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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    26 June 1927The Cyclone roller coaster opens on Coney Island.

    Coney Island Cyclone

    The Coney Island Cyclone (also known as the Cyclone) is a wooden roller coaster at Luna Park in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City. Designed by Vernon Keenan, it opened to the public on June 26, 1927. The coaster is on a plot of land at the intersection of Surf Avenue and West 10th Street. The Cyclone reaches a maximum speed of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and has a total track length of 2,640 feet (800 m), with a maximum height of 85 feet (26 m).

    The coaster operated for more than four decades before it began to deteriorate, and by the early 1970s the city planned to scrap the ride. On June 18, 1975, Dewey and Jerome Albert, owners of the adjacent Astroland amusement park, entered into an agreement with New York City to operate the ride. The roller coaster was refurbished in the 1974 off-season, and reopened on July 3, 1975. Astroland Park continued to invest millions of dollars in the upkeep of the Cyclone. After Astroland closed in 2008, Cyclone Coasters president Carol Hill Albert continued to operate it under a lease agreement with the city. In 2011, Luna Park took over operation of the Cyclone.

    The coaster was declared a New York City designated landmark on July 12, 1988, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 26, 1991.

    1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    27 June 1976Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) is hijacked en route to Paris by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.

    Operation Entebbe

    Sites associated with Operation Entebbe

    Operation Entebbe or Operation Thunderbolt was a successful counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976.[7]

    A week earlier, on 27 June, an Air France Airbus A300 jet airliner with 248 passengers had been hijacked by two members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – External Operations (PFLP-EO) under orders of Wadie Haddad (who had earlier broken away from the PFLP of George Habash),[8] and two members of the German Revolutionary Cells. The hijackers had the stated objective to free 40 Palestinian and affiliated militants imprisoned in Israel and 13 prisoners in four other countries in exchange for the hostages.[9] The flight, which had originated in Tel Aviv with the destination of Paris, was diverted after a stopover in Athens via Benghazi to Entebbe, the main airport of Uganda. The Ugandan government supported the hijackers, and dictator Idi Amin, who had been informed of the hijacking from the beginning,[10] personally welcomed them.[11] After moving all hostages from the aircraft to a disused airport building, the hijackers separated all Israelis and several non-Israeli Jews from the larger group and forced them into a separate room.[12][13][14] Over the following two days, 148 non-Israeli hostages were released and flown out to Paris.[13][14][15] Ninety-four, mainly Israeli, passengers along with the 12-member Air France crew, remained as hostages and were threatened with death.[16][17]

    The IDF acted on information provided by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. The hijackers threatened to kill the hostages if their prisoner release demands were not met. This threat led to the planning of the rescue operation.[18] These plans included preparation for armed resistance from the Uganda Army.[19]

    The operation took place at night. Israeli transport planes carried 100 commandos over 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) to Uganda for the rescue operation. The operation, which took a week of planning, lasted 90 minutes. Of the 106 remaining hostages, 102 were rescued and three were killed. The other hostage was in a hospital and was later killed. Five Israeli commandos were wounded and one, unit commander Lt. Col. Yonatan Netanyahu, was killed. Netanyahu was the older brother of Benjamin Netanyahu, who would later become Prime Minister of Israel.[20] All the hijackers and forty-five Ugandan soldiers were killed, and eleven[5][6] Soviet-built MiG-17s and MiG-21s of Uganda's air force were destroyed.[4] Kenyan sources supported Israel, and in the aftermath of the operation, Idi Amin issued orders to retaliate and slaughter several hundred Kenyans then present in Uganda.[21] There were 245 Kenyans in Uganda killed and 3,000 fled.[22]

    Operation Entebbe, which had the military codename Operation Thunderbolt, is sometimes referred to retroactively as Operation Jonathan in memory of the unit's leader, Yonatan Netanyahu.

    1. ^ McRaven, Bill. "Tactical Combat Casualty Care – November 2010". MHS US Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
    2. ^ 1976: Israelis rescue Entebbe hostages, BBC
    3. ^ Entebbe: The Most Daring Raid of Israel's Special Forces, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2011, by Simon Dunstan, p. 58
    4. ^ a b Brzoska, Michael; Pearson, Frederic S. Arms and Warfare: Escalation, De-escalation, and Negotiation, Univ. of S. Carolina Press (1994) p. 203
    5. ^ a b "Entebbe raid". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    6. ^ a b "BBC on This Day – 4 – 1976: Israelis rescue Entebbe hostages". BBC News.
    7. ^ Smith, Terence (4 July 1976). "Hostages Freed as Israelis Raid Uganda Airport; Commandos in 3 Planes Rescue 105-Casualties Unknown Israelis Raid Uganda Airport And Free Hijackers' Hostages". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hartuv was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ "Hijacking of Air France Airbus by Followers of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – Israeli Action to liberate Hostages held at Entebbe Airport ..." (PDF). Keesing's Record of World Events. 22: 27888. August 1976. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
    10. ^ Furst, Alan (2016). "'Operation Thunderbolt,' by Saul David". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
    11. ^ "Idi Amin's Son: My Dream Is to Apologize Personally to Family of Entebbe Victims". Ha'aretz. 14 June 2016.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Freed Hostages Tell Their Story was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ a b Simon Dunstan (15 January 2011). Entebbe: The Most Daring Raid of Israel's Special Forces. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 20–24. ISBN 978-1-4488-1868-6. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
    14. ^ a b Mark Ensalaco (2008). Middle Eastern Terrorism: From Black September to September 11. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-8122-4046-7. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
    15. ^ "Entebbe; Thirty Years On; miracle on the runway". Jewish Telegraph. 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
    16. ^ Sol Scharfstein (1 May 1994). Understanding Israel. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-0-88125-428-0. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
    17. ^ Dunstan, Simon (2009). Israel's Lighting Strike, The raid on Entebbe 1976. Osprey Publishing; Osprey Raid Series No. 2. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84603-397-1.
    18. ^ "Mossad took photos, Entebbe Operation was on its way". Ynetnews. 2006. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
    19. ^ Feldinger, Lauren Gelfond (29 June 2006). "Back to Entebbe". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    20. ^ "Operation Entebbe". The Knesset at Sixty. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
    21. ^ Ulrich Beyerlin: Abhandlungen: Die israelische Befreiungsaktion von Entebbe in völkerrechtlicher Sicht. (PDF-Datei; 2,3 MB) auf: zaoerv.de Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 1977.
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Keesing27891 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 June 1969Stonewall riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

    Stonewall riots

    The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community[note 1] in response to a police raid that began in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Patrons of the Stonewall, other Village lesbian and gay bars, and neighborhood street people fought back when the police became violent. The riots are widely considered to constitute one of the most important events leading to the gay liberation movement[4][5][6][7] and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[8][9]

    Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system.[note 2][10] Early homosexual groups in the U.S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, and they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, however, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, and the anti-Vietnam War movement. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots.

    Very few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia.[13][14][15] It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: butch lesbians, effeminate young men, drag queens, male prostitutes, transgender people, and homeless youth. While police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn on June 28. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gay men and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested.

    After the Stonewall riots, gay men and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gay men and lesbians. A year after the uprising, to mark the anniversary on June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[16] The anniversary of the riots was also commemorated in Chicago and similar marches were organized in other cities. Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016.[17]

    Today, LGBT Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising with city officials estimating 5 million attendees in Manhattan,[18] and on June 6, 2019, New York City Police Commissioner James P. O'Neill rendered a formal apology on behalf of the New York Police Department for the actions of its officers at Stonewall in 1969.[19][20]

    1. ^ Grudo, Gideon (June 15, 2019). "The Stonewall Riots: What Really Happened, What Didn't, and What Became Myth". The Daily Beast.
    2. ^ "New-York Historical Society commerates 50th anniversary of Stonewall Uprising with special exhibitions and programs". New-York Historical Society. April 23, 2019.
    3. ^ "Movies Under the Stars: Stonewall Uprising". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. June 26, 2019.
    4. ^ Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
    5. ^ "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S". University of Kentucky. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
    6. ^ Nell Frizzell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". Pink News UK. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
    7. ^ "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
    8. ^ U.S. National Park Service (October 17, 2016). "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
    9. ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
    10. ^ a b Carter 2004, p. 15.
    11. ^ Katz 1976, pp. 81–197.
    12. ^ Adam 1987, p. 60.
    13. ^ Duberman 1993, p. 183.
    14. ^ Carter 2004, pp. 79–83.
    15. ^ "Stonewall Uprising: The Year That Changed America – Why Did the Mafia Own the Bar?". American Experience. PBS. April 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
    16. ^ "Heritage | 1970 Christopher Street Liberation Day Gay-In, San Francisco". SF Pride. June 28, 1970. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
    17. ^ Nakamura, David; Eilperin, Juliet (June 24, 2016). "With Stonewall, Obama designates first national monument to gay rights movement". Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
    18. ^ About 5 million people attended WorldPride in NYC, mayor says By karma allen, Jul 2, 2019. Accessed July 4, 2019.
    19. ^ Gold, Michael; Norman, Derek (June 6, 2019). "Stonewall Riot Apology: Police Actions Were 'Wrong,' Commissioner Admits". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
    20. ^ "New York City Police Finally Apologize for Stonewall Raids". advocate.com. June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
  4. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    28 June 1969Stonewall riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

    Stonewall riots

    The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community[note 1] in response to a police raid that began in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Patrons of the Stonewall, other Village lesbian and gay bars, and neighborhood street people fought back when the police became violent. The riots are widely considered to constitute one of the most important events leading to the gay liberation movement[4][5][6][7] and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[8][9]

    Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system.[note 2][10] Early homosexual groups in the U.S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, and they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, however, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, and the anti-Vietnam War movement. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots.

    Very few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia.[13][14][15] It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: butch lesbians, effeminate young men, drag queens, male prostitutes, transgender people, and homeless youth. While police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn on June 28. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gay men and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested.

    After the Stonewall riots, gay men and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gay men and lesbians. A year after the uprising, to mark the anniversary on June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[16] The anniversary of the riots was also commemorated in Chicago and similar marches were organized in other cities. Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016.[17]

    Today, LGBT Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising with city officials estimating 5 million attendees in Manhattan,[18] and on June 6, 2019, New York City Police Commissioner James P. O'Neill rendered a formal apology on behalf of the New York Police Department for the actions of its officers at Stonewall in 1969.[19][20]

    1. ^ Grudo, Gideon (June 15, 2019). "The Stonewall Riots: What Really Happened, What Didn't, and What Became Myth". The Daily Beast.
    2. ^ "New-York Historical Society commerates 50th anniversary of Stonewall Uprising with special exhibitions and programs". New-York Historical Society. April 23, 2019.
    3. ^ "Movies Under the Stars: Stonewall Uprising". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. June 26, 2019.
    4. ^ Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
    5. ^ "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S". University of Kentucky. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
    6. ^ Nell Frizzell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". Pink News UK. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
    7. ^ "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
    8. ^ U.S. National Park Service (October 17, 2016). "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
    9. ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
    10. ^ a b Carter 2004, p. 15.
    11. ^ Katz 1976, pp. 81–197.
    12. ^ Adam 1987, p. 60.
    13. ^ Duberman 1993, p. 183.
    14. ^ Carter 2004, pp. 79–83.
    15. ^ "Stonewall Uprising: The Year That Changed America – Why Did the Mafia Own the Bar?". American Experience. PBS. April 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
    16. ^ "Heritage | 1970 Christopher Street Liberation Day Gay-In, San Francisco". SF Pride. June 28, 1970. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
    17. ^ Nakamura, David; Eilperin, Juliet (June 24, 2016). "With Stonewall, Obama designates first national monument to gay rights movement". Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
    18. ^ About 5 million people attended WorldPride in NYC, mayor says By karma allen, Jul 2, 2019. Accessed July 4, 2019.
    19. ^ Gold, Michael; Norman, Derek (June 6, 2019). "Stonewall Riot Apology: Police Actions Were 'Wrong,' Commissioner Admits". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
    20. ^ "New York City Police Finally Apologize for Stonewall Raids". advocate.com. June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

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    1
    29 June 2007Apple Inc. releases its first mobile phone, the iPhone.

    IPhone

    The iPhone is a line of touchscreen-based smartphones, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is considered to be one of the most important and innovative inventions of the 21st century. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software. The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007. Since then Apple has periodically released new iPhone hardware iterations and updated versions of iOS.

    The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can make calls, take photos, play music, send and receive emails, browse the web, send and receive text messages, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Shooting video also became a standard feature with the iPhone 3GS. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps. As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.

    Apple has released thirteen generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the thirteen major releases of the iOS operating system. The first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a placement of certain buttons that has persisted throughout all releases to date. The first iPhone also set a screen size that was maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support and was followed by the iPhone 3GS with improved hardware, the iPhone 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution, and front-facing camera, and the iPhone 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4 inches (100 mm) display, 4G support, and Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. The iPhone 5S has an improved hardware and a fingerprint reader (marketed as Touch ID). The lower-cost iPhone 5C is a version of the 5 with a plastic body, instead of metal one, and was also available in many colors. They were followed by the larger iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch (120 and 140 mm) displays. The iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the first-generation iPhone SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. The iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus add water resistance, improved system, and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, and new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models. The iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus has a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an OLED display at 5.8 inches (150 mm), an improved camera, and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, and therefore, no Touch ID. The iPhone XS and XS Max feature updated hardware, improved dual cameras, improved water resistance, and Dual-SIM support; the latter model also features the series' biggest display as of 2018 at 6.5 inches (170 mm). The iPhone XR has the similar design to the iPhone X, but it has an LCD display at 6.1 inches (150 mm), and starts at a lower price. The iPhone 11 added a second camera at the back, updated glass back, and improved hardware. The iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max feature a frosted glass back design, a triple lens camera setup with camera improvements, improved performance, and increased battery capacity. The second-generation iPhone SE is a successor to both the original iPhone SE and the iPhone 8, featuring hardware from the 11 and 11 Pro in a design nearly identical to the iPhone 8.

    The first-generation iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have also garnered praise. The iPhone is one of the most widely used smartphones in the world, and its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.

    As of November 1, 2018, more than 2.2 billion iPhones had been sold.[1]

    1. ^ a b "How Many iPhones have been sold". Lifewire. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
    2. ^ "Under the Hood: The iPhone's Gaming Mettle". Touch Arcade. June 14, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    3. ^ "The iPhone 3GS Hardware Exposed & Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    4. ^ "iPhone 4 Teardown – Page 2". iFixit. June 24, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    5. ^ Toor, Amar (October 11, 2011). "Benchmarks clock iPhone 4S' A5 CPU at 800MHz, show major GPU upgrade over iPhone 4". Engadget. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
    6. ^ a b "iPhone 7 & 7 Plus". GSMArena. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
    7. ^ "iPhone 5 – View all the technical specifications". Apple Inc. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
    8. ^ "iPhone Delivers Up to Eight Hours of Talk Time" (Press release). Apple Inc. June 18, 2007. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011.
    9. ^ Slivka, Eric (June 10, 2009). "More WWDC Tidbits: iPhone 3G S Oleophobic Screen, "Find My iPhone" Live lLP". Mac Rumors. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
    10. ^ Po-Han Lin. "iPhone Secrets and iPad Secrets and iPod Touch Secrets". Technology Depot. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
    11. ^ "Update: UK graphics specialist confirms that iPhone design win". EE Times. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
    12. ^ a b Shimpi, Anand (June 10, 2009). "The iPhone 3GS Hardware Exposed & Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
      Sorrel, Charlie (June 10, 2009). "Gadget Lab Hardware News and Reviews T-Mobile Accidentally Posts Secret iPhone 3G S Specs". Wired. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
    13. ^ a b "Apple A4 Teardown". ifixit.com. June 10, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
    14. ^ "A9's GPU: Imagination PowerVR GT7600 – The Apple iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus Review". AnandTech. November 2, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
     
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    30 June 1953 – The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.

    Chevrolet Corvette

    The Chevrolet Corvette, colloquially known as the Vette,[1] is a two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet across more than 60 years of production and eight design generations.[2][3] From 1953 to 2019, it was front-engined, and since 2020, it is mid-engined.[4] With its generations noted sequentially from C1 to C8, the Corvette serves as Chevrolet's halo vehicle and is widely noted for its performance and distinctive plastic—either fiberglass or composite—bodywork.

    In 1953, when GM executives were looking to name the new Chevrolet sports car, assistant director for the Public Relations department Myron Scott suggested Corvette after the small maneuverable warship—and the name was approved.[5] The first model, a convertible, was introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept and was followed ten years later by the 1963 second generation, in coupe and convertible styles. Originally manufactured in Flint, Michigan, as well as St. Louis, Missouri, the Corvette has been manufactured since 1981 in Bowling Green, Kentucky.

    The Corvette has since become widely known as "America's Sports Car."[6] Automotive News said that after 'starring' in the early 1960s television show Route 66, the Corvette became synonymous with freedom and adventure," ultimately becoming both "the most successful concept car in history and the most popular sports car in history.[7]

    1. ^ "Vette magazine - Super Chevy".
    2. ^ "2017 Corvette Stingray: Sports Cars - Chevrolet".
    3. ^ Ray Miller; Glenn Embree (1975). The Real Corvette: An Illustrated History of Chevrolet's Sports Car. ISBN 978-0913056066.
    4. ^ Capparella, Joey (11 April 2019). "The Mid-Engined 2020 Chevrolet Corvette C8 Is Real, GM Confesses, and It Will Debut July 18". Car and Driver. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
    5. ^ Falconer, Tom (2003). The Complete Corvette. Crestline. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7603-1474-6. Retrieved Sep 30, 2012.
    6. ^ Thos L. Bryant (November 6, 2012). "America's Sports Car". Road & Track.
    7. ^ Jerry Burton (October 31, 2011). "Corvette: A pop culture classic". Automotive News.
     
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    1 July 1903 – Start of first Tour de France bicycle race.

    1903 Tour de France

    The 1903 Tour de France was the first cycling race set up and sponsored by the newspaper L'Auto, ancestor of the current daily, L'Équipe. It ran from 1 to 19 July in six stages over 2,428 km (1,509 mi), and was won by Maurice Garin.[1]

    The race was invented to boost the circulation of L'Auto, after its circulation started to plummet from competition with the long-standing Le Vélo. Originally scheduled to start in June, the race was postponed one month, and the prize money was increased, after a disappointing level of applications from competitors. The 1903 Tour de France was the first stage road race, and compared to modern Grand Tours, it had relatively few stages, but each was much longer than those raced today. The cyclists did not have to compete in all six stages, although this was necessary to qualify for the general classification.

    The pre-race favourite, Maurice Garin, won the first stage, and retained the lead throughout. He also won the last two stages, and had a margin of almost three hours over the next cyclist. The circulation of L'Auto increased more than sixfold during and after the race, so the race was considered successful enough to be rerun in 1904, by which time Le Vélo had been forced out of business.

    1. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 108.
     
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    2 July 2016Suicide bombing of Karrada in Baghdad kills at least 341 people.

    2016 Karrada bombing

    On 3 July 2016, ISIL militants carried out coordinated bomb attacks in Baghdad that killed 340 civilians and injured hundreds more.[3] A few minutes after midnight local time (2 July, 21:00 UTC), a suicide truck-bomb targeted the mainly Shia district of Karrada, busy with late night shoppers for Ramadan. A second roadside bomb was detonated in the suburb of Sha'ab, killing at least five.

    ISIL issued a statement claiming responsibility for the attack, naming the suicide bomber as Abu Maha al-Iraqi. There were reports that the source of the blast was a refrigerator van packed with explosives. The explosion caused a huge fire on the main street. Several buildings, including the popular Hadi Center, were badly damaged. The bombing is the second-worst suicide attack in Iraq by death toll after the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings and the deadliest terrorist attack in Iraq carried out by a single bomber.

    1. ^ "Baghdad blast killed 292, many burned alive". AFP. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Guardian was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "In Iraq, terrorism's victims go unnamed". CNN. January 12, 2017.
     
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    3 July 1996 – British Prime Minister John Major announced the Stone of Scone would be returned to Scotland.

    Stone of Scone

    Replica of the Stone of Scone, Scone Palace

    The Stone of Scone (/ˈskn/; Scottish Gaelic: An Lia Fáil, Scots: Stane o Scuin)—also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland, and later also when the monarchs of Scotland became monarchs of England as well as in the coronations of the monarchs of Great Britain and latterly of the United Kingdom following the treaties of union. Historically, the artefact was kept at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. It is also known as Jacob's Pillow Stone and the Tanist Stone, and in Scottish Gaelic, clach-na-cinneamhain. Its size is 66 cm (26 in) by 42.5 cm (16.7 in) by 26.7 cm (10.5 in) and its weight is approximately 152 kg (335 lb). A roughly incised cross is on one surface, and an iron ring at each end aids with transport.[1] The Stone of Scone was last used in 1953 for the coronation of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    1. ^ "The stone of Destiny". English Monarchs. www.englishmonarcs.co.uk. 2004–2005. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
     
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    Articles:
    1
    4 July 1997NASA's Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder)[1][4] is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner,[5] which became the first rover to operate outside the Earth–Moon system.

    Launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II booster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Mars's Ares Vallis, in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. The lander then opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of scientific instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, climate, and geology and the composition of its rocks and soil. It was the second project from NASA's Discovery Program, which promotes the use of low-cost spacecraft and frequent launches under the motto "cheaper, faster and better" promoted by then-administrator Daniel Goldin. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology, responsible for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The project manager was JPL's Tony Spear.

    This mission was the first of a series of missions to Mars that included rovers, and was the first successful lander since the two Vikings landed on the red planet in 1976. Although the Soviet Union successfully sent rovers to the Moon as part of the Lunokhod program in the 1970s, its attempts to use rovers in its Mars program failed.

    In addition to scientific objectives, the Mars Pathfinder mission was also a "proof-of-concept" for various technologies, such as airbag-mediated touchdown and automated obstacle avoidance, both later exploited by the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The Mars Pathfinder was also remarkable for its extremely low cost relative to other robotic space missions to Mars. Originally, the mission was conceived as the first of the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) program.

    1. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner Rover". NASA. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    2. ^ a b "Mars Pathfinder Fact Sheet". NASA/JPL. March 19, 2005. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
    3. ^ Conway, Erik (2015). "The Discovery Program: Mars Pathfinder". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
    4. ^ Sawyer, Kathy (November 13, 1993). "One Way or Another, Space Agency Will Hitch a Ride to Mars". Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
    5. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". NASA. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
     
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    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    4 July 1997NASA's Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder)[1][4] is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner,[5] which became the first rover to operate outside the Earth–Moon system.

    Launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II booster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Mars's Ares Vallis, in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. The lander then opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of scientific instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, climate, and geology and the composition of its rocks and soil. It was the second project from NASA's Discovery Program, which promotes the use of low-cost spacecraft and frequent launches under the motto "cheaper, faster and better" promoted by then-administrator Daniel Goldin. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology, responsible for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The project manager was JPL's Tony Spear.

    This mission was the first of a series of missions to Mars that included rovers, and was the first successful lander since the two Vikings landed on the red planet in 1976. Although the Soviet Union successfully sent rovers to the Moon as part of the Lunokhod program in the 1970s, its attempts to use rovers in its Mars program failed.

    In addition to scientific objectives, the Mars Pathfinder mission was also a "proof-of-concept" for various technologies, such as airbag-mediated touchdown and automated obstacle avoidance, both later exploited by the Mars Exploration Rover mission. The Mars Pathfinder was also remarkable for its extremely low cost relative to other robotic space missions to Mars. Originally, the mission was conceived as the first of the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) program.

    1. ^ a b Nelson, Jon. "Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner Rover". NASA. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    2. ^ a b "Mars Pathfinder Fact Sheet". NASA/JPL. March 19, 2005. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
    3. ^ Conway, Erik (2015). "The Discovery Program: Mars Pathfinder". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
    4. ^ Sawyer, Kathy (November 13, 1993). "One Way or Another, Space Agency Will Hitch a Ride to Mars". Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
    5. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". NASA. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
     

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