, Katherine (October 2, 2013). "10 Of The Best Snoopy Moments To Celebrate 'Peanuts' 63rd Anniversary". 3 October 2013. Huff Post Arts & Culture. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
    3. ^ Hofer, Kaycee J. (February 22, 2000). "Saying Goodbye: Friends and family eulogize cartoonist Charles Schulz". San Francisco Chronicle.
    4. ^ Walker, Brian (2002). The comics: since 1945. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
    5. ^ The World Encyclopedia of Comics, edited by Maurice Horn, published in 1977 by Avon Books
    6. ^ "comic strip :: The first half of the 20th century: the evolution of the form". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
    7. ^ "ENVELOPE". Los Angeles Times. March 7, 1965. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
    8. ^ "ENVELOPE". Los Angeles Times. March 7, 1965. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
    9. ^ Sands, Rich (September 24, 2013). "TV Guide Magazine's 60 Greatest Cartoons of All Time – Today's News: Our Take". TVGuide.com. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
     
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    4 January 2018Hennenman–Kroonstad train crash: A passenger train operated by Shosholoza Meyl collides with a truck on a level crossing at Geneva Station between Hennenman and Kroonstad, Free State, South Africa. Twenty people are killed and 260 injured.

    Hennenman–Kroonstad train crash

    On 4 January 2018, a passenger train operated by Shosholoza Meyl collided with a truck on a level crossing at Geneva Station between Hennenman and Kroonstad, Free State, South Africa. The train was derailed and seven of the 12 carriages caught fire. 21 people were killed and 254 people were injured.

     
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    5 January 1975 – The Tasman Bridge in Tasmania, Australia, is struck by the bulk ore carrier Lake Illawarra, killing twelve people

    Tasman Bridge disaster

    View of the bridge as it stands today

    The Tasman Bridge disaster occurred on the evening of 5 January 1975, in Hobart, the capital city of Australia's island state of Tasmania, when a bulk ore carrier travelling up the Derwent River collided with several pylons of the Tasman Bridge, causing a large section of the bridge deck to collapse onto the ship and into the river below. Twelve people were killed, including seven crew on board the ship, and the five occupants of four cars which fell 45 m (150 feet) after driving off the bridge. This severed Hobart from its eastern suburbs, and the loss of the main road connection had a social and economic impact.

     
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    6 January 1907Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working class children in Rome, Italy.

    Maria Montessori

    Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (/ˌmɒntɪˈsɔːri/ MON-tiss-OR-ee, Italian: [maˈriːa montesˈsɔːri]; August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori broke gender barriers and expectations when she enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. She soon had a change of heart and began medical school at the Sapienza University of Rome, where she graduated – with honors – in 1896. Her educational method is still in use today in many public and private schools throughout the world.

     

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