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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    7 January 1999 – The Senate trial in the impeachment of U.S. President Bill Clinton begins.

    Impeachment of Bill Clinton

    The impeachment of Bill Clinton was initiated on October 8, 1998, when the United States House of Representatives voted to commence impeachment proceedings against Bill Clinton, the 42nd president of the United States, for "high crimes and misdemeanors". The specific charges against Clinton were lying under oath and obstruction of justice. The charges stemmed from a sexual harassment lawsuit filed against Clinton by Paula Jones and from Clinton's testimony denying that he had engaged in a sexual relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. The catalyst for the president's impeachment was the Starr Report, a September 1998 report prepared by Independent Counsel Ken Starr for the House Judiciary Committee.[1]

    On December 19, 1998, Clinton became the second American president to be impeached (the first being Andrew Johnson, who was impeached in 1868), when the House formally adopted two articles of impeachment and forwarded them to the United States Senate for adjudication; two other articles were considered, but were rejected.[a] A trial in the Senate began in January 1999, with Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding. On February 12, Clinton was acquitted on both counts as neither received the necessary two-thirds majority vote of the senators present for conviction and removal from office—in this instance 67. On Article One, 45 senators voted to convict while 55 voted for acquittal. On Article Two, 50 senators voted to convict while 50 voted for acquittal.[3] Clinton remained in office for the remainder of his second term.[4]

    1. ^ Glass, Andrew (October 8, 2017). "House votes to impeach Clinton, Oct. 8, 1998". Politico. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
    2. ^ "House begins impeachment of Nixon". history.com. A&E Television Networks. February 26, 2019 [Published November 24, 2009]. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
    3. ^ Baker, Peter (February 13, 1999). "The Senate Acquits President Clinton". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Co. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
    4. ^ Riley, Russell L. "Bill Clinton: Domestic Affairs". millercenter.org. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Miller Center, University of Virginia. Retrieved October 3, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    8 January 2010 – Gunmen from an offshoot the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda attack a bus carrying the Togo national football team on its way to the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, killing three.

    Togo national football team attack

    The Togo national football team bus attack was a terrorist attack that occurred on 8 January 2010 as the Togo national football team traveled through the Angolan province of Cabinda on the way to the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations tournament, two days before it began.[2] A little-known offshoot of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), a group promoting independence for the province of Cabinda, known as the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda – Military Position (FLEC-PM), claimed responsibility for the attack.[3] Bus driver Mário Adjoua, the team's assistant manager Améleté Abalo, and media officer Stanislas Ocloo were killed, with several others injured.[4] Secretary General of the FLEC-PM Rodrigues Mingas, currently exiled in France, claimed the attack was not aimed at the Togolese players but at the Angolan forces at the head of the convoy.[3] Authorities reported two suspects were detained in connection with the attacks.[5]

    1. ^ "Togo withdraw from Africa Cup of Nations". BBC Sport. 9 January 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
    2. ^ "Assistant coach among dead in attack on Togo team". CNN. 9 January 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
    3. ^ a b Sturcke, James (11 January 2010). "Togo footballers were attacked by mistake, Angolan rebels say". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
    4. ^ "Rss Liste des blessés lors de l'attaque contre le bus des Eperviers". Ajst.info. Retrieved 20 June 2010.[permanent dead link]
    5. ^ Aleisha Tissen (11 January 2010). "Two held over attack on team". The Citizen. Retrieved 11 January 2010.[permanent dead link]
     
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    9 January 2015 – The perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shooting in Paris two days earlier are both killed after a hostage situation; a second hostage situation, related to the Charlie Hebdo shooting, occurs at a Jewish market in Vincennes.

    Charlie Hebdo shooting

    On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30am CET local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. Armed with rifles and other weapons, they killed 12 people and injured 11 others. The gunmen identified themselves as belonging to the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, which took responsibility for the attack. Several related attacks followed in the Île-de-France region on 7–9 January 2015, including the Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege where a terrorist held 19 hostages, of whom he murdered 4 Jewish people.

    France raised its Vigipirate terror alert and deployed soldiers in Île-de-France and Picardy. A major manhunt led to the discovery of the suspects, who exchanged fire with police. The brothers took hostages at a signage company in Dammartin-en-Goële on 9 January and were shot dead when they emerged from the building firing.

    On 11 January, about two million people, including more than 40 world leaders, met in Paris for a rally of national unity, and 3.7 million people joined demonstrations across France. The phrase Je suis Charlie became a common slogan of support at the rallies and in social media. The staff of Charlie Hebdo continued with the publication, and the following issue print ran 7.95 million copies in six languages, compared to its typical print run of 60,000 in only French.

    1. ^ "En images: à 11 h 30, des hommes armés ouvrent le feu rue Nicolas-Appert". Le Monde. 7 January 2015.
    2. ^ Woolf, Christopher (15 January 2015). "Where did the Paris attackers get their guns?". PRI The World®. Minneapolis, US: Public Radio International. Retrieved 16 January 2015. The weapons seen in various images of the attackers include Zastava M70 assault rifle; vz. 61 submachine gun; several Russian-designed Tokarev TT pistols and a grenade or rocket launcher – probably the Yugoslav M80 Zolja.
    3. ^ Withnall, Adam; Lichfield, John (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo shooting: At least 12 killed as shots fired at satirical magazine's Paris office". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
    4. ^ "Al Qaeda claims French attack, derides Paris rally". Reuters. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
     
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    10 January 1966Tashkent Declaration, a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

    Tashkent Declaration

    The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the external powers that pushed the two nations to cease fire, afraid the conflict could escalate and draw in other powers.[1]

    The war between India and Pakistan in 1965 was an escalation of the small scale and irregular fighting from April 1965 to September 1965 between both countries.[2] It was over control of the resources and population of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, a sore point between both countries ever since Partition in 1947.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBCnews was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference MapsOfIndia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    11 January 1972East Pakistan renames itself Bangladesh.

    Bangladesh

    Coordinates: 24°N 90°E / 24°N 90°E / 24; 90

    Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ) pronounced /ˌbɑːŋlɑːˈdɛʃ/ (bung-lah-desh) or [ˈbaŋladeʃ] (About this soundlisten); literally meaning The country of Bengal; and officially called the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It is the world's 8th-most populous country with nearly 163 million people,[6][7] and is the 92nd-largest country in land area, spanning 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi), making it one of the most densely-populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. It is narrowly separated from Nepal and Bhutan by India's Siliguri Corridor in the north and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the northeast. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest sea port, is the second largest city. The dominant geographic feature is the Ganges delta, which empties into the Bay of Bengal the combined waters of several river systems, including the Brahmaputra and the Ganges, with numerous criss-crossing rivers and inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests cover the northeastern and southeastern regions. The seacoast features the longest natural sea beach and most of the world's largest mangrove forest. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.

    Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region.[12] According to the ancient Indian epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a strong naval ally of the legendary Ayodhya. In the ancient and classical period of the Indian subcontinent, the territory was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, contacts with the Roman world, export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate,[13] but following the early conquest of Bakhtiyar Khalji and the subsequent establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalal in East Bengal, the faith fully spread across the region. In 1576, the wealthy Bengal Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire, but its rule was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire. Following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in the early 1700s, the proto-industrialised Mughal Bengal became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal. The region was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.[14] The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the separation of Bengal and India in August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan, demarcated by the Boundary of the Partition of India.[15] Later the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement led to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign nation in 1971.

    The Bengali ethnicity, speakers of the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population.[2][3] Bangladesh is created on the basis of language and ethnicity.[16][17] The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's fourth-largest Muslim-majority country. The constitution declares Bangladesh a secular state while recognizing Islam as a state religion.[18] A middle power,[19] Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic in the Westminster tradition. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, one of the Next Eleven countries, with one of the fastest real GDP growth rates in the world. Its gross domestic product ranks 39th largest in terms of market exchange rates, and 29th in purchasing power parity. Its per capita income ranks 143th nominally and 136th by purchasing power parity. In recent years Bangladesh has registered notable success in reducing child mortality; population control; combating natural disasters; women's empowerment; using microcredit to alleviate poverty; and boosting income through the export of textiles, garments, pharmaceuticals, manpower, agricultural produce, shrimps, jute, leather goods, seafood, tea, etc. However, the country continues to face the challenges of the Rohingya genocide and refugee crisis,[20] corruption,[21] and the erratic effects of climate change.[22]

    1. ^ "National Symbols→National march". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2015. In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.
    2. ^ a b "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
    3. ^ a b "Bānlādēśakē jānuna" জানুন [Discover Bangladesh] (in Bengali). National Web Portal of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
    4. ^ "Bangladesh 2015 International Religious Freedom Report" (PDF). US Department of State. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
    5. ^ "Health Bulletin 2016" (PDF). Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS). p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
    6. ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    7. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
    8. ^ Data Archived 4 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Census – Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
    9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
    10. ^ "Gini Index". Knoema. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
    11. ^ "Human Development Report 2019" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
    12. ^ Frank E. Eyetsemitan; James T. Gire (2003). Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-89789-925-3.
    13. ^ Raj Kumar (2003). Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 199. ISBN 978-81-7141-682-0.
    14. ^ Esposito, John L., ed. (2004). The Islamic World: Past and Present. Volume 1: Abba - Hist. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
    15. ^ Jacobs, Frank (6 January 2013). "Peacocks at Sunset". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
    16. ^ Anwar S. Dil (2000). Bengali language movement to Bangladesh. Ferozsons. ISBN 978-969-0-01577-8.
    17. ^ Robert S. Stern (2000). Democracy and Dictatorship in South Asia: Dominant Classes and Political Outcomes in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-97041-3.
    18. ^ The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 17 May 2019. Article 2A. – The state religion and Article 12. – Secularism and freedom of religion
    19. ^ Oosterveld, Willem; Torossian, Bianca. "A Balancing Act: The Role of Middle Powers in Contemporary Diplomacy". Strategic Monitor 2018–2019. Clingendael Institute. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
    20. ^ "Myanmar Rohingya crisis: Deal to allow return of Muslim refugees". BBC. 23 November 2017. Archived from the original on 25 November 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
    21. ^ Zafarullah, Habib; Siddiquee, Noore Alam (1 December 2001). "Dissecting Public Sector Corruption in Bangladesh: Issues and Problems of Control". Public Organization Review. 1 (4): 465–486. doi:10.1023/A:1013740000213. ISSN 1566-7170.
    22. ^ Braun, David Maxwell (20 October 2010). "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
     
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    12 January 1970Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War.

    Nigerian Civil War

    The Nigerian Civil War (also known as the Biafran War and the Nigerian-Biafran War) was a civil war in Nigeria fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra from 6 July 1967 to 15 January 1970.[37] Biafra represented nationalist aspirations of the Igbo people, whose leadership felt they could no longer coexist with the Northern-dominated federal government. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions which preceded Britain's formal decolonization of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963. Immediate causes of the war in 1966 included ethno-religious riots in Northern Nigeria,[38] a military coup, a counter-coup and persecution of Igbo living in Northern Nigeria. Control over the lucrative oil production in the Niger Delta played a vital strategic role.

    Within a year, the Federal Government troops surrounded Biafra, capturing coastal oil facilities and the city of Port Harcourt. The blockade imposed during the ensuing stalemate led to mass starvation. During the two and half years of the war, there were about 100,000 overall military casualties, while between 500,000 and 2 million Biafran civilians died of starvation.[39]

    In mid-1968, images of malnourished and starving Biafran children saturated the mass media of Western countries. The plight of the starving Biafrans became a cause célèbre in foreign countries, enabling a significant rise in the funding and prominence of international non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The United Kingdom and the Soviet Union were the main supporters of the Nigerian government, while France, Israel and some other countries supported Biafra.

    1. ^ "The Literary Magazine - the Biafra War and the Age of Pestilence by Herbert Ekwe Ekwe".
    2. ^ Shadows : Airlift and Airwar in Biafra and Nigeria 1967–1970, by Michael I. Draper (ISBN 1-902109-63-5)
    3. ^ Department Of State. The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs (25 October 2005). "Nigerian Civil War". 2001-2009.state.gov.
    4. ^ Department of National Defense"Details/Information for Canadian Forces (CF) Operation Observer Team Nigeria". Operations Database Details/Information. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
    5. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265341363_Israel_Nigeria_and_the_Biafra_Civil_War_1967-1970
    6. ^ Nigeria Since Independence: The First Twenty-five Years : International Relations, 1980. Page 204
    7. ^ Sadleman, Stephen (2000). The Ties That Divide. p. 86. ISBN 9780231122290. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
    8. ^ Stearns, Jason K. Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa (2011), p. 115
    9. ^ Wrong, Michela. In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo (2000), p. 266
    10. ^ Biafra Revisited, 2006. Page 5.
    11. ^ The Roots and Consequences of Civil Wars and Revolutions: Conflicts that Changed World History, by Spencer C. Tucker (ISBN 9781440842948)
    12. ^ a b c d e "The Biafran War, Nigerian History, Nigerian Civil War". Archived from the original on 12 March 2008.
    13. ^ Diamond, Stanley (2007). "Who Killed Biafra?". Dialectical Anthropology. 31 (1/3): 339–362. doi:10.1007/s10624-007-9014-9. JSTOR 29790795.
    14. ^ "Biafran Airlift: Israel’s Secret Mission to Save Lives." Press, Eitan. United With Israel. www.unitedwithisrael.org Published 13 October 2013. Accessed 13 January 2017.
    15. ^ Genocide and the Europeans, 2010. Page 71.
    16. ^ a b There's A Riot Going On: Revolutionaries, Rock Stars, and the Rise and Fall of '60s Counter-Culture, 2007. Page 213.
    17. ^ The USSR in Third World Conflicts: Soviet Arms and Diplomacy in Local Wars 1945–1980, 1986. Page 91
    18. ^ "Republic of Biafra 1967-1970".
    19. ^ Griffin, "French military policy in the Nigerian Civil War" (2015), p. 122. "Starting in October 1967, there were also direct Czech arms flights, by a network of pilots led by Jack Malloch, a Rhodesian in contact with Houphouët-Boigny and Mauricheau-Beupré."
    20. ^ Malcolm MacDonald: Bringing an End to Empire, 1995. Page 416.
    21. ^ Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria, 2001. Page 54.
    22. ^ Africa 1960–1970: Chronicle and Analysis, 2009. Page 423
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference griffin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ a b Nkwocha, 2010: 156
    25. ^ a b c Karl DeRouen & U. K. Heo (2007). Civil wars of the world: Major conflicts since World War II. Tomo I. Santa Bárbara: ABC CLIO, pp. 569. ISBN 978-1-85109-919-1.
    26. ^ Alfred Obiora Uzokwe (2003). Surviving in Biafra: The Story of the Nigerian Civil War : Over Two Million Died. Lincoln: iUniverse, pp xvi. ISBN 978-0-595-26366-0.
    27. ^ a b Dr. Onyema Nkwocha (2010). The Republic of Biafra: Once Upon a Time in Nigeria My Story of the Biafra-Nigerian Civil War - A Struggle for Survival (1967–1970). Bloomington: AuthorHouse, pp. 25. ISBN 978-1-4520-6867-1.
    28. ^ Biafran War. Global Security.
    29. ^ a b c Phillips, Charles, & Alan Axelrod (2005). "Nigerian-Biafran War". Encyclopedia of Wars. Tomo II. New York: Facts On File, Inc., ISBN 978-0-8160-2853-5.
    30. ^ West Africa. Londres: Afrimedia International, 1969, pp. 1565. "Malnutrition affects adults less than children, half of whom have now died, reports Debrel, who also describes the reorganisation of the Biafran army after the 1968 defeats, making it a "political" army of 110,000 men; its automatic weapons, (...)".
    31. ^ Stan Chu Ilo (2006). The Face of Africa: Looking Beyond the Shadows. Bloomington: AuthorHouse, pp. 138. ISBN 978-1-4208-9705-0.
    32. ^ Paul R. Bartrop (2012). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Contemporary Genocide. Santa Bárbara: ABC-CLIO, pp. 107. ISBN 978-0-313-38679-4.
    33. ^ Bridgette Kasuka (2012). Prominent African Leaders Since Independence. Bankole Kamara Taylor, pp. 331. ISBN 978-1-4700-4358-2.
    34. ^ Cite error: The named reference Block was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    35. ^ Godfrey Mwakikagile (2001). Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria. Huntington: Nova Publishers, pp. 176. ISBN 978-1-56072-967-9.
    36. ^ DeRouen & Heo, 2007: 570
    37. ^ "Nigeria - Independent Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
    38. ^ Plotnicov, Leonard (1971). "An Early Nigerian Civil Disturbance: The 1945 Hausa-Ibo Riot in Jos". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 9 (2): 297–305. doi:10.1017/S0022278X00024976. ISSN 0022-278X. JSTOR 159448.
    39. ^ "ICE Case Studies: The Biafran War". American University: ICE Case Studies. American University. 1997. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
     
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    13 January 1993 – The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is signed.

    Chemical Weapons Convention

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors. The full name of the treaty is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction and it is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), an intergovernmental organization based in The Hague, The Netherlands. The treaty entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the large-scale use, development, production, stockpiling and transfer of chemical weapons. Very limited production for research, medical, pharmaceutical or protective purposes is still permitted. The main obligation of member states under the convention is to effect this prohibition, as well as the destruction of all current chemical weapons. All destruction activities must take place under OPCW verification.

    As of May 2018, 193 states have become parties to the CWC and accept its obligations. Israel has signed but not ratified the agreement, while three other UN member states (Egypt, North Korea and South Sudan) have neither signed nor acceded to the treaty.[1][5] Most recently, the State of Palestine deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 17 May 2018. In September 2013 Syria acceded to the convention as part of an agreement for the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons.[6][7]

    As of November 2018, 96.62% of the world's declared chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed.[8] The convention has provisions for systematic evaluation of chemical production facilities, as well as for investigations of allegations of use and production of chemical weapons based on intelligence of other state parties.

    Some chemicals which have been used extensively in warfare but have numerous large-scale industrial uses such as phosgene are highly regulated, however, certain notable exceptions exist. Chlorine gas is highly toxic, but being a pure element and extremely widely used for peaceful purposes, is not officially listed as a chemical weapon. Certain state-powers (e.g. the Assad regime of Syria) continue to regularly manufacture and implement such chemicals in combat munitions.[9] Although these chemicals are not specifically listed as controlled by the CWC, the use of any toxic chemical as a weapon (when used to produce fatalities solely or mainly through its toxic action) is in-and-of itself forbidden by the treaty. Other chemicals, such as white phosphorus, are highly toxic but are legal under the CWC when they are used by military forces for reasons other than their toxicity.

    1. ^ a b c d e f g "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
    2. ^ Chemical Weapons Convention, Article 21.
    3. ^ Chemical Weapons Convention, Article 23.
    4. ^ Chemical Weapons Convention, Article 24.
    5. ^ "Angola Joins the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons". OPCW. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
    6. ^ "Resolution 2118 (2013)" (doc). United Nations documents. United nations. 27 September 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 28 April 2017. Noting that on 14 September 2013, the Syrian Arab Republic deposited with the Secretary-General its instrument of accession to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (Convention) and declared that it shall comply with its stipulations and observe them faithfully and sincerely, applying the Convention provisionally pending its entry into force for the Syrian Arab Republic
    7. ^ "U.S. sanctions Syrian officials for chemical weapons attacks". Reuters. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
    8. ^ "OPCW by the Numbers". OPCW. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
    9. ^ "Third report of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons United Nations Joint Investigative Mechanism". 24 August 2016.
     
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    14 January 1950 – The first prototype of the MiG-17 makes its maiden flight.

    Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17

    The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-17; NATO reporting name: Fresco)[1] is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants. It is an advanced development of the similar looking MiG-15 of the Korean War. The MiG-17 was license-built in China as the Shenyang J-5 and Poland as the PZL-Mielec Lim-6.

    MiG-17s first saw combat in 1958 in the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis and later proved to be an effective threat against more modern supersonic fighters of the United States in the Vietnam War. It was also briefly known as the Type 38 by U.S. Air Force designation prior to the development of NATO codes.[2]

    1. ^ Parsch, Andreas and Aleksey V. Martynov. "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles." Non-U.S. Military Aircraft and Missile Designations, revised 18 January 2008. Retrieved: 30 March 2009.
    2. ^ Parsch, Andreas and Aleksey V. Martynov. "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles: 5.1 "Type" Numbers (1947-1955)." Non-U.S. Military Aircraft and Missile Designations, revised 18 January 2008. Retrieved: 30 March 2009.
     
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    15 January 1970 – Muammar Gaddafi is proclaimed premier of Libya.

    Muammar Gaddafi

    Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi[b] (c. 1942 – October 20, 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977, and then as the "Brother Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011. He was initially ideologically committed to Arab nationalism and Arab socialism but later ruled according to his own Third International Theory.

    Born near Sirte, Italian Libya, to a poor Bedouin family, Gaddafi became an Arab nationalist while at school in Sabha, later enrolling in the Royal Military Academy, Benghazi. Within the military, he founded a revolutionary group which deposed the Western-backed Senussi monarchy of Idris in a 1969 coup. Having taken power, Gaddafi converted Libya into a republic governed by his Revolutionary Command Council. Ruling by decree, he deported Libya's Italian and Jewish populations and ejected its Western military bases. Strengthening ties to Arab nationalist governments—particularly Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egypt—he unsuccessfully advocated pan-Arab political union. An Islamic modernist, he introduced sharia as the basis for the legal system and promoted "Islamic socialism". He nationalized the oil industry and used the increasing state revenues to bolster the military, fund foreign revolutionaries, and implement social programs emphasizing house-building, healthcare and education projects. In 1973, he initiated a "Popular Revolution" with the formation of Basic People's Congresses, presented as a system of direct democracy, but retained personal control over major decisions. He outlined his Third International Theory that year, publishing these ideas in The Green Book.

    Gaddafi transformed Libya into a new socialist state called a Jamahiriya ("state of the masses") in 1977. He officially adopted a symbolic role in governance but remained head of both the military and the Revolutionary Committees responsible for policing and suppressing dissent. During the 1970s and 1980s, Libya's unsuccessful border conflicts with Egypt and Chad, support for foreign militants, and alleged responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing in Scotland left it increasingly isolated on the world stage. A particularly hostile relationship developed with the United States, United Kingdom, and Israel, resulting in the 1986 US bombing of Libya and United Nations–imposed economic sanctions. From 1999, Gaddafi shunned Arab socialism and encouraged economic privatization, rapprochement with Western nations, and pan-Africanism; he was Chairperson of the African Union from 2009 to 2010. Amid the 2011 Arab Spring, protests against widespread corruption and unemployment broke out in eastern Libya. The situation descended into civil war, in which NATO intervened militarily on the side of the anti-Gaddafist National Transitional Council (NTC). The government was overthrown, and Gaddafi retreated to Sirte, only to be captured and killed by NTC militants.

    A highly divisive figure, Gaddafi dominated Libya's politics for four decades and was the subject of a pervasive cult of personality. He was decorated with various awards and praised for his anti-imperialist stance, support for Arab—and then African—unity, and for significant improvements that his government brought to the Libyan people's quality of life. Conversely, many Libyans strongly opposed his social and economic reforms, and he was posthumously accused of sexual abuse. He was condemned by many as a dictator whose authoritarian administration violated human rights and financed global terrorism.

    1. ^ "Muammar Gaddafi: How He Died". BBC News. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference INDtncofficialgov was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Staff (23 August 2011). "Libya Live Blog: Tuesday, 23 August 2011 – 16:19". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference taipeitimmes20110826 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Richter, Paul (21 October 2011). "As Libya Takes Stock, Moammar Kadafi's Hidden Riches Astound". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
    6. ^ "How Are You Supposed to Spell Muammar Gaddafi/Khadafy/Qadhafi?". The Straight Dope. 1986. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
    7. ^ Gibson, Charles (22 September 2009). "How Many Different Ways Can You Spell 'Gaddafi'". ABC News. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
    8. ^ "Saif Gaddafi on How to Spell His Last Name". The Daily Beast. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    9. ^ Fisher, Max (24 August 2011). "Rebel Discovers Qaddafi Passport, Real Spelling of Leader's Name". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
    10. ^ Anil Kandangath (25 February 2011). "How Do You Spell Gaddafi's Name?". Doublespeak Blog. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011.
    11. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer".
    12. ^ Pereira, Christophe (2008). "Libya". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. 3. Brill. pp. 52–58.


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    16 January 1991 – Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War,[25][26][27][a] before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the post-2003 Iraq War. The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[28][29]

    On 2 August 1990 the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. Together with the UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher,[30] American President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[31]

    The war marked the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[32][33][34]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    3. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
      www.casi.org.uk/discuss
    4. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    5. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
    6. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
    7. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
    8. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    9. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat -. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
    10. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    11. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    12. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    13. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights In the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    14. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    15. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    16. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    17. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    18. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    19. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War) Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    20. ^ a b c d e Bourque P.455
    21. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    22. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross.
    23. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    24. ^ Fetter, Steve; Lewis, George N.; Gronlund, Lisbeth (28 January 1993). "Why were Casualties so low?" (PDF). Nature. London. 361 (6410): 293–296. doi:10.1038/361293a0. hdl:1903/4282.
    25. ^ "Frontline Chronology" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
    26. ^ "Tenth anniversary of the Gulf War: A look back". CNN. 17 January 2001. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    27. ^ Kenneth Estes. "ISN: The Second Gulf War (1990–1991) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
    28. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    29. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, access on 27 November 2011.
    30. ^ "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation". www.margaretthatcher.org.
    31. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2329-2.
    32. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), access on 29 March 2011.
    33. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
    34. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011


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    17 January 1946 – The UN Security Council holds its first session.

    United Nations Security Council

    The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN),[1] charged with ensuring international peace and security,[2] recommending that the General Assembly accept new members to the United Nations,[3] and approving any changes to its charter.[4] Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The council held its first session on 17 January 1946.

    Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace. In its early decades, the Security Council was largely paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis, Cyprus, and West New Guinea. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased dramatically in scale, and the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    The Security Council consists of fifteen members.[5] The great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union (now represented by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, the former Republic of China (now represented by the People's Republic of China), and the United States – serve as the body's five permanent members. These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General. In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years. The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members.

    Resolutions of the Security Council are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. As of 2016, 103,510 peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen peacekeeping operations and one special political mission.[6]

    1. ^ "Article 7 (1) of Charter of the United Nations".
    2. ^ "Article 24 (1) of Charter of the United Nations".
    3. ^ "Article 4 (2) of Charter of the United Nations".
    4. ^ "Article 108 of Charter of the United Nations".
    5. ^ "Article 23 (1) of the Charter of the United Nations". www.un.org. United Nations. 26 June 1945. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
    6. ^ "Peacekeeping Fact Sheet". United Nations. 30 April 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
     
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    18 January 2002Sierra Leone Civil War is declared over.

    Sierra Leone Civil War

    The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002) was a civil war in Sierra Leone that began on 23 March 1991 when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), intervened in Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow the Joseph Momoh government. The resulting civil war lasted 11 years, enveloped the country, and left over 50,000 dead.[9]

    During the first year of the war, the RUF took control of large swathes of territory in eastern and southern Sierra Leone, which were rich in alluvial diamonds. The government's ineffective response to the RUF, and the disruption in government diamond production, precipitated a military coup d'état in April 1992 by the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC).[10] By the end of 1993, the Sierra Leone Army (SLA) had succeeded in pushing the RUF rebels back to the Liberian border, but the RUF recovered and fighting continued. In March 1995, Executive Outcomes (EO), a South Africa-based private military company, was hired to repel the RUF. Sierra Leone installed an elected civilian government in March 1996, and the retreating RUF signed the Abidjan Peace Accord. Under UN pressure, the government terminated its contract with EO before the accord could be implemented, and hostilities recommenced.[11][12]

    In May 1997 a group of disgruntled SLA officers staged a coup and established the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) as the new government of Sierra Leone.[13] The RUF joined with the AFRC to capture Freetown with little resistance. The new government, led by Johnny Paul Koroma, declared the war over. A wave of looting, rape, and murder followed the announcement.[14] Reflecting international dismay at the overturning of the civilian government, ECOMOG forces intervened and retook Freetown on behalf of the government, but they found the outlying regions more difficult to pacify.

    In January 1999, world leaders intervened diplomatically to promote negotiations between the RUF and the government.[15] The Lome Peace Accord, signed on 27 March 1999, was the result. Lome gave Foday Sankoh, the commander of the RUF, the vice presidency and control of Sierra Leone's diamond mines in return for a cessation of the fighting and the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force to monitor the disarmament process. RUF compliance with the disarmament process was inconsistent and sluggish, and by May 2000, the rebels were advancing again upon Freetown.[16]

    As the UN mission began to fail, the United Kingdom declared its intention to intervene in the former colony and Commonwealth member in an attempt to support the weak government of President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. With help from a renewed UN mandate and Guinean air support, the British Operation Palliser finally defeated the RUF, taking control of Freetown. On 18 January 2002, President Kabbah declared the Sierra Leone Civil War over.

    1. ^ Торговля оружием и будущее Белоруссии
    2. ^ "UN Peace Keeping Missions: Sierra Leone (2001 - To Dec 2005)". pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Pakistan Army. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
    3. ^ a b "SMOTR: Mi-24 in Sierra Leone! (English subtitles)". YouTube. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
    4. ^ "AFRICA | Peacekeepers feared killed". BBC News. 23 May 2000. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
    5. ^ "UK | Britain's role in Sierra Leone". BBC News. 10 September 2000. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
    6. ^ Торговля оружием по-молдавскиМолдавские ведомости, 10 February 2009
    7. ^ "Liberia: Former Rebel Commander Benjamin Yeaten Still A Fugitive From Justice". African Orbit. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
    8. ^ "UNAMSIL: United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone - Background". Un.org. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
    9. ^ a b c Gberie, p. 6
    10. ^ Gberie, p. 103
    11. ^ Keen, p. 111
    12. ^ Abdullah, p. 118
    13. ^ Abdullah, p.180
    14. ^ Gberie, p. 102
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gberie161 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Abdullah, pp. 214–17
     
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    19 January 1983Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie is arrested in Bolivia.

    Klaus Barbie

    Nikolaus Barbie (25 October 1913 – 25 September 1991) was an SS and Gestapo functionary during the Nazi era. He was known as the "Butcher of Lyon" for having personally tortured prisoners of the Gestapo - primarily Jews and members of La Résistance - while stationed in Lyon under the collaborationist Vichy regime. After the war, United States intelligence services employed him for his anti-Marxist efforts and also aided his escape to Bolivia.[2]

    The West German Intelligence Service later recruited him. Barbie is suspected of having had a hand in the Bolivian coup d'état orchestrated by Luis García Meza in 1980. After the fall of the dictatorship, Barbie no longer had the protection of the government in La Paz and in 1983 was extradited to France, where he was convicted of crimes against humanity. He died of cancer in prison on 25 September 1991.

    1. ^ "Klaus Barbie The Butcher of Lyon". Holocaust Research Project. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference criminaltospy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    20 January 2017Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America, becoming the oldest person to assume the office.

    Donald Trump

    Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.

    Trump was born and raised in Queens, a borough of New York City, and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School. He took charge of his family's real-estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded its operations from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Trump later started various side ventures, mostly by licensing his name. He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015 and produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. As of 2019, Forbes estimated his net worth to be $3.1 billion.[a]

    Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated 16 other candidates in the primaries. His political positions have been described as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. Despite not being favored in most forecasts, he was elected over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, although he lost the popular vote. He became the oldest first-term U.S. president,[b] and the first without prior military or government service. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Many of his comments and actions have also been characterized as racially charged or racist.

    During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He enacted a tax-cut package for individuals and businesses, rescinding the individual health insurance mandate. He appointed Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. In foreign policy, Trump has pursued an America First agenda, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal, eventually increasing tensions with the country. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs triggering a trade war with China, and attempted negotiations with North Korea toward its denuclearization.

    A special counsel investigation led by Robert Mueller found that Trump and his campaign welcomed and encouraged Russian foreign interference in the 2016 presidential election under the belief that it would be politically advantageous, but did not find sufficient evidence to press charges of criminal conspiracy or coordination with Russia. Mueller also investigated Trump for obstruction of justice, and his report neither indicted nor exonerated Trump on that count. A 2019 House impeachment inquiry found that Trump solicited foreign interference in the 2020 U.S. presidential election from Ukraine to help his re-election bid and then obstructed the inquiry itself. The House impeached Trump on December 18, 2019, for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. On February 5, 2020, the Senate acquitted him of both charges.


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    1. ^ Argetsinger, Amy (September 1, 2015). "Why does everyone call Donald Trump 'The Donald'? It's an interesting story". The Washington Post.
     
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    20 January 2017Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America, becoming the oldest person to assume the office.

    Donald Trump

    Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.

    Trump was born and raised in Queens, a borough of New York City, and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School. He took charge of his family's real-estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded its operations from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Trump later started various side ventures, mostly by licensing his name. He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015 and produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. As of 2019, Forbes estimated his net worth to be $3.1 billion.[a]

    Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated 16 other candidates in the primaries. His political positions have been described as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. Despite not being favored in most forecasts, he was elected over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, although he lost the popular vote. He became the oldest first-term U.S. president,[b] and the first without prior military or government service. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Many of his comments and actions have also been characterized as racially charged or racist.

    During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He enacted a tax-cut package for individuals and businesses, rescinding the individual health insurance mandate. He appointed Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. In foreign policy, Trump has pursued an America First agenda, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal, eventually increasing tensions with the country. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs triggering a trade war with China, and attempted negotiations with North Korea toward its denuclearization.

    A special counsel investigation led by Robert Mueller found that Trump and his campaign welcomed and encouraged Russian foreign interference in the 2016 presidential election under the belief that it would be politically advantageous, but did not find sufficient evidence to press charges of criminal conspiracy or coordination with Russia. Mueller also investigated Trump for obstruction of justice, and his report neither indicted nor exonerated Trump on that count. A 2019 House impeachment inquiry found that Trump solicited foreign interference in the 2020 U.S. presidential election from Ukraine to help his re-election bid and then obstructed the inquiry itself. The House impeached Trump on December 18, 2019, for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. On February 5, 2020, the Senate acquitted him of both charges.


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    1. ^ Argetsinger, Amy (September 1, 2015). "Why does everyone call Donald Trump 'The Donald'? It's an interesting story". The Washington Post.
     
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    22 January 1984 – The Apple Macintosh, the first consumer computer to popularize the computer mouse and the graphical user interface, is introduced during a Super Bowl XVIII television commercial.

    Macintosh

    Clockwise from top: MacBook Air (2015), iMac G5 20" (2004), Macintosh II (1987), Power Mac G4 Cube (2000), iBook G3 Blueberry (1999) and original Macintosh 128K (1984)

    The Macintosh (mainly Mac since 1998)[1] is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

    The original Macintosh is the first successful mass-market personal computer to have featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen, and mouse.[2] Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for almost ten years until the latter was discontinued in 1993.

    Early Macintosh models were expensive,[3] hindering competitiveness in a market dominated by the much cheaper Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses.[4] Although they were less expensive than the Xerox Alto and other computers with graphical user interfaces that predated the Mac. Macintosh systems were successful in education and desktop publishing, making Apple the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks, gradually took market share from Apple, and by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer. Even after the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, and the release of Windows 95 contributed to some decline of the Macintosh user base.

    Upon his return, Steve Jobs led Apple to consolidate the complex line of nearly twenty Macintosh models in mid-1997 (including models made for specific regions) down to four in mid-1999: the Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, and 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, and helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname that had been in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is Intel based. Its current lineup includes four desktops (the all-in-one iMac and iMac Pro, and the desktop Mac Mini and Mac Pro), and two laptops (the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro). Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mini and Mac Pro.

    Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions initially had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, and retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which closely resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was legally licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.[5] In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system which was later rebranded to simply OS X in 2012, and then macOS in 2016. The current version is macOS Catalina, released on October 7, 2019.[6] Intel-based Macs are capable of running native third party operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, and Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Volunteer communities have customized Intel-based macOS to run illicitly on non-Apple computers.

    1. ^ Engst, Adam (January 10, 2020). "The Few Remaining Uses of the Word "Macintosh"". TidBITS. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
    2. ^ Polsson, Ken (July 29, 2009). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
    3. ^ "Apple unveils a Macintosh". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. January 24, 1984. p. C6.
    4. ^ Reimer, Jeremy (December 14, 2005). "Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
    5. ^ "Umax gains Mac OS 8 license". CNET. September 8, 1997. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
    6. ^ "Apple Releases macOS Catalina With Find My, Screen Time, and No More iTunes". MacRumors. October 7, 2019. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
     
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    23 January 2003 – A very weak signal from Pioneer 10 is detected for the last time, but no usable data can be extracted.

    Pioneer 10

    Artist's impression of Pioneer 10's flyby of Jupiter

    Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing 258 kilograms (569 pounds), that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.[3] Thereafter, Pioneer 10 became the first of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. This space exploration project was conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center in California, and the space probe was manufactured by TRW Inc.

    Pioneer 10 was assembled around a hexagonal bus with a 2.74-meter (9 ft 0 in) diameter parabolic dish high-gain antenna, and the spacecraft was spin stabilized around the axis of the antenna. Its electric power was supplied by four radioisotope thermoelectric generators that provided a combined 155 watts at launch.

    It was launched on March 2, 1972, by an Atlas-Centaur expendable vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Between July 15, 1972, and February 15, 1973, it became the first spacecraft to traverse the asteroid belt. Photography of Jupiter began November 6, 1973, at a range of 25,000,000 kilometers (16,000,000 mi), and about 500 images were transmitted. The closest approach to the planet was on December 4, 1973, at a range of 132,252 kilometers (82,178 mi). During the mission, the on-board instruments were used to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the Solar System and heliosphere.[3]

    Radio communications were lost with Pioneer 10 on January 23, 2003, because of the loss of electric power for its radio transmitter, with the probe at a distance of 12 billion kilometers (80 AU) from Earth.

    1. ^ https://www.nasa.gov/connect/ebooks/beyond_earth_detail.html
    2. ^ "The Pioneer Missions". NASA. 2007-03-26.
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference PionOdys was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    24 January 2011 – At least 35 die and 180 are injured in a bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo Airport.

    Domodedovo International Airport bombing

    The Domodedovo International Airport bombing was a suicide bombing in the international arrival hall of Moscow's Domodedovo International, in Domodedovsky District, Moscow Oblast, on 24 January 2011.

    The bombing killed 37 people[2] and injured 173 others, including 86 who had to be hospitalised.[4] Of the casualties, 31 died at the scene, three later in hospitals, one en route to a hospital,[5] one on the 2nd February after having been put in a coma, and another on the 24th February after being hospitalised in grave condition.[2]

    Russia's Federal Investigative Committee later identified the suicide bomber as a 20-year-old from the North Caucasus, and said that the attack was aimed "first and foremost" at foreign citizens.[6]

    1. ^ Ferris-Rotman, Amie (24 January 2011). "Suicide bomber kills 31 at Russia's biggest airport". Reuters. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
    2. ^ a b c Число жертв теракта в Домодедово возросло до 37 (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
    3. ^ "Запутанный чеченский след". Газета.ru. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
    4. ^ Steve Rosenberg (24 January 2011). "Moscow bombing: Carnage at Russia's Domodedovo airport". BBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
    5. ^ На месте взрыва в Домодедово погиб 31 человек, сообщил Минздрав (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
    6. ^ "Russia 'identifies' Domodedovo airport bomber suspect". BBC News. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
     
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    25 January 1945 – World War II: The Battle of the Bulge ends.

    Battle of the Bulge

    Map showing the swelling of "the Bulge" as the German offensive progressed creating the nose-like salient during 16–25 December 1944.
      Front line, 16 December
      Front line, 20 December
      Front line, 25 December
      Allied movements
      German movements

    The Battle of the Bulge, also known as the Ardennes Counteroffensive, was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II, and took place from 16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945. It was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in eastern Belgium, northeast France, and Luxembourg, towards the end of the war in Europe. The offensive was intended to stop Allied use of the Belgian port of Antwerp and to split the Allied lines, allowing the Germans to encircle and destroy four Allied armies and force the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis powers' favor.

    The Germans achieved a total surprise attack on the morning of 16 December 1944, due to a combination of Allied overconfidence, preoccupation with Allied offensive plans, and poor aerial reconnaissance due to bad weather. American forces bore the brunt of the attack and incurred their highest casualties of any operation during the war. The battle also severely depleted Germany's armored forces, and they were largely unable to replace them. German personnel and, later, Luftwaffe aircraft (in the concluding stages of the engagement) also sustained heavy losses. The Germans had attacked a weakly defended section of the Allied line, taking advantage of heavily overcast weather conditions that grounded the Allies' overwhelmingly superior air forces. Fierce resistance on the northern shoulder of the offensive, around Elsenborn Ridge, and in the south, around Bastogne, blocked German access to key roads to the northwest and west that they counted on for success. Columns of armor and infantry that were supposed to advance along parallel routes found themselves on the same roads. This, and terrain that favored the defenders, threw the German advance behind schedule and allowed the Allies to reinforce the thinly placed troops. The farthest west the offensive reached was the village of Foy-Nôtre-Dame, south east of Dinant, being stopped by the U.S. 2nd Armored Division on 24 December 1944.[15][16][17] Improved weather conditions from around 24 December permitted air attacks on German forces and supply lines, which sealed the failure of the offensive. On 26 December the lead element of Patton's U.S. Third Army reached Bastogne from the south, ending the siege. Although the offensive was effectively broken by 27 December, when the trapped units of 2nd Panzer Division made two break-out attempts with only partial success, the battle continued for another month before the front line was effectively restored to its position prior to the attack. In the wake of the defeat, many experienced German units were left severely depleted of men and equipment, as survivors retreated to the defenses of the Siegfried Line.

    The Germans' initial attack involved 410,000 men; just over 1,400 tanks, tank destroyers, and assault guns; 2,600 artillery pieces; 1,600 anti-tank guns; and over 1,000 combat aircraft, as well as large numbers of other armored fighting vehicles (AFVs).[4] These were reinforced a couple of weeks later, bringing the offensive's total strength to around 450,000 troops, and 1,500 tanks and assault guns. Between 63,222 and 98,000 of these men were killed, missing, wounded in action, or captured. For the Americans, out of a peak of 610,000 troops,[18] 89,000[5] became casualties out of which some 19,000 were killed.[5][19] The "Bulge" was the largest and bloodiest single battle fought by the United States in World War II[20][21][22] and the third-deadliest campaign in American history.

    1. ^ Bergström 2014, p. 428.
    2. ^ Bergström 2014, p. 358.
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Hitler's Last Gamble was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ReferenceC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ a b c Miles 2004.
    6. ^ Parker, "Battle of the Bulge" p. 292
    7. ^ a b Vogel 2001, p. 632.
    8. ^ a b Parker 1991, pp. 339
    9. ^ Ellis 2009, p. 195.
    10. ^ "Heeresarzt 10-Day Casualty Reports per Army/Army Group, 1944". Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
    11. ^ "Heeresarzt 10-Day Casualty Reports per Army/Army Group, 1945". Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
    12. ^ Parker p. 293
    13. ^ Bergström 2014, p. 426, including 20 Tiger II tanks, 194 Panther tanks, 158 Panzer IV tanks and 182 assault guns and tank destroyers.
    14. ^ Schrijvers 2005, p. xiv.
    15. ^ The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge; By Hugh M. Cole, pgs 565 – 57
    16. ^ Encyclopedia of World War II, Volume 1; By Alan Axelrod, Jack A. Kingston, pg 73
    17. ^ Battle of the Bulge; By Turner Publishing Co, pg 55
    18. ^ Cirillo 2003, p. 53.
    19. ^ MacDonald 1998, p. 618.
    20. ^ McCullough, David (2005). American Experience – The Battle of the Bulge (Videotape).
    21. ^ Ambrose, Stephen (1997), Americans at War, University Press of Mississippi, p. 52, ISBN 978-1-57806-026-9
    22. ^ Miller, Donald L. (2002), The Story of World War II, Simon & Schuster, p. 358, ISBN 978-0-7432-1198-7


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    26 January 1992Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia will stop targeting United States cities with nuclear weapons.

    Boris Yeltsin

    Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: Бори́с Никола́евич Е́льцин, IPA: [bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn] (About this soundlisten); 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician who served as the first president of Russia from 1991 to 1999. A member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1961 to 1990, he later stood as a political independent, during which time he was ideologically aligned with liberalism and Russian nationalism.

    Born in Butka, Sverdlovsk Oblast to a peasant family, Yeltsin grew up in Kazan. After studying at the Ural State Technical University, he worked in construction. Joining the Communist Party, which governed the Soviet Union as a one-party state according to Marxist-Leninist doctrine, he rose through its ranks and in 1976 became First Secretary of the party's Sverdlovsk Oblast committee. Initially a supporter of the perestroika reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin later criticised them as being too moderate, calling for a transition to a multi-party representative democracy. In 1987 he was the first person to resign from the party's governing Politburo, establishing his popularity as an anti-establishment figure. In 1990, he was elected chair of the Russian Supreme Soviet and in 1991 was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). Allying with various non-Russian nationalist leaders, he was instrumental in the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union in December that year, at which the RSFSR became the Russian Federation, an independent state. Yeltsin remained in office as president and was reelected in the 1996 election, although critics claimed pervasive electoral corruption.

    Yeltsin transformed Russia's state socialist economy into a capitalist market economy by implementing economic shock therapy, market exchange rate of the ruble, nationwide privatization, and lifting of price controls. Economic collapse and inflation ensued. Amid the economic shift, a small number of oligarchs obtained a majority of the national property and wealth,[1] while international monopolies came to dominate the market.[2] During the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, Yeltsin ordered the unconstitutional dissolution of the Supreme Soviet parliament, which responded by attempting to remove him from office. In October 1993, troops loyal to Yeltsin stopped an armed uprising outside of the parliament building; he then introduced a new constitution. Secessionist sentiment in the Russian Caucasus led to the First Chechen War, War of Dagestan, and Second Chechen War between 1994 and 1999. Internationally, Yeltsin promoted renewed collaboration with Europe and signed arms control agreements with the United States. Amid growing internal pressure, in 1999 he resigned and was succeeded by his chosen successor, former Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Out of office, he kept a low profile and was later given a state funeral.

    Yeltsin was a controversial figure. Domestically he was highly popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s, although his reputation was damaged by the economic and political crises of his presidency and he left office widely unpopular with the Russian population.[3] He received praise for his role in dismantling the Soviet Union, transforming Russia into a representative democracy, and introducing new political, economic, and cultural freedoms to the country. Conversely, he was accused of economic mismanagement, overseeing a massive growth in inequality and corruption, and of undermining Russia's standing as a major world power.

    1. ^ Åslund, Anders (September–October 1999). "Russia's Collapse". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
    2. ^ Johanna Granville, "Dermokratizatsiya and Prikhvatizatsiya: The Russian Kleptocracy and Rise of Organized Crime,"Demokratizatsiya (summer 2003), pp. 448–457.
    3. ^ Paul J. Saunders, "U.S. Must Ease Away From Yeltsin" Archived 10 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Newsday, 14 May 1999.
     
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    27 January 1996 – Germany first observes the International Holocaust Remembrance Day.

    International Holocaust Remembrance Day

    International Holocaust Remembrance Day is an international memorial day on 27 January commemorating the tragedy of the Holocaust that occurred during the Second World War. It commemorates the genocide that resulted in the deaths of 6 million Jews and 11 million others, by the Nazi regime and its collaborators.[1] It was designated by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 60/7 on 1 November 2005 during the 42nd plenary session.[2] The resolution came after a special session was held earlier that year on 24 January 2005 during which the United Nations General Assembly marked the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps and the end of the Holocaust.[3][4][5]

    On 27 January 1945, Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi concentration and death camp, was liberated by the Red Army.

    Prior to the 60/7 resolution, there had been national days of commemoration, such as Germany's Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (The Day of Remembrance for the victims of National Socialism), established in a proclamation issued by Federal President Roman Herzog on 3 January 1996; and the Holocaust memorial day observed every 27 January since 2001 in the UK.

    The Holocaust Remembrance Day is also a national event in the United Kingdom and in Italy.

    1. ^ "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
    2. ^ "The Holocaust and the United Nations Outreach Programme". United Nations. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
    3. ^ "28th Special Session of the General Assembly". United Nations. 24 January 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
    4. ^ "International Holocaust Remembrance Day". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
    5. ^ "nternational Holocaust Remembrance Day". Retrieved 27 January 2019.
     
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    28 January 1932 – Japanese forces attack Shanghai.

    January 28 incident

    The January 28 incident or Shanghai incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) was a conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. It took place in the Shanghai International Settlement which was under international control. Japanese army officers, defying higher authorities, had provoked anti-Japanese demonstrations in the international District of Shanghai. A Chinese mob attacked Japanese Buddhist priests, killing one. Heavy fighting broke out, and China appealed with no success to the League of Nations. A truce was finally reached on May 5, calling for Japanese military withdrawal, and an end to Chinese boycotts of Japanese products. Internationally, the episode intensified opposition to Japan's aggressiveness in Asia. The episode helped undermine civilian rule in Tokyo; Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi was assassinated on May 15, 1932. [2]

    1. ^ Tang Xun and the Victory of Miaohang http://www.shtong.gov.cn/node2/node70393/node70403/node72480/node72482/userobject1ai80904.html
    2. ^ Donald A. JordanChina's trial by fire: The Shanghai War of 1932 (University of Michigan Press, 2001).
     
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    29 January 1959 – The first Melodifestivalen is held in Cirkus, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Melodifestivalen

    Melodifestivalen (Swedish pronunciation: [mɛlʊˈdîːfɛstɪˌvɑːlɛn]; literally "the Melody Festival")[a] is an annual song competition organised by Swedish public broadcasters Sveriges Television (SVT) and Sveriges Radio (SR). It determines the country's representative for the Eurovision Song Contest, and has been staged almost every year since 1959. Since 2000, the competition has been the most popular television programme in Sweden;[1] it is also broadcast on radio and the Internet. In 2012, the semi-finals averaged 3.3 million viewers, and over an estimated four million people in Sweden watched the final, almost half of the Swedish population.[2][3]

    The festival has produced six Eurovision winners and twenty-four top-five placings for Sweden at the contest. The winner of Melodifestivalen has been chosen by panels of jurors since its inception. Since 1999, the juries have been joined by a public telephone vote which has an equal influence over the final outcome. The competition makes a considerable impact on the music charts in Sweden.

    The introduction of semi-finals in 2002 raised the potential number of contestants from around twelve to thirty-two. A children's version of the competition, Lilla Melodifestivalen, also began that year. Light orchestrated pop songs, known locally as schlager music, used to be so prevalent that the festival was sometimes referred to as schlagerfestivalen ("the schlager festival") or schlager-sm ("schlager Swedish championship") by the Swedish media.[4][5] However, other styles of music such as rap, reggae, and glam rock have made an appearance since the event's expansion. The introduction of a grand final in Stockholm has attracted substantial tourism to the city.[6]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Television in Sweden. Sweden.se (30 September 2005). Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
    2. ^ "Månadsrapport Februari 2012" (PDF). MMS – Mediamätning i Skandinavien. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
    3. ^ Lindström, Therese (12 March 2012). "Över fyra miljoner såg finalen". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
    4. ^ "Jag koncentrerar mig på schlagerfestivalen" Archived 17 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine (in Swedish) ["I am concentrating on schlagerfestivalen"]. Aftonbladet.se (27 February 2002). Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
    5. ^ Anders Foghagen (13 October 2006) Agnes diskad från Schlagerfestivalen Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine (in Swedish) ["Agnes disqualified from schlagerfestivalen"]. TV4.se. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
    6. ^ The Swedish Research Institute of Tourism (17–18 March 2006). Melodifestivalen 2006 Archived 29 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
     
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    30 January 1948 – Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.

    Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

    Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 in the compound of Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti), a large mansion in New Delhi. His assassin was Nathuram Godse, an advocate of Hindu nationalism, a member of the political party the Hindu Mahasabha,[1] and a past member of the Hindu nationalist paramilitary volunteer organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).[2] Godse considered Gandhi to have been too accommodating to Muslims during the Partition of India of the previous year.[3][4][5]

    Sometime after 5 PM, according to witnesses, Gandhi had reached the top of the steps leading to the raised lawn behind Birla House where he had been conducting multi-faith prayer meetings every evening. As Gandhi began to walk toward the dais, Godse stepped out from the crowd flanking Gandhi's path, and fired three bullets into Gandhi's chest and abdomen at point-blank range.[6][7] Gandhi fell to the ground. He was carried back to his room in Birla House from which a representative emerged sometime later to announce his death.[7][A]

    Godse was captured by members of the crowd and handed over to the police. The Gandhi murder trial opened in May 1948 in Delhi's historic Red Fort, with Godse the main defendant, and his collaborator Narayan Apte and six others as the co-defendants. The trial was rushed through, the haste sometimes attributed to the home minister Vallabhbhai Patel's desire "to avoid scrutiny for the failure to prevent the assassination."[8] Godse and Apte were sentenced to death on 8 November 1949. They were hanged in the Ambala jail on 15 November 1949.[9]

    1. ^ Nash 1981, p. 69.
    2. ^ Hansen 1999, p. 249.
    3. ^ Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2008). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Taylor & Francis. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-7007-1267-0. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Quote: "The apotheosis of this contrast is the assassination of Gandhi in 1948 by a militant Nathuram Godse, on the basis of his 'weak' accommodationist approach towards the new state of Pakistan." (p. 544)
    4. ^ Markovits 2004, p. 57.
    5. ^ Mallot 2012, pp. 75–76.
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference guardian31011948 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b Stratton 1950, pp. 40–42.
    8. ^ Markovits 2004, pp. 57–58.
    9. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2009, p. 146.


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    1 February 2004Hajj pilgrimage stampede: In a stampede at the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia, 251 people are trampled to death and 244 injured.

    Incidents during the Hajj

    Plains of Arafat on the day of Hajj, c. 2003.

    There have been numerous incidents during the Hajj', the Muslim pilgrimage to the city of Mecca, that have caused loss of life. Every follower of Islam is required to visit Mecca during the Hajj at least once in his or her lifetime, if able to do so; according to Islam, the pilgrimage is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During the month of the Hajj, Mecca must cope with as many as three million pilgrims.[1]

    Plane travel makes Mecca and the Hajj more accessible to pilgrims from all over the world. As a consequence, the Hajj has become increasingly crowded. City officials are required to control large crowds and provide food, shelter, sanitation, and emergency services for millions. However, it has not always been possible to prevent incidents.

    1. ^ "Pilgrims mark end of peaceful hajj: Circling of Kaaba brings to close perhaps largest-ever pilgrimage to Mecca]". BBC News. January 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved November 18, 2019. This year’s hajj was likely the biggest ever, with authorities estimating that around 3 million people participated.
     
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    1 February 2004Hajj pilgrimage stampede: In a stampede at the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia, 251 people are trampled to death and 244 injured.

    Incidents during the Hajj

    Plains of Arafat on the day of Hajj, c. 2003.

    There have been numerous incidents during the Hajj', the Muslim pilgrimage to the city of Mecca, that have caused loss of life. Every follower of Islam is required to visit Mecca during the Hajj at least once in his or her lifetime, if able to do so; according to Islam, the pilgrimage is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. During the month of the Hajj, Mecca must cope with as many as three million pilgrims.[1]

    Plane travel makes Mecca and the Hajj more accessible to pilgrims from all over the world. As a consequence, the Hajj has become increasingly crowded. City officials are required to control large crowds and provide food, shelter, sanitation, and emergency services for millions. However, it has not always been possible to prevent incidents.

    1. ^ "Pilgrims mark end of peaceful hajj: Circling of Kaaba brings to close perhaps largest-ever pilgrimage to Mecca]". BBC News. January 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved November 18, 2019. This year’s hajj was likely the biggest ever, with authorities estimating that around 3 million people participated.
     
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    2 February 1982Hama massacre: The government of Syria attacks the town of Hama.

    1982 Hama massacre

    The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة‎) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.[1][2] The massacre, carried out by the Syrian Army under commanding General Rifaat al-Assad, effectively ended the campaign begun in 1976 by Sunni Muslim groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood, against the government.

    Initial diplomatic reports from Western countries stated that 1,000 were killed.[3][4] Subsequent estimates vary, with the lower estimates claiming that at least 2,000 Syrian citizens were killed,[5] while others put the number at 20,000 (Robert Fisk)[1] or 40,000 (Syrian Human Rights Committee).[2][6] About 1,000 Syrian soldiers were killed during the operation, and large parts of the old city were destroyed. The attack has been described as one of the "deadliest acts by any Arab government against its own people in the modern Middle East".[7] According to Syrian opposition, the vast majority of the victims were civilians.[8]

    According to Syrian media, anti-government rebels initiated the fighting when they "pounced on our comrades while sleeping in their homes and killed whomever they could kill of women and children, mutilating the bodies of the martyrs in the streets, driven, like mad dogs, by their black hatred." Security forces then "rose to confront these crimes" and "taught the murderers a lesson that has snuffed out their breath".[9]

    1. ^ a b Fisk 2010
    2. ^ a b MEMRI 2002
    3. ^ "Syria: Bloody Challenge to Assad". Time. 8 March 1982.
    4. ^ JOHN KIFNER, Special to the New York Times (12 February 1982). "Syrian Troops Are Said To Battle Rebels Encircled in Central City". The New York Times. Hama (Syria); Syria. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
    5. ^ New York Times 2011 March 26
    6. ^ Syrian Human Rights Committee, 2005
    7. ^ Wright 2008: 243-244
    8. ^ Fisk, Robert. 1990. Pity the Nation. London: Touchstone, ISBN 0-671-74770-3.
    9. ^ [The New York Times. 24 February 1982. Syria Offers Picture of Hama Revolt]
     
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    5 February 1931 – The Hawke's Bay earthquake, New Zealand's worst natural disaster, kills 258.

    1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake

    Damage to the Hawkes Bay Tribune building

    The 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, also known as the Napier earthquake, occurred in New Zealand at 10:47 am on 3 February, killing 256,[2] injuring thousands and devastating the Hawke's Bay region. It remains New Zealand's deadliest natural disaster. Centred 15 km north of Napier, it lasted for two and a half minutes and measured magnitude 7.8 Ms

    (magnitude 7.9 Mw). There were 525 aftershocks recorded in the following two weeks, with 597 being recorded by the end of February. The main shock could be felt in much of New Zealand, with reliable reports coming in from as far south as Timaru, on the east coast of the South Island.[3]

    1. ^ "Tsunami – Hawke's Bay Emergency Management Group". www.hbemergency.govt.nz. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference deathtoll was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "M 7.4 Hawke's Bay Tue, Feb 3 1931". GeoNet.
     
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    4 February 2004Facebook, a mainstream online social networking site, is founded by Mark Zuckerberg.

    Facebook

    Facebook "f" logo

    Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California and a flagship service of the namesake company Facebook, Inc. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.

    The founders initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia, Stanford, and Yale students. Membership was eventually expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, and higher education institutions in the Boston area, then various other universities, and lastly high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though this may vary depending on local laws. The name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students.

    The Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. They can post text, photos and multimedia which is shared with any other users that have agreed to be their "friend", or, with a different privacy setting, with any reader. Users can also use various embedded apps, join common-interest groups, buy and sell items or services on Marketplace, and receive notifications of their Facebook friends' activities and activities of Facebook pages they follow. Facebook claimed that it had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018.[8] However, it faces a big problem of fake accounts. It caught 3 billion fake accounts in the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019.[9] Many critics questioned whether Facebook knows how many actual users it has.[9][10][11]

    It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies. These often involve user privacy (as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections), psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and content that some users find objectionable, including fake news, conspiracy theories, and copyright infringement.[12] Commentators have accused Facebook of helping to spread false information and fake news.[13][14][15][16] In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute's International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program.[17][18] Critics of the program accuse Facebook of not doing enough to remove false information from its website.[19] Facebook is the most downloaded mobile app of the decade from 2010 to 2019 globally.[20]

    1. ^ "facebook.com Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic". Alexa Internet. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
    2. ^ https://s21.q4cdn.com/399680738/files/doc_financials/2019/q4/FB-12.31.2019-Exhibit-99.1-r61_final.pdf
    3. ^ "Our History". Facebook. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
    4. ^ "Facebook.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
    5. ^ Clarke, Gavin (February 2, 2010). "Facebook re-write takes PHP to an enterprise past". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
    6. ^ Bridgwater, Adrian (October 16, 2013). "Facebook Adopts D Language". Dr Dobb's. San Francisco.
    7. ^ Levin, Sam (July 3, 2018). "Is Facebook a publisher? In public it says no, but in court it says yes" – via www.theguardian.com.
    8. ^ Gebel, Meira. "In 15 years Facebook has amassed 2.3 billion users — more than followers of Christianity". Business Insider.
    9. ^ a b Sullivan, Mark. "Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem". Fast Company.
    10. ^ Nicas, Jack (January 30, 2019). "Does Facebook Really Know How Many Fake Accounts It Has?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
    11. ^ Silverman, Craig. "Facebook Removed Over 2 Billion Fake Accounts, But The Problem Is Getting Worse". BuzzFeed News.
    12. ^ Mahdawi, Arwa (December 21, 2018). "Is 2019 the year you should finally quit Facebook? | Arwa Mahdawi". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
    13. ^ Medrano, Kastalia. "Facebook Spreads Viral Fake News Story About Vaccines". Newsweek.
    14. ^ Raphael, Rina. "A shockingly large majority of health news shared on Facebook is fake or misleading". Fast Company.
    15. ^ "Facebook will not remove fake news - but will 'demote' it". BBC.
    16. ^ Funke, Daniel. "Forget fake news stories. False text posts are getting massive engagement on Facebook". Poynter.
    17. ^ Hunt, Elle (March 22, 2017). "'Disputed by multiple fact-checkers': Facebook rolls out new alert to combat fake news". The Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
    18. ^ Sherman, Amy. "In phony Facebook ad, Warren said most TV networks will refuse ads with a 'lie' but that's wrong". Politifact. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
    19. ^ Scola, Nancy. "Facebook on fake Pelosi video: Being 'false' isn't enough for removal". Politico.
    20. ^ Miller, Chance (December 17, 2019). "These were the most-downloaded apps and games of the decade". 9to5Mac. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
     
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    5 February 1924 – The Royal Greenwich Observatory begins broadcasting the hourly time signals known as the Greenwich Time Signal.

    Greenwich Time Signal

    Graph of the six pips

    The Greenwich Time Signal (GTS), popularly known as the pips, is a series of six short tones broadcast at one-second intervals by many BBC Radio stations. The pips were introduced in 1924 and have been generated by the BBC since 1990[1] to mark the precise start of each hour. Their utility in calibration is diminishing as digital broadcasting entails time lags.

    1. ^ McIlroy, Jim (Spring 1990). "Network Radio: New Time and Frequency distribution system" (PDF). Eng Inf (40). Archived from the original (pdf) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
     
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    5 February 1924 – The Royal Greenwich Observatory begins broadcasting the hourly time signals known as the Greenwich Time Signal.

    Greenwich Time Signal

    Graph of the six pips

    The Greenwich Time Signal (GTS), popularly known as the pips, is a series of six short tones broadcast at one-second intervals by many BBC Radio stations. The pips were introduced in 1924 and have been generated by the BBC since 1990[1] to mark the precise start of each hour. Their utility in calibration is diminishing as digital broadcasting entails time lags.

    1. ^ McIlroy, Jim (Spring 1990). "Network Radio: New Time and Frequency distribution system" (PDF). Eng Inf (40). Archived from the original (pdf) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
     
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    6 February 1840 – Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, establishing New Zealand as a British colony.

    Treaty of Waitangi

    The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand. It has become a document of central importance to the history, to the political constitution of the state, and to the national mythos of New Zealand, and has played a major role in framing the political relations between New Zealand's government and the Māori population, especially from the late-20th century.

    The Treaty was written at a time when British colonists and the New Zealand Company (acting on behalf of large numbers of settlers and would-be settlers) were pressuring the British Crown to establish a colony in New Zealand, and when some Māori leaders had petitioned the British for protection against French incursions. It was drafted with the intention of establishing a British Governor of New Zealand, recognising Māori ownership of their lands, forests and other possessions, and giving Māori the rights of British subjects. It was intended by the British Crown to ensure that when Lieutenant Governor William Hobson subsequently made the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand in May 1840, the Māori people would not feel that their rights had been ignored.[1] Once it had been written and translated, it was first signed by Northern Māori leaders at Waitangi. Copies were subsequently taken around New Zealand and over the following months many other chiefs signed.[2] Around 530 to 540 Māori, at least 13 of them women, signed the Treaty of Waitangi, despite some Māori leaders cautioning against it.[3][4] An immediate result of the Treaty was that Queen Victoria's government gained the sole right to purchase land.[5] In total there are nine signed copies of the Treaty of Waitangi, including the sheet signed on 6 February 1840 at Waitangi.[6]

    The text of the Treaty includes a preamble and three articles. It is bilingual, with the Māori text translated from the English.

    • Article one of the English text cedes "all rights and powers of sovereignty" to the Crown.
    • Article two establishes the continued ownership of the Māori over their lands and establishes the exclusive right of pre-emption of the Crown.
    • Article three gives Māori people full rights and protections as British subjects.

    However, the English text and the Māori text differ in meaning significantly, particularly in relation to the meaning of having and ceding sovereignty. These discrepancies led to disagreements in the decades following the signing, eventually contributing to the New Zealand Wars[7] of 1845 to 1872.

    During the second half of the 19th century Māori generally lost control of much of the land they had owned, sometimes through legitimate sale, but often due to unfair land-deals or through outright confiscations in the aftermath of the New Zealand Wars. In the period following the New Zealand Wars, the New Zealand government mostly ignored the Treaty, and a court-case judgement in 1877 declared it to be "a simple nullity". Beginning in the 1950s, Māori increasingly sought to use the Treaty as a platform for claiming additional rights to sovereignty and to reclaim lost land, and governments in the 1960s and 1970s responded to these arguments, giving the Treaty an increasingly central role in the interpretation of land rights and relations between Māori people and the state. In 1975 the new Zealand Parliament passed the Treaty of Waitangi Act, establishing the Waitangi Tribunal as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with interpreting the Treaty, researching breaches of the Treaty by the British Crown or its agents, and suggesting means of redress.[7] In most cases, recommendations of the Tribunal are not binding on the Crown, but settlements totalling almost $1 billion have been awarded to various Māori groups.[8][7] Various legislation passed in the later part of the 20th century has made reference to the Treaty, but the Treaty has never been made part of New Zealand municipal law. Nonetheless, the Treaty has become widely regarded as the founding document of New Zealand.[9][10][11]

    The New Zealand government established Waitangi Day as a national holiday in 1974; each year the holiday commemorates the date of the signing of the Treaty.

    1. ^ "Additional Instructions from Lord Normanby to Captain Hobson 1839 – New Zealand Constitutional Law Resources". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 15 August 1839. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
    2. ^ "Treaty of Waitangi signings in the South Island" Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Christchurch City Libraries
    3. ^ "Treaty of Waitangi". Waitangi Tribunal. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
    4. ^ Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi, Bridget Williams Books, 1987, Appendices p. 260
    5. ^ Burns, Patricia (1989). Fatal Success: A History of the New Zealand Company. Heinemann Reed. p. 153. ISBN 0-7900-0011-3.
    6. ^ "Treaty of Waitangi – Te Tiriti o Waitangi". Archives New Zealand. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
    7. ^ a b c "Meaning of the Treaty". Waitangi Tribunal. 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Settlements was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "New Zealand's Constitution". Government House. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
    10. ^ "New Zealand's constitution – past, present and future" (PDF). Cabinet Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
    11. ^ Palmer, Matthew (2008). The Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand's Law and Constitution. Rochester, NY.
     
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    7 February 1992 – The Maastricht Treaty is signed, leading to the creation of the European Union.

    Maastricht Treaty

    The Maastricht Treaty (officially the Treaty on European Union) was a treaty signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Communities in Maastricht, Netherlands, to further European integration.[1] On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty.[2] The treaty founded the European Union and established its pillar structure which stayed in place until the Lisbon Treaty came into force in 2009. The treaty also greatly expanded the competences of the EEC/EU and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro.

    The Maastricht Treaty reformed and amended the treaties establishing the European Communities, the EU's first pillar. It renamed European Economic Community to European Community to reflect its expanded competences beyond economic matters. The Maastricht Treaty also created two new pillars of the EU on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs (respectively the second and third pillars), which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination.

    The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2007). Today it is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

    1. ^ "1990–1999". The history of the European Union – 1990–1999. Europa. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    2. ^ "1991". The EU at a glance – The History of the European Union. Europa. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
     
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    8 February 1250Seventh Crusade: Crusaders engage Ayyubid forces in the Battle of Al Mansurah.

    Seventh Crusade

    The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. Louis' troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by Fakhr al-Din ibn Shaykh al-Shuyukh, whose army was supported by the Bahriyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun. Sheikh Al Shioukh was killed in the war, and Louis was captured, approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for his return.[3][4][5]

    1. ^ Hinson, p.393
    2. ^ J. Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A History, 193
    3. ^ Abu al-Fida
    4. ^ Al-Maqrizi
    5. ^ Ibn Taghri
     
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    9 February 1986Halley's Comet last appeared in the inner Solar System.

    Halley's Comet

    Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley,[2] is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years.[2][10][11][12] Halley is the only known short-period comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth, and the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime.[13] Halley last appeared in the inner parts of the Solar System in 1986 and will next appear in mid-2061.[14]

    Halley's returns to the inner Solar System have been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 BC. Clear records of the comet's appearances were made by Chinese, Babylonian, and medieval European chroniclers, but, at those times, were not recognized as reappearances of the same object. The comet's periodicity was first determined in 1705 by English astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom it is now named.

    During its 1986 apparition, Halley's Comet became the first comet to be observed in detail by spacecraft, providing the first observational data on the structure of a comet nucleus and the mechanism of coma and tail formation.[15][16] These observations supported a number of longstanding hypotheses about comet construction, particularly Fred Whipple's "dirty snowball" model, which correctly predicted that Halley would be composed of a mixture of volatile ices—such as water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—and dust. The missions also provided data that substantially reformed and reconfigured these ideas; for instance, it is now understood that the surface of Halley is largely composed of dusty, non-volatile materials, and that only a small portion of it is icy.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference horizons was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference jpldata was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Learn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference mass was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference density was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Peale1989November was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference Peale1989 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference dark was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ Cite error: The named reference ESO2003 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    10. ^ Kronk, Gary W. "1P/Halley". cometography.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
    11. ^ Cite error: The named reference yeo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    12. ^ Yeomans, Donald Keith; Kiang, Tao (1 December 1981). "The long-term motion of comet Halley". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 197 (3): 633–646. Bibcode:1981MNRAS.197..633Y. doi:10.1093/mnras/197.3.633. ISSN 0035-8711.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Delehanty was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Ajiki, Osamu; Baalke, Ron. "Orbit Diagram (Java) of 1P/Halley". Jet Propulsion Laboratory Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference post was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ Cite error: The named reference situ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    11 February 1978Censorship: China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens.

    Aristotle

    Aristotle (/ˈærɪstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384 – 322 BC)[A] was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. He was the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.

    Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC).[4] Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC.[5] He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.[6]

    Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic also continued well into the 19th century.

    He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as simply "The Philosopher". His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=upper-alpha> tags or {{efn-ua}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=upper-alpha}} template or {{notelist-ua}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 February 1961 – The Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus.

    Venera 1

    Venera 1 (Russian: Венера-1 meaning Venus 1), also known as Venera-1VA No.2 and occasionally in the West as Sputnik 8 was the first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme.[1] Launched in February 1961, it flew past Venus on 19 May of the same year; however, radio contact with the probe was lost before the flyby, resulting in it returning no data.

    1. ^ "Venera 1". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
     

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