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Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 November 1979Pink Floyd's rock opera, The Wall is released.

    The Wall

    The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released 30 November 1979 on Harvest and Columbia Records. It is a rock opera that explores Pink, a jaded rockstar whose eventual self-imposed isolation from society is symbolized by a wall. The album was a commercial success, topping the US charts for 15 weeks, and reaching number three in the UK. It initially received mixed reviews from critics, many of whom found it overblown and pretentious, but later came to be considered one of the greatest albums of all time.

    Bassist Roger Waters conceived The Wall during Pink Floyd's 1977 In The Flesh tour, modeling the character of Pink after himself and former bandmate Syd Barrett. Recording spanned from December 1978 to November 1979. Producer Bob Ezrin helped to refine the concept and bridge tensions during recording, as the band were struggling with personal and financial issues at the time. The Wall is the last album to feature Pink Floyd as a quartet; keyboardist Richard Wright was fired by Waters during production, but stayed on as a salaried musician. Three singles were issued from the album: "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2" (the band's only US number-one single), "Run Like Hell", and "Comfortably Numb". From 1980 to 1981, Pink Floyd performed the full album on a tour that featured elaborate theatrical effects.

    The Wall was adapted into a 1982 feature film of the same name and remains one of the best-known concept albums.[4]. The album has sold more than 24 million copies, is the second best-selling in the band's catalog, and is one of the best-selling of all time. Some of the outtakes from the recording sessions were later used on the group's next album, The Final Cut (1983). In 2000 it was voted number 30 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.[5] In 2003, Rolling Stone listed The Wall at number 87 on its list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". In the early 2010s, Waters staged a new Wall live tour that became the highest-grossing tour by a solo musician.

    1. ^ Brown, Jake (2011). Jane's Addiction: In the Studio. SCB Distributors. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9834716-2-2.
    2. ^ Murphy, Sean (17 November 2015). "The 25 Best Classic Progressive Rock Albums". PopMatters. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    3. ^ Breithaupt, Don; Breithaupt, Jeff (2000), Night Moves: Pop Music in the Late '70s, St. Martin's Press, p. 71, ISBN 978-0-312-19821-3
    4. ^ Barker, Emily (8 July 2015). "23 Of The Maddest And Most Memorable Concept Albums". NME. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
    5. ^ Colin Larkin (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 48. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
     
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    30 November 1979Pink Floyd's rock opera, The Wall is released.

    The Wall

    The Wall is the eleventh studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released 30 November 1979 on Harvest and Columbia Records. It is a rock opera that explores Pink, a jaded rockstar whose eventual self-imposed isolation from society is symbolized by a wall. The album was a commercial success, topping the US charts for 15 weeks, and reaching number three in the UK. It initially received mixed reviews from critics, many of whom found it overblown and pretentious, but later came to be considered one of the greatest albums of all time.

    Bassist Roger Waters conceived The Wall during Pink Floyd's 1977 In The Flesh tour, modeling the character of Pink after himself and former bandmate Syd Barrett. Recording spanned from December 1978 to November 1979. Producer Bob Ezrin helped to refine the concept and bridge tensions during recording, as the band were struggling with personal and financial issues at the time. The Wall is the last album to feature Pink Floyd as a quartet; keyboardist Richard Wright was fired by Waters during production, but stayed on as a salaried musician. Three singles were issued from the album: "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 2" (the band's only US number-one single), "Run Like Hell", and "Comfortably Numb". From 1980 to 1981, Pink Floyd performed the full album on a tour that featured elaborate theatrical effects.

    The Wall was adapted into a 1982 feature film of the same name and remains one of the best-known concept albums.[4]. The album has sold more than 24 million copies, is the second best-selling in the band's catalog, and is one of the best-selling of all time. Some of the outtakes from the recording sessions were later used on the group's next album, The Final Cut (1983). In 2000 it was voted number 30 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.[5] In 2003, Rolling Stone listed The Wall at number 87 on its list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". In the early 2010s, Waters staged a new Wall live tour that became the highest-grossing tour by a solo musician.

    1. ^ Brown, Jake (2011). Jane's Addiction: In the Studio. SCB Distributors. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9834716-2-2.
    2. ^ Murphy, Sean (17 November 2015). "The 25 Best Classic Progressive Rock Albums". PopMatters. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    3. ^ Breithaupt, Don; Breithaupt, Jeff (2000), Night Moves: Pop Music in the Late '70s, St. Martin's Press, p. 71, ISBN 978-0-312-19821-3
    4. ^ Barker, Emily (8 July 2015). "23 Of The Maddest And Most Memorable Concept Albums". NME. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
    5. ^ Colin Larkin (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 48. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6.
     
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    1 December 1988World AIDS Day was proclaimed worldwide by the UN member states.

    World AIDS Day

    World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988,[1] is an international day dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection and mourning those who have died of the disease. Government and health officials, non-governmental organizations, and individuals around the world observe the day, often with education on AIDS prevention and control.

    World AIDS Day is one of the eight official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization (WHO), along with World Health Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Immunization Week, World Tuberculosis Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Malaria Day and World Hepatitis Day.[2]

    As of 2017, AIDS has killed between 28.9 million and 41.5 million people worldwide, and an estimated 36.7 million people are living with HIV,[3] making it one of the most important global public health issues in recorded history. Thanks to recent improved access to antiretroviral treatment in many regions of the world, the death rate from AIDS epidemic has decreased since its peak in 2005 (1 million in 2016, compared to 1.9 million in 2005).[3]

    1. ^ "About World Aids Day". worldaidsday.org. National Aids Trust. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
    2. ^ World Health Organization, WHO campaigns.
    3. ^ a b Fact sheet - Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic UNAIDS. Accessed 30 November 2017.
     
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    2 December 2001Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

    Enron scandal

    The Enron scandal, publicized in October 2001, eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron was cited as the biggest audit failure.[1]:61

    Enron was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay after merging Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth. Several years later, when Jeffrey Skilling was hired, he developed a staff of executives that – by the use of accounting loopholes, special purpose entities, and poor financial reporting – were able to hide billions of dollars in debt from failed deals and projects. Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow and other executives not only misled Enron's Board of Directors and Audit Committee on high-risk accounting practices, but also pressured Arthur Andersen to ignore the issues.

    Enron shareholders filed a $40 billion lawsuit after the company's stock price, which achieved a high of US$90.75 per share in mid-2000, plummeted to less than $1 by the end of November 2001.[2] The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began an investigation, and rival Houston competitor Dynegy offered to purchase the company at a very low price. The deal failed, and on December 2, 2001, Enron filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. Enron's $63.4 billion in assets made it the largest corporate bankruptcy in U.S. history until WorldCom's bankruptcy the next year.[3]

    Many executives at Enron were indicted for a variety of charges and some were later sentenced to prison. Andersen was found guilty of illegally destroying documents relevant to the SEC investigation, which voided its license to audit public companies and effectively closed the firm. By the time the ruling was overturned at the U.S. Supreme Court, the company had lost the majority of its customers and had ceased operating. Enron employees and shareholders received limited returns in lawsuits, despite losing billions in pensions and stock prices.

    As a consequence of the scandal, new regulations and legislation were enacted to expand the accuracy of financial reporting for public companies.[4] One piece of legislation, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, increased penalties for destroying, altering, or fabricating records in federal investigations or for attempting to defraud shareholders.[5] The act also increased the accountability of auditing firms to remain unbiased and independent of their clients.[4]

    1. ^ Bratton, William W. (May 2002). "Does Corporate Law Protect the Interests of Shareholders and Other Stakeholders?: Enron and the Dark Side of Shareholder Value". Tulane Law Review. New Orleans: Tulane University Law School (1275). SSRN 301475.
    2. ^ "Enron shareholders look to SEC for support in court" (WEB). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. May 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
    3. ^ Benston, George J. (November 6, 2003). "The Quality of Corporate Financial Statements and Their Auditors Before and After Enron" (PDF). Policy Analysis. Washington D.C.: Cato Institute (497): 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
    4. ^ a b Ayala, Astrid; Giancarlo Ibárgüen, Snr (March 2006). "A Market Proposal for Auditing the Financial Statements of Public Companies" (PDF). Journal of Management of Value. Universidad Francisco Marroquín: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
    5. ^ Cohen, Daniel A.; Dey Aiyesha; Thomas Z. Lys (February 2005). "Trends in Earnings Management and Informativeness of Earnings Announcements in the Pre- and Post-Sarbanes Oxley Periods". Evanston, Illinois: Kellogg School of Management: 5. SSRN 658782. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
     
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    3 December 2009 – A suicide bombing at a hotel in Mogadishu, Somalia, kills 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government.

    2009 Hotel Shamo bombing

    The 2009 Hotel Shamo bombing was a suicide bombing at the Hotel Shamo in Mogadishu, Somalia, on 3 December 2009. The bombing killed 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government,[1] and injured 60 more,[2] making it the deadliest attack in Somalia since the Beledweyne bombing on 18 June 2009 that claimed more than 30 lives.[3]

    1. ^ "4th minister dies of wounds". The Straits Times. 6 December 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
    2. ^ "Somalia al-Shabab Islamists deny causing deadly bomb". BBC News. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
    3. ^ Guled, Abdi; Ibrahim Mohamed (4 December 2009). "Bomber kills 19 in Somalia". National Post. Retrieved 4 December 2009.[permanent dead link]
     
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    4 December 1954 – The first Burger King is opened in Miami, Florida.

    Burger King

    Burger King (BK) is an American multinational chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. Headquartered in the unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, the company was founded in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida–based restaurant chain. After Insta-Burger King ran into financial difficulties in 1954, its two Miami-based franchisees David Edgerton and James McLamore purchased the company and renamed it "Burger King". Over the next half-century, the company would change hands four times, with its third set of owners, a partnership of TPG Capital, Bain Capital, and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, taking it public in 2002. In late-2010, 3G Capital of Brazil acquired a majority stake in the company, in a deal valued at US$3.26 billion. The new owners promptly initiated a restructuring of the company to reverse its fortunes. 3G, along with partner Berkshire Hathaway, eventually merged the company with the Canadian-based doughnut chain Tim Hortons, under the auspices of a new Canadian-based parent company named Restaurant Brands International.

    The 1970s were the "Golden Age" of the company's advertising, but beginning in the early-1980s Burger King advertising began losing focus. A series of less successful advertising campaigns created by a procession of advertising agencies continued for the next two decades. In 2003, Burger King hired the Miami-based advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CP+B), which completely reorganized its advertising with a series of new campaigns centered on a redesigned Burger King character nicknamed "The King", accompanied by a new online presence. While highly successful, some of CP+B's commercials were derided for perceived sexism or cultural insensitivity. Burger King's new owner, 3G Capital, later terminated the relationship with CP+B in 2011 and moved its advertising to McGarryBowen, to begin a new product-oriented campaign with expanded demographic targeting.

    Burger King's menu has expanded from a basic offering of burgers, French fries, sodas, and milkshakes to a larger and more diverse set of products. In 1957, the "Whopper" became the first major addition to the menu, and it has become Burger King's signature product since. Conversely, Burger King has introduced many products which failed to catch hold in the marketplace. Some of these failures in the United States have seen success in foreign markets, where Burger King has also tailored its menu for regional tastes. From 2002 to 2010, Burger King aggressively targeted the 18–34 male demographic with larger products that often carried correspondingly large amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats. This tactic would eventually damage the company's financial underpinnings, and cast a negative pall on its earnings. Beginning in 2011, the company began to move away from its previous male-oriented menu and introduce new menu items, product reformulations and packaging, as part of its current owner 3G Capital's restructuring plans of the company.[5]

    As of December 31, 2018, Burger King reported it had 17,796 outlets in 100 countries.[6][7] Of these, nearly half are located in the United States, and 99.7% are privately owned and operated,[7] with its new owners moving to an almost entirely franchised model in 2013. Burger King has historically used several variations of franchising to expand its operations. The manner in which the company licenses its franchisees varies depending on the region, with some regional franchises, known as master franchises, responsible for selling franchise sub-licenses on the company's behalf. Burger King's relationship with its franchises has not always been harmonious. Occasional spats between the two have caused numerous issues, and in several instances, the company's and its licensees' relations have degenerated into precedent-setting court cases. Burger King's Australian franchise Hungry Jack's is the only franchise to operate under a different name, due to a trademark dispute and a series of legal cases between the two.

    1. ^ a b c d "Burger King 2015 10-K". sec.gov. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
    2. ^ http://investor.bk.com/download_arquivos.asp?id_arquivo=DC47A05B-9468-4356-8789-F777CDA04DD7.
    3. ^ "RBI 10K report" (PDF). rbi.com. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
    4. ^ "Restarurant Brand International: Burger King". rbi.com. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
    5. ^ Burger King Holdings, Inc. Reports First Quarter 2012 Results
    6. ^ "RESTAURANT BRANDS INTERNATIONAL INC" (PDF).
    7. ^ a b "The World's Largest Fast Food Restaurant Chains". Retrieved June 9, 2018.
     
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    5 December 1971Battle of Gazipur: Pakistani forces stand defeated as India cedes Gazipur to Bangladesh.

    Battle of Gazipur

    The Battle of Gazipur (Bengali: গাজীপুরের যুদ্ধ) was a military engagement on 4 and 5 December 1971, during the Bangladesh liberation war. It took place at the Gazipur Tea Estate near Kulaura, in the Sylhet District of what was then East Pakistan. The advancing Mitro Bahini (comprising Mukti Bahini and Indian Army) attacked the 22 Baluch Regiment of the Pakistan Army. This battle was a prelude to the Battle of Sylhet.[1]

    1. ^ "Battle of Sylhet". defenceindia.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007.[self-published source]
     
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 December 1912 – The Nefertiti Bust is discovered.

    Nefertiti Bust

    The Nefertiti Bust is a painted stucco-coated limestone bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten.[1] The work is believed to have been crafted in 1345 B.C. by Thutmose because it was found in his workshop in Amarna, Egypt.[2] It is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women of the ancient world and an icon of feminine beauty.

    A German archaeological team led by Ludwig Borchardt discovered the bust in 1912 in Thutmose's workshop.[3] It has been kept at various locations in Germany since its discovery, including the cellar of a bank, a salt mine in Merkers-Kieselbach, the Dahlem museum, the Egyptian Museum in Charlottenburg, and the Altes Museum.[3] It is currently on display at the Neues Museum in Berlin, where it was originally displayed before World War II.[3]

    The Nefertiti bust has become a cultural symbol of Berlin as well as ancient Egypt. It has also been the subject of an intense argument between Egypt and Germany over Egyptian demands for its repatriation, which began in 1924 once the bust was first displayed to the public. Egyptian inspectors were not shown the actual bust before they let it out of the country.

    1. ^ "Nefertiti - Ancient History - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    2. ^ e.V., Verein zur Förderung des Ägyptischen Museums und Papyrussammlung Berlin. "Nefertiti: (Society for the Promotion of the Egyptian Museum Berlin)". www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    3. ^ a b c Tharoor, Ishaan. "The Bust of Nefertiti: Remembering Ancient Egypt's Famous Queen". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
     
  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 December 1732 – The Royal Opera House opens at Covent Garden, London, England.

    Royal Opera House

    The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Originally called the Theatre Royal, it served primarily as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

    The current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856.[2] The façade, foyer, and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. The main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. The proscenium is 12.20 m wide and 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building.[3]

    1. ^ Historic England (9 January 1970). "The Royal Opera House (1066392)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
    2. ^ "11 Secrets of London's Royal Opera House". Londonist.
    3. ^ "Royal Opera House (London)" description on theatrestrust.org.uk Retrieved 10 May 2013
     
  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 December 1974 – A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.

    1974 Greek republic referendum

    A referendum on retaining the republic was held in Greece on 8 December 1974.[1] After the collapse of the military junta that ruled the country from 1967, the issue of the form of government remained unsolved. The Junta had already staged a plebiscite held on 29 July 1973, which resulted in the establishment of the Republic. However, after the fall of the military regime, the new government, under Constantine Karamanlis, decided to hold another one, as Junta legal acts were considered illegal. Constantine II, the former King, was banned by the new government from returning to Greece to campaign in the referendum, but the Karamanlis government allowed him to make a televised address to the nation.[2] The proposal was approved by 69.2% of voters with a turnout of 75.6%.[3]

    1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p830 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
    2. ^ Hope, Kevin. Referendum plan faces hurdles. Financial Times 1 November 2011.
    3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p838
     
  11. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    9 December 1948 – The Genocide Convention is adopted.

    Genocide Convention

    The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951.[1] It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Raphael Lemkin.[2] All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. As of May 2019, 150 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most recently Turkmenistan on 26 December 2018.[3] One state, the Dominican Republic, has signed but not ratified the treaty.

    1. ^ "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide". United Nations Treaty Series. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
    2. ^ Auron, Yair, The Banality of Denial, (Transaction Publishers, 2004), 9.
    3. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection". Retrieved 16 January 2018.
     
  12. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
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    10 December 1901 – The first Nobel Prize ceremony is held in Stockholm on the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.

    Nobel Prize

    The Nobel Prize (/ˈnbɛl/, NOH-bel; Swedish: Nobelpriset, [nʊ²bɛlːˌpriːsɛt]; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.[1][3][4] The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.[5][6][7]

    In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. The award is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the bank's 300th anniversary. The first Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969. The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, according to the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since 1901.[8]

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.

    Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations.[1] With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.[1][9] The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, or £836,000.[10]) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.

    The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.[11] A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.[12]

    1. ^ a b c d e "Nobel Prize facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
    2. ^ sold for up to US$4.76 million (see Palermo, Elizabeth. Nobel Prize Medal Fetches Record-Breaking $4.76 Million Live Science, December 5, 2014.)
    3. ^ "Nobel Prizes and Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
    4. ^ "Which country has the best brains?". BBC News. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
    5. ^ "Top Award, ShanghaiRanking Academic Excellence Survey 2018". Shanghai Ranking. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
    6. ^ "IREG List of International Academic Awards" (PDF). IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence.
    7. ^ Shalev, p. 8
    8. ^ "The Noble Prize - Did You Know?". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 31 July 2019. The Noble Prize - Did You Know?
    9. ^ "All Nobel Prizes". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
    10. ^ "Nobel Prize amount is raised by SEK 1 million". Nobel Foundation.
    11. ^ "Montreal-born doctor gets posthumous Nobel honour". CBC News. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
    12. ^ Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2010). "Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th century".
     
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    11 December 1968The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus, featuring the Rolling Stones, Jethro Tull, the Who, Taj Mahal, Marianne Faithfull, and the Dirty Mac with Yoko Ono, is filmed in Wembley, London.

    The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus

    The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus was a concert show organised by the Rolling Stones on 11 December 1968. The show was filmed on a makeshift circus stage with Jethro Tull, the Who, Taj Mahal, Marianne Faithfull, and the Rolling Stones. John Lennon and his fiancee Yoko Ono also performed as part of a one-shot supergroup called the Dirty Mac, featuring Eric Clapton, Mitch Mitchell, and Keith Richards. The original idea for the concert was going to include the Small Faces, the Rolling Stones, and the Who, and the concept of a circus was first thought up between Mick Jagger, Pete Townshend and Ronnie Lane. It was meant to be aired on the BBC, but instead the Rolling Stones withheld it. The Rolling Stones contended they did so because of their substandard performance, clearly exhausted after 15 hours (and some indulgence in drugs).[3] There is also the fact that this was Brian Jones last appearance with the Rolling Stones; he drowned some seven months later while the film was being edited. Some speculate that another reason for not releasing the film was that the Who, who were fresh off a concert tour, seemingly upstaged the Stones on their own production.

    Led Zeppelin was considered for inclusion but the idea was dropped.[4][5][6][7][8] The show was not released commercially until 1996.

    1. ^ a b c "The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved 19 July 2016.
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference nyt96maslin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "The Story of 'The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus'". Ultimate Classic Rock.
    4. ^ "The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus". CD Universe Store.
    5. ^ The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus on IMDb
    6. ^ Brusie, David (12 February 2009). "1996: The Rolling Stones – The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus". Tiny Mix Tapes.
    7. ^ See infobox picture for appearances
    8. ^ Fischer, Russ (4 February 2008). "STONES ON FILM: THE ROLLING STONES ROCK AND ROLL CIRCUS (1968/1996)". Chud.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
     
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    12 December 2015 – The Paris Agreement relating to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is adopted.

    Paris Agreement

    The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris)[3] is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.[4][5] As of November 2019, 195 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, and 187 have become party to it.[1]

    The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. This should be done by peaking emissions as soon as possible, in order to "achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases" in the second half of the 21st century. It also aims to increase the ability of parties to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and make "finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."

    Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming.[6] No mechanism forces[7] a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date,[8] but each target should go beyond previously set targets. In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020, shortly before the end of President Trump's 2016 term. In practice, changes in United States policy that are contrary to the Paris Agreement have already been put in place.[9][10]

    1. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference depo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference dateffect was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Also known as Paris climate accord or Paris climate agreement.
    4. ^ Sutter, John D.; Berlinger, Joshua (12 December 2015). "Final draft of climate deal formally accepted in Paris". CNN. Cable News Network, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
    5. ^ "Paris climate talks: France releases 'ambitious, balanced' draft agreement at COP21". ABC Australia. 12 December 2015.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Article3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ "Paris climate accord marks shift toward low-carbon economy". Globe and Mail. Toronto, Canada. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC-Kinver was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Lipton, Eric. "As Trump Dismantles Clean Air Rules, an Industry Lawyer Delivers for Ex-Clients". New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
    10. ^ 1973-, Turner, James Morton; Isenberg, Andrew C. (2018). The Republican reversal : conservatives and the environment from Nixon to Trump. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. Epilogue. ISBN 9780674979970. OCLC 1023100262.
     
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    13 December 1988PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat gives a speech at a UN General Assembly meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, after United States authorities refused to grant him a visa to visit UN headquarters in New York.

    Yasser Arafat

    Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (/ˈærəfæt/ ARR-ə-fat, also US: /ˈɑːrəfɑːt/ AR-ə-FAHT;[1] Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني‎‎; 4[2][3] / 24[4][5] August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎, romanizedYāsir ʿArafāt) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار‎, romanized: ʾAbū ʿAmmār), was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) from 1994 to 2004.[6] Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004.

    Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, Egypt, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab nationalist and anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state. Fatah operated within several Arab countries, from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew; in 1967 he joined the PLO and in 1969 was elected chair of the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions.

    From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, and began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories. He engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved.[7][8][9]

    Arafat remains a controversial figure. The majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis[10][11] came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist,[12][13] while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government.

    1. ^ "Arafat". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ The A to Z of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, P R. Kumaraswamy, page 26
    3. ^ "Yasser Arafat Mausoleum". Alluring World. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    4. ^ Arafat, a Political Biography, Alan Hart, page 67
    5. ^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: A-C, Philip Mattar, page 269, quote: Arafat and his family have always insisted that he was born 4 August 1929. in his mother's family home in Jerusalem. Nevertheless, an Egyptian birth registration exists, suggesting that he was born in Egypt on 24 August 1929– His father had ...
    6. ^ Some sources use the term Chairman, rather than President; the Arabic word for both titles is the same. See President of the Palestinian National Authority for further information.
    7. ^ "Yasser Arafat: French rule out foul play in former Palestinian leader's death". The Guardian. 16 March 2015.
    8. ^ "France drops investigation into Arafat's death". Jerusalem Post. 2 September 2015.
    9. ^ "Yasser Arafat investigation: Russian probe finds death not caused by radiation". CBS News. 26 December 2013.
    10. ^ Major Richard D. Creed Jr., Eighteen Years In Lebanon And Two Intifadas: The Israeli Defense Force And The U.S. Army Operational Environment, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2014 p.53.
    11. ^ As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259.
    12. ^ Kershner, Isabel (4 July 2012). "Palestinians May Exhume Arafat After Report of Poisoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
    13. ^ Hockstader, Lee (11 November 2004). "A Dreamer Who Forced His Cause Onto World Stage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
     
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    13 December 1988PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat gives a speech at a UN General Assembly meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, after United States authorities refused to grant him a visa to visit UN headquarters in New York.

    Yasser Arafat

    Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (/ˈærəfæt/ ARR-ə-fat, also US: /ˈɑːrəfɑːt/ AR-ə-FAHT;[1] Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني‎‎; 4[2][3] / 24[4][5] August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎, romanizedYāsir ʿArafāt) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار‎, romanized: ʾAbū ʿAmmār), was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) from 1994 to 2004.[6] Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004.

    Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, Egypt, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab nationalist and anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state. Fatah operated within several Arab countries, from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew; in 1967 he joined the PLO and in 1969 was elected chair of the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions.

    From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, and began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories. He engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved.[7][8][9]

    Arafat remains a controversial figure. The majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis[10][11] came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist,[12][13] while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government.

    1. ^ "Arafat". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. ^ The A to Z of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, P R. Kumaraswamy, page 26
    3. ^ "Yasser Arafat Mausoleum". Alluring World. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
    4. ^ Arafat, a Political Biography, Alan Hart, page 67
    5. ^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa: A-C, Philip Mattar, page 269, quote: Arafat and his family have always insisted that he was born 4 August 1929. in his mother's family home in Jerusalem. Nevertheless, an Egyptian birth registration exists, suggesting that he was born in Egypt on 24 August 1929– His father had ...
    6. ^ Some sources use the term Chairman, rather than President; the Arabic word for both titles is the same. See President of the Palestinian National Authority for further information.
    7. ^ "Yasser Arafat: French rule out foul play in former Palestinian leader's death". The Guardian. 16 March 2015.
    8. ^ "France drops investigation into Arafat's death". Jerusalem Post. 2 September 2015.
    9. ^ "Yasser Arafat investigation: Russian probe finds death not caused by radiation". CBS News. 26 December 2013.
    10. ^ Major Richard D. Creed Jr., Eighteen Years In Lebanon And Two Intifadas: The Israeli Defense Force And The U.S. Army Operational Environment, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2014 p.53.
    11. ^ As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259.
    12. ^ Kershner, Isabel (4 July 2012). "Palestinians May Exhume Arafat After Report of Poisoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
    13. ^ Hockstader, Lee (11 November 2004). "A Dreamer Who Forced His Cause Onto World Stage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
     
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    14 December 1971Bangladesh Liberation War: Over 200 of East Pakistan's intellectuals are executed by the Pakistan Army and their local allies. (The date is commemorated in Bangladesh as Martyred Intellectuals Day.)

    Bangladesh Liberation War

    The Bangladesh Liberation War[a] (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The war began after the Pakistani military junta based in West Pakistan launched Operation Searchlight against the people of East Pakistan on the night of 25 March 1971. It pursued the systematic elimination of nationalist Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, religious minorities and armed personnel. The junta annulled the results of the 1970 elections and arrested Prime minister-designate Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The war ended on 16 December 1971 after West Pakistan surrendered.

    Rural and urban areas across East Pakistan saw extensive military operations and air strikes to suppress the tide of civil disobedience that formed following the 1970 election stalemate. The Pakistan Army, which had the backing of Islamists, created radical religious militias – the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams – to assist it during raids on the local populace.[14][15][16][17][18] Urdu-speaking Biharis in Bangladesh (ethnic minority) were also in support of Pakistani military. Members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias engaged in mass murder, deportation and genocidal rape. The capital Dhaka was the scene of numerous massacres, including Operation Searchlight and the Dhaka University massacre. An estimated 10 million Bengali refugees fled to neighbouring India, while 30 million were internally displaced.[19] Sectarian violence broke out between Bengalis and Urdu-speaking immigrants. An academic consensus prevails that the atrocities committed by the Pakistani military were a genocide.

    The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence was proclaimed from Chittagong by members of the Mukti Bahini – the national liberation army formed by Bengali military, paramilitary and civilians. The East Bengal Regiment and the East Pakistan Rifles played a crucial role in the resistance. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the Bangladesh Forces waged a mass guerrilla war against the Pakistani military. They liberated numerous towns and cities in the initial months of the conflict. The Pakistan Army regained momentum in the monsoon. Bengali guerrillas carried out widespread sabotage, including Operation Jackpot against the Pakistan Navy. The nascent Bangladesh Air Force flew sorties against Pakistani military bases. By November, the Bangladesh forces restricted the Pakistani military to its barracks during the night. They secured control of most parts of the countryside.[20]

    The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was formed on 17 April 1971 in Mujibnagar and moved to Calcutta as a government in exile. Bengali members of the Pakistani civil, military and diplomatic corps defected to the Bangladeshi provisional government. Thousands of Bengali families were interned in West Pakistan, from where many escaped to Afghanistan. Bengali cultural activists operated the clandestine Free Bengal Radio Station. The plight of millions of war-ravaged Bengali civilians caused worldwide outrage and alarm. India, which was led by Indira Gandhi, provided substantial diplomatic, economic and military support to Bangladeshi nationalists. British, Indian and American musicians organised the world's first benefit concert in New York City to support the Bangladeshi people. Senator Ted Kennedy in the United States led a congressional campaign for an end to Pakistani military persecution; while U.S. diplomats in East Pakistan strongly dissented with the Nixon administration's close ties to the Pakistani military dictator Yahya Khan.

    India joined the war on 3 December 1971, after Pakistan launched preemptive air strikes on North India. The subsequent Indo-Pakistani War witnessed engagements on two war fronts. With air supremacy achieved in the eastern theatre and the rapid advance of the Allied Forces of Bangladesh and India, Pakistan surrendered in Dacca on 16 December 1971.

    The war changed the geopolitical landscape of South Asia, with the emergence of Bangladesh as the seventh-most populous country in the world. Due to complex regional alliances, the war was a major episode in Cold War tensions involving the United States, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. The majority of member states in the United Nations recognised Bangladesh as a sovereign nation in 1972.

    1. ^ http://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/5312/Instrument+of+Surrender+of+Pakistan+forces+in+Dacca "The Pakistan Eastern Command agree to surrender all Pakistan Armed Forces in Bangladesh to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, General Officer Commanding-in –chief of the Indian and Bangladesh forces in the eastern theatre."
    2. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference ACIG was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway By Owen Bennett-Jones, Lindsay Brown, John Mock, Sarina Singh, Pg 30
    4. ^ p. 442 Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 ISBN 81-7062-014-7
    5. ^ Thiranagama, Sharika; Kelly, Tobias, eds. (2012). Traitors : suspicion, intimacy, and the ethics of state-building. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812222371.
    6. ^ a b "Bangladesh Islamist leader Ghulam Azam charged". BBC. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
    7. ^ a b c Figures from The Fall of Dacca by Jagjit Singh Aurora in The Illustrated Weekly of India dated 23 December 1973 quoted in Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 ISBN 81-7062-014-7
    8. ^ a b c "Notable battles in the 11 Sectors". Dhaka Tribune. 16 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019.
    9. ^ Khan, Shahnawaz (19 January 2005). "54 Indian PoWs of 1971 war still in Pakistan". Daily Times. Lahore. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
    10. ^ Figure from Pakistani Prisoners of War in India by Col S.P. Salunke p.10 quoted in Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 (ISBN 81-7062-014-7)
    11. ^ Orton, Anna (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. p. 117. ISBN 9789380297156.
    12. ^ Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh, Page 289
    13. ^ Moss, Peter (2005). Secondary Social Studies For Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 9780195977042. OCLC 651126824.
    14. ^ Schneider, B.; Post, J.; Kindt, M. (2009). The World's Most Threatening Terrorist Networks and Criminal Gangs. Springer. p. 57. ISBN 9780230623293.
    15. ^ Kalia, Ravi (2012). Pakistan: From the Rhetoric of Democracy to the Rise of Militancy. Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 9781136516412.
    16. ^ Pg 600. Schmid, Alex, ed. (2011). The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41157-8.
    17. ^ Pg. 240 Tomsen, Peter (2011). The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of Great Powers. Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8.
    18. ^ Roy, Dr Kaushik; Gates, Professor Scott (2014). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781472405791.
    19. ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO. p. 34. ISBN 9780313346422.
    20. ^ Jamal, Ahmed (5–17 October 2008). "Mukti Bahini and the liberation war of Bangladesh: A review of conflicting views" (PDF). Asian Affairs. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    15 December 2001 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after 11 years and $27,000,000 spent to stabilize it, without fixing its famous lean.

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa [ˈtorre di ˈpiːza, - ˈpiːsa]) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its nearly four-degree lean, the result of an unstable foundation. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third-oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo), after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry.

    The height of the tower is 55.86 metres (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres (185.93 feet) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m (8 ft 0.06 in). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons).[1] The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase.

    The tower began to lean during construction in the 12th century, due to soft ground which could not properly support the structure's weight, and it worsened through the completion of construction in the 14th century. By 1990 the tilt had reached 5.5 degrees.[2][3][4] The structure was stabilized by remedial work between 1993 and 2001, which reduced the tilt to 3.97 degrees.

    1. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa Facts". Leaning Tower of Pisa. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
    2. ^ "Europe | Saving the Leaning Tower". BBC News. 15 December 2001. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    3. ^ "Tower of Pisa". Archidose.org. 17 June 2001. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    4. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa (tower, Pisa, Italy) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
     

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