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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    February 19 1985William J. Schroeder becomes the first recipient of an artificial heart to leave the hospital.

    Artificial heart

    An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in the case that a heart transplant is impossible. Although other similar inventions preceded it from the late 1940s, the first artificial heart to be successfully implanted in a human was the Jarvik-7 in 1982, designed by a team including Willem Johan Kolff and Robert Jarvik.

    An artificial heart is distinct from a ventricular assist device (VAD) designed to support a failing heart. It is also distinct from a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, which is an external device used to provide the functions of both the heart and lungs, used only for a few hours at a time, most commonly during cardiac surgery.

     
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    20 February 1872 – The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York City.

    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met",[a] is the largest art museum in the United States. Its permanent collection contains over 2 million works,[1] divided among 17 curatorial departments. The main building at 1000 Fifth Avenue, along the Museum Mile on the eastern edge of Central Park in Manhattan's Upper East Side, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from medieval Europe.

    The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries.

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. The Fifth Avenue building opened on February 20, 1872, at 681 Fifth Avenue. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was closed for 202 days, and attracted only 1,124,759 visitors, a drop of 83 percent from 2019, but it still ranked ninth on the list of most-visited art museums in the world.[10]

    1. ^ a b "Metropolitan Museum Launches New and Expanded Web Site" Archived November 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, press release, The Met, January 25, 2000
    2. ^ "Today in Met History: April 13". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
    3. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art: About". Artinfo. 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Met History was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ "The Art Newspaper", Visitor Figures for 2020, March 30, 2021
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL-0410 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL-0972 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    8. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
    9. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
    10. ^ The Art Newspaper annual visitor survey, published March 30, 2021


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    21 February 2013 – At least 17 people are killed and 119 injured following several bombings in the Indian city of Hyderabad.

    2013 Hyderabad blasts

    On 21 February 2013, at around 19:00 IST, two blasts occurred in the city of Hyderabad, India. The bombs exploded in Dilsukhnagar, a crowded shopping area,[3] within 100 metres (330 ft) of each other.[4][5] The first explosion occurred outside a roadside eatery named A1 Mirchi, next to the Anand Tiffin Centre and opposite the Konark movie hall, followed by the second one two minutes later near the Route 107 bus stand close to the Venkatadri theatre.[6][7] [8]

    1. ^ "IED used in twin blasts in Hyderabad: DGP". DNA India. PTI. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    2. ^ a b c "Hyderabad blasts case: Yasin Bhatkal, 4 other IM operatives sentenced to death". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
    3. ^ "Hyderabad blasts: Dilsukhnagar has been on Indian Mujahideen radar since 1999". The Times of India. TNN. 22 February 2013. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
    4. ^ "12 dead, 50 injured in blasts in Hyderabad". DNA India. IANS. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    5. ^ "12 dead, 84 injured in blasts in Hyderabad". DNA India. PTI. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    6. ^ "Two blasts in Dilsukh Nagar area in Hyderabad". Zee News. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
    7. ^ "13 die in Hyderabad blasts aimed at teeming clusters". The Telegraph, India. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
    8. ^ Reddy, B Dasarath (22 February 2013). "Hyderabad blasts: toll goes up to 17". Business Standard. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
     
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    22 February 1959Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500.

    Daytona 500

    The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400, and one of three held in Florida, with the annual spring showdown Dixie Vodka 400 being held at Homestead south of Miami. From 1988 to 2019, it was one of the four restrictor plate races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

    The Daytona 500 is regarded as the most important and prestigious race on the NASCAR calendar, carrying by far the largest purse.[2] Championship points awarded are equal to that of any other NASCAR Cup Series race. It is also the series' first race of the year; this phenomenon is unique in sports, which tend to have championships or other major events at the end of the season rather than the start. Since 1995, U.S. television ratings for the Daytona 500 have been the highest for any auto race of the year, surpassing the traditional leader, the Indianapolis 500 which in turn greatly surpasses the Daytona 500 in in-track attendance and international viewing. The 2006 Daytona 500 attracted the sixth largest average live global TV audience of any sporting event that year with 20 million viewers.[3]

    The race serves as the final event of Speedweeks and is also known as "The Great American Race" or the "Super Bowl of Stock Car Racing".[4][5][6] Since its inception, the race has been held in mid-to-late February. From 1971 to 2011, and again since 2018, the event has been as associated with Presidents Day weekend, taking place on the Sunday before the third Monday in February. On eight occasions, the race has been run on Valentine's Day.

    Since 1997, the winner of the Daytona 500 has been presented with the Harley J. Earl Trophy in Victory Lane, and the winning car is displayed in race-winning condition for one year at Daytona 500 Experience, a museum and gallery adjacent to Daytona International Speedway.

    Michael McDowell is the defending winner of the Daytona 500, having won it in 2021.

    1. ^ Chad Culver (2014). Dover International Speedway: The Monster Mile. 53: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 1467121371.CS1 maint: location (link)
    2. ^ "Culture, Class, Distinction"Bennett, Tony. Culture, Class, Distinction. Routledge (2009) Disaggregating cultural capital. English translation ISBN 0-415-42242-6 (hardcover).
    3. ^ "World's most watched TV sports events: 2006 Rank & Trends report". Initiative. 2007-01-19. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
    4. ^ "A History of the Daytona 500". TicketCity. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    5. ^ Crossman, Matt (February 22, 2015). "Daytona 500 Magic Hour: Best 60 minutes in sports". NASCAR. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
    6. ^ Briggs, Josh. "How Daytona Qualifying Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
     
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    23 February 1903Cuba leases Guantánamo Bay to the United States "in perpetuity".

    Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

    Map of Guantánamo Bay showing approximate U.S. Naval Base boundaries
    Enlargeable, detailed map of Guantánamo Bay Naval Base

    Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Spanish: Base Naval de la Bahía de Guantánamo), officially known as Naval Station Guantanamo Bay or NSGB, (also called GTMO or Gitmo because of the common pronunciation of this word by the U.S. military[1]) is a United States military base located on 45 square miles (117 km2) of land and water[2] on the shore of Guantánamo Bay at the southeastern end of Cuba. It was first leased by the United States for use as a coaling station and naval base in 1903 and is the oldest overseas U.S. naval base.[3] The lease was $2,000 in gold per year until 1934, when the payment was set to match the value in gold in dollars;[4] in 1974, the yearly lease was set to $4,085.[5]

    Since the Cuban Revolution of 1959, the Cuban communist government has consistently protested against the U.S. presence on Cuban soil and called it "illegal" under international law, alleging that the base "was imposed on Cuba by force." Since 2002, the naval base has contained a military prison, for alleged unlawful combatants captured in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other places during the War on terror.[6] Cases of torture of prisoners[7] by the U.S. military, and their denial of protection under the Geneva Conventions, have been criticized.[8][9]

    1. ^ "File:US Navy 040813-N-6939M-002 Commissions building courtroom at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.jpg".
    2. ^ Rosenberg, Carol (25 October 2018). "Guantánamo By the Numbers". Miami Herald. Retrieved 15 April 2021. Size of Navy base: 45 square miles, straddling Guantánamo Bay, from prison camp to air strip. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
    3. ^ "Why the U.S. base at Cuba's Guantanamo Bay is probably doomed". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    4. ^ Sweeney, Joseph C. (2006). "Guantanamo and U.S. Law". Fordham International Law Journal. 30 (3): 22.
    5. ^ Elsea, Jennifer K.; Else, Daniel H. (17 November 2016). Naval Station Guantanamo Bay: History and Legal Issues Regarding Its Lease Agreements (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
    6. ^ "Guantanamo Bay – Camp Delta". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
    7. ^ "GTMO CTD Inspection Special Inquiry" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
    8. ^ "Article 10: Right to fair public hearing by independent tribunal". BBC World Service. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
    9. ^ "Agenda Item 17 base naval". cubaminrex.cu. Archived from the original on 4 June 2004.
     
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    24 February 1821 – Final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain with Plan of Iguala.

    Mexican War of Independence

    The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict and political process, lasting from 1808 to 1821, resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, coherent event, but local and regional struggles that occurred within the same time period, and can be considered a revolutionary civil war.[2] Independence was not an inevitable outcome, but events in Spain itself had a direct impact on the outbreak of the armed insurgency in 1810 and its course until 1821. Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808 touched off a crisis of legitimacy of crown rule, since he had placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne after forcing the abdication of the Spanish monarch Charles IV. In Spain and many of its overseas possessions the local response was to set up juntas ruling in the name of the Bourbon monarchy. Delegates in Spain and overseas territories met in Cádiz, Spain, still under Spanish control, as the Cortes of Cádiz, which drafted the Spanish Constitution of 1812. That constitution sought to create a new governing framework in the absence of the legitimate Spanish monarch. It tried to accommodate the aspirations of American-born Spaniards for more local control and equal standing with Peninsular-born Spaniards. This political process had far reaching impacts in New Spain, during the independence period and beyond.

    In September 1808 peninsular-born Spaniards in New Spain overthrew the rule of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray (1803–08), who had been appointed before the French invasion. In 1810, a few American-born Spaniards in favor of independence began plotting an uprising against Spanish rule. It occurred when the parish priest of the village of Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, issued the Cry of Dolores on September 16, 1810. The Hidalgo revolt touched off the armed insurgency for independence, lasting until 1821. The colonial regime did not expect the size and duration of the insurgency, which spread from the Bajío region north of Mexico City to the Pacific and Gulf Coasts. With Napoleon's defeat, Ferdinand VII succeeded to the throne of the Spanish Empire in 1814, and promptly repudiated the constitution and returned to absolutist rule. When Spanish liberals overthrew the autocratic rule of Ferdinand VII in 1820, conservatives in New Spain saw political independence as a way to maintain their position. Former royalists and old insurgents formed an alliance under the Plan of Iguala and forged the Army of the Three Guarantees. The momentum of independence saw the collapse of royal government in Mexico and the Treaty of Córdoba ended the conflict.[3]

    The mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire.[4] This ephemeral Catholic monarchy was overthrown and a federal republic declared in 1823 and codified in the Constitution of 1824. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain under the rule of Isabella II recognized the independence of Mexico in 1836.[5]

    1. ^ Scheina. Latin America's Wars. p. 84.
    2. ^ Altman, Ida et al. The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall 2003, pp. 341–358.
    3. ^ Archer, Christon I. "Wars of Independence" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1595–1601.
    4. ^ Mexico independiente, 1821–1851 Archived 2018-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, Monografias, 1996; accessed Dec 21, 2018.
    5. ^ http://pares.mcu.es/Bicentenarios/portal/reconocimientoEspana.html Archived 2018-10-17 at the Wayback Machine accessed Dec 21, 2018.
     
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    24 February 1821 – Final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain with Plan of Iguala.

    Mexican War of Independence

    The Mexican War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict and political process, lasting from 1808 to 1821, resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, coherent event, but local and regional struggles that occurred within the same time period, and can be considered a revolutionary civil war.[2] Independence was not an inevitable outcome, but events in Spain itself had a direct impact on the outbreak of the armed insurgency in 1810 and its course until 1821. Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808 touched off a crisis of legitimacy of crown rule, since he had placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne after forcing the abdication of the Spanish monarch Charles IV. In Spain and many of its overseas possessions the local response was to set up juntas ruling in the name of the Bourbon monarchy. Delegates in Spain and overseas territories met in Cádiz, Spain, still under Spanish control, as the Cortes of Cádiz, which drafted the Spanish Constitution of 1812. That constitution sought to create a new governing framework in the absence of the legitimate Spanish monarch. It tried to accommodate the aspirations of American-born Spaniards for more local control and equal standing with Peninsular-born Spaniards. This political process had far reaching impacts in New Spain, during the independence period and beyond.

    In September 1808 peninsular-born Spaniards in New Spain overthrew the rule of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray (1803–08), who had been appointed before the French invasion. In 1810, a few American-born Spaniards in favor of independence began plotting an uprising against Spanish rule. It occurred when the parish priest of the village of Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, issued the Cry of Dolores on September 16, 1810. The Hidalgo revolt touched off the armed insurgency for independence, lasting until 1821. The colonial regime did not expect the size and duration of the insurgency, which spread from the Bajío region north of Mexico City to the Pacific and Gulf Coasts. With Napoleon's defeat, Ferdinand VII succeeded to the throne of the Spanish Empire in 1814, and promptly repudiated the constitution and returned to absolutist rule. When Spanish liberals overthrew the autocratic rule of Ferdinand VII in 1820, conservatives in New Spain saw political independence as a way to maintain their position. Former royalists and old insurgents formed an alliance under the Plan of Iguala and forged the Army of the Three Guarantees. The momentum of independence saw the collapse of royal government in Mexico and the Treaty of Córdoba ended the conflict.[3]

    The mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire.[4] This ephemeral Catholic monarchy was overthrown and a federal republic declared in 1823 and codified in the Constitution of 1824. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain under the rule of Isabella II recognized the independence of Mexico in 1836.[5]

    1. ^ Scheina. Latin America's Wars. p. 84.
    2. ^ Altman, Ida et al. The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall 2003, pp. 341–358.
    3. ^ Archer, Christon I. "Wars of Independence" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1595–1601.
    4. ^ Mexico independiente, 1821–1851 Archived 2018-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, Monografias, 1996; accessed Dec 21, 2018.
    5. ^ http://pares.mcu.es/Bicentenarios/portal/reconocimientoEspana.html Archived 2018-10-17 at the Wayback Machine accessed Dec 21, 2018.
     
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    25 February 1939 – As part of British air raid precautions, the first of 21⁄2 million Anderson shelters is constructed in a garden in Islington, north London

    Air Raid Precautions in the United Kingdom

    Recruitment poster for Air Raid Wardens

    Air Raid Precautions (ARP) refers to a number of organisations and guidelines in the United Kingdom dedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air raids. Government consideration for air raid precautions increased in the 1920s and 30s, with the Raid Wardens' Service set up in 1937 to report on bombing incidents.[1] Every local council was responsible for organising ARP wardens, messengers, ambulance drivers, rescue parties, and liaison with police and fire brigades.

    From 1 September 1939, ARP wardens enforced the "blackout". Heavy curtains and shutters were required on all private residences, commercial premises, and factories to prevent light escaping and so making them a possible marker for enemy bombers to locate their targets.

    With increased enemy bombing during the Blitz, the ARP services were central in reporting and dealing with bombing incidents. They managed the air raid sirens and ensured people were directed to shelters. Women were involved in ARP services through the Women's Voluntary Service.

    The Auxiliary Fire Service was set up in 1938 to support existing local fire services, which were amalgamated into a National Fire Service in 1941.

    From 1941 the ARP officially changed its title to Civil Defence Service to reflect the wider range of roles it then encompassed. During the war almost 7,000 Civil Defence workers were killed.[1] In all some 1.5 million men and women served within the organisation during World War Two. Over 127,000 full-time personnel were involved at the height of the Blitz but by the end of 1943 this had dropped to 70,000. The Civil Defence Service was stood down towards the end of the war in Europe on 2 May 1945.[2]

    Between 1949 and 1968 many of the duties of the Civil Defence Service were resurrected through the Civil Defence Corps.

    1. ^ a b "How Britain Prepared For Air Raids In The Second World War". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
    2. ^ "Fact File : Air Raid Precautions". BBC. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
     
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    26 February 1919 – President Woodrow Wilson signs an act of Congress establishing the Grand Canyon National Park.

    Grand Canyon National Park

    Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named as a national park. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World. The park, which covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties, received more than six million recreational visitors in 2017, which is the second highest count of all American national parks after Great Smoky Mountains National Park.[5] The Grand Canyon was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979. The park celebrated its 100th anniversary on February 26, 2019.[6]

    1. ^ Grand Canyon in United States of America. protectedplanet.net. United Nations Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
    2. ^ "Grand Canyon National Park Visitor Center". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
    3. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011" (PDF). Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
    4. ^ "Annual Visitation Highlights". nps.gov. National Park Service.
    5. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
    6. ^ "Grand Canyon Centennial History". TIME. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
     
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    27 February 1594Henry IV is crowned King of France.

    Henry IV of France

    Henry IV (French: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

    The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.[2]

    He and his predecessor Henry III of France were direct descendants of Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood". Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

    He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. After four years of stalemate, he converted to Catholicism to obtain mastery over his kingdom (reportedly saying, "Paris is well worth a mass."). As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

    Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became the target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[3] Having faced much opposition during his reign, Henry gained more status after his death.[4] He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects.[2] An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign,[5] the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colonies of Acadia and Canada at Port-Royal and Quebec, respectively. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

    1. ^ Baird, Henry Martyn (1886). The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre. p. 486. ISBN 9780404005405.
    2. ^ a b Harris, Carolyn (August 2017). "The Queen's land". Canada's History. 97 (4): 34–43. ISSN 1920-9894.
    3. ^ Pierre Miquel, Les Guerres de religion, Paris, Club France Loisirs (1980) ISBN 2-7242-0785-8, p. 399
    4. ^ Le Figaro, "Henri IV, Dès sa mort, il entre dans la légende", 1 August 2009 [1]
    5. ^ Acadia. Encyclopedia Britannica
     
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    27 February 1594Henry IV is crowned King of France.

    Henry IV of France

    Henry IV (French: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

    The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.[2]

    He and his predecessor Henry III of France were direct descendants of Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood". Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

    He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. After four years of stalemate, he converted to Catholicism to obtain mastery over his kingdom (reportedly saying, "Paris is well worth a mass."). As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.

    Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became the target of at least 12 assassination attempts.[3] Having faced much opposition during his reign, Henry gained more status after his death.[4] He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects.[2] An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign,[5] the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colonies of Acadia and Canada at Port-Royal and Quebec, respectively. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

    1. ^ Baird, Henry Martyn (1886). The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre. p. 486. ISBN 9780404005405.
    2. ^ a b Harris, Carolyn (August 2017). "The Queen's land". Canada's History. 97 (4): 34–43. ISSN 1920-9894.
    3. ^ Pierre Miquel, Les Guerres de religion, Paris, Club France Loisirs (1980) ISBN 2-7242-0785-8, p. 399
    4. ^ Le Figaro, "Henri IV, Dès sa mort, il entre dans la légende", 1 August 2009 [1]
    5. ^ Acadia. Encyclopedia Britannica
     
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    28 February 1991 – The first Gulf War ends.

    Gulf War

    The Gulf War[b] was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. It was codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase.

    On 2 August 1990, the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher[28] and US president George H. W. Bush deployed forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, forming the largest military alliance since World War II. Most of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[29]

    The war marked the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN.[30][31][32] The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board U.S. bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[26][33]

    The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against Israel and coalition targets in Saudi Arabia.

    1. ^ "DESERT SHIELD AND DESERT STORM A CHRONOLOGY AND TROOP LIST FOR THE 1990–1991 PERSIAN GULF CRISIS" (PDF). apps.dtic.mil. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt-syria-double was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Haberman, Clyde; Times, Special To the New York (20 January 1991). "WAR IN THE GULF: Turkey; Turkey's Role in Air Assault Sets Off Fear of Retaliation (Published 1991)" – via NYTimes.com.
    4. ^ "Den 1. Golfkrig". Forsvaret.dk. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    5. ^ Persian Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince
      Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co-commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf
      www.casi.org.uk/discuss
    6. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with US General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
    7. ^ Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "www.nationmaster.com". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
    8. ^ Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
    9. ^ a b "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
    10. ^ 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
    11. ^ CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
    12. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
    13. ^ Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
    14. ^ Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
    15. ^ Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights in the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
    16. ^ Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    17. ^ M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
    18. ^ "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    19. ^ NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
    20. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
    21. ^ Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War) Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Acig.org. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
    22. ^ a b c d e Bourque P.455
    23. ^ "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
    24. ^ "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction". Red Cross.
    25. ^ "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict". Project on Defense Alternatives. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
    26. ^ a b A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais accessed on 29 March 2011.
    27. ^ [https://web.archive.org/web/20120426005120/http://www.iraquenewst55.jex.com.br/3+guerra+terrorismo/o+maior+bombardeio+da+historia Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história], access on 27 November 2011.
    28. ^ "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation". www.margaretthatcher.org.
    29. ^ Peters, John E; Deshong, Howard (1995). Out of Area or Out of Reach? European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2329-2.
    30. ^ "Memória Globo". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), access on 29 March 2011.
    31. ^ "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010". .folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
    32. ^ A Guerra do Golfo, accessed on 29 March 2011
    33. ^ Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, access on 27 November 2011.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    1 March 1998Titanic became the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

    Titanic (1997 film)

    Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance and disaster film directed, written, co-produced, and co-edited by James Cameron. Incorporating both historical and fictionalized aspects, it is based on accounts of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, and stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet as members of different social classes who fall in love aboard the ship during its ill-fated maiden voyage.

    Cameron's inspiration for the film came from his fascination with shipwrecks; he felt a love story interspersed with the human loss would be essential to convey the emotional impact of the disaster. Production began in 1995, when Cameron shot footage of the actual Titanic wreck. The modern scenes on the research vessel were shot on board the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, which Cameron had used as a base when filming the wreck. Scale models, computer-generated imagery, and a reconstruction of the Titanic built at Baja Studios were used to re-create the sinking. The film was co-financed by Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox; the former handled distribution in North America while the latter released the film internationally. It was the most expensive film ever made at the time, with a production budget of $200 million.

    Upon its release on December 19, 1997, Titanic achieved significant critical and commercial success. Nominated for 14 Academy Awards, it tied All About Eve (1950) for the most Oscar nominations, and won 11, including the awards for Best Picture and Best Director, tying Ben-Hur (1959) for the most Oscars won by a single film. With an initial worldwide gross of over $1.84 billion, Titanic was the first film to reach the billion-dollar mark. It remained the highest-grossing film of all time until Cameron's Avatar surpassed it in 2010. A 3D version of Titanic, released on April 4, 2012, to commemorate the centennial of the sinking, earned it an additional $343.6 million worldwide, pushing the film's worldwide total to $2.195 billion and making it the second film to gross more than $2 billion worldwide (after Avatar). In 2017, the film was re-released for its 20th anniversary and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.

    1. ^ a b c "Titanic (1997)". Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
    2. ^ a b "Titanic". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
    3. ^ "TITANIC (12)". British Board of Film Classification. November 14, 1997. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Garrett (2007) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sandler & Studlar 1999 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Welkos (1998) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference bom was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    2 March 1995 – Researchers at Fermilab announce the discovery of the top quark.

    Top quark

    The top quark, sometimes also referred to as the truth quark, (symbol: t) is the most massive of all observed elementary particles. It derives its mass from its coupling to the Higgs Boson. This coupling is very close to unity; in the Standard Model of particle physics, it is the largest (strongest) coupling at the scale of the weak interactions and above. The top quark was discovered in 1995 by the CDF[2] and [3] experiments at Fermilab.

    Like all other quarks, the top quark is a fermion with spin 1/2 and participates in all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. It has an electric charge of +2/3 e. It has a mass of 172.76±0.3 GeV/c2,[1] which is close to the rhenium atom mass.[4] The antiparticle of the top quark is the top antiquark (symbol: t, sometimes called antitop quark or simply antitop), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

    The top quark interacts with gluons of the strong interaction and is typically produced in hadron colliders via this interaction. However, once produced, the top (or antitop) can decay only through the weak force. It decays to a W boson and either a bottom quark (most frequently), a strange quark, or, on the rarest of occasions, a down quark.

    The Standard Model determines the top quark's mean lifetime to be roughly 5×10−25 s.[5] This is about a twentieth of the timescale for strong interactions, and therefore it does not form hadrons, giving physicists a unique opportunity to study a "bare" quark (all other quarks hadronize, meaning that they combine with other quarks to form hadrons and can only be observed as such).

    Because the top quark is so massive, its properties allowed indirect determination of the mass of the Higgs boson (see § Mass and coupling to the Higgs boson below). As such, the top quark's properties are extensively studied as a means to discriminate between competing theories of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Top quark is the only quark that has been directly observed due to the fact that it decays faster than the hadronization time.[6]

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference PDG2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference CDF-1995 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference D0-1995 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hypertextbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Quadt was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Gastmans, Raymond; Gérard, Jean-Marc (6 December 2012). Particle Physics: Ideas and Recent Developments. Springer, Dordrecht. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7923-6436-8. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
     
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    3 March 1938Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia.

    History of the oil industry in Saudi Arabia

    Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, struck oil on March 3,[1] 1938.
    Saudi Arabia crude oil production 1950-2012

    Saudi Arabian oil was first discovered by the Americans in commercial quantities at Dammam oil well No. 7 in 1938 in what is now modern day Dhahran.

    1. ^ Society, National Geographic (20 February 2014). "Oil Discovered in Saudi Arabia". nationalgeographic.org. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
     
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    4 March 1970 – French submarine Eurydice explodes underwater, resulting in the loss of the entire 57-man crew.

    French submarine Eurydice (S644)

    Eurydice was a French submarine, one of nine of the Daphné class.

    On 4 March 1970, while diving in calm seas off Cape Camarat in the Mediterranean, 35 miles (56 km) east of Toulon, a geophysical laboratory picked up the shock waves of an underwater explosion. French and Italian search teams found an oil slick and a few bits of debris, including a part that bore the name Eurydice.

    The cause of the explosion was never determined. All 57 crew were lost.

    The USNS Mizar took part in a search for the missing Eurydice and on 22 April 1970 they discovered several large pieces of wreckage in depths from 600 to 1100 metres off Cape Camarat near Saint-Tropez.

     
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    5 March 1824First Anglo-Burmese War: The British officially declare war on Burma.

    First Anglo-Burmese War

    The First Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the First Burma War, (Burmese: ပထမ အင်္ဂလိပ် မြန်မာ စစ်; [pətʰəma̰ ɪ́ɰ̃ɡəleiʔ mjəmà sɪʔ]; 5 March 1824 – 24 February 1826) was the first of three wars fought between the British and Burmese empires in the 19th century. The war, which began primarily over the control of Northeastern India, ended in a decisive British victory, giving the British total control of Assam, Manipur, Cachar and Jaintia as well as Arakan Province and Tenasserim. The Burmese submitted to a British demand to pay an indemnity of one million pounds sterling, and signed a commercial treaty.[3][4]

    This war was the longest and most expensive war in British Indian history. Fifteen thousand European and Indian soldiers died, together with an unknown number of Burmese military and civilian casualties. The high cost of the campaign to the British, 5–13 million pounds sterling (£400 million – £1.1 billion as of 2019),[5][6] contributed to a severe economic crisis in British India which cost the East India Company its remaining privileges.[7]

    Though once strong enough to threaten the interests of the British East India Company (especially with respect to the eastern border regions of Assam, Manipur, and Arakan), the Burmese Empire now suffered "the beginning of the end" of its status as an independent nation.[6] They would be economically burdened for years to come by the cost of the indemnity.[4] The British, eventually waging the Second and Third Anglo-Burmese Wars against a much-weakened Burma, would assume control of the entire country by 1885.

    1. ^ Robertson, Thomas Campbell (1853). Political incidents of the First Burmese War. Harvard University: Richard Bentley. p. 252.
    2. ^ Chopra, P.N. (2003). A Comprehensive History of India, Volume 3. India: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 79. ISBN 8120725069.
    3. ^ Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1967). History of Burma (2 ed.). London: Sunil Gupta. pp. 236–237.
    4. ^ a b Maung Htin Aung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 212, 214–215.
    5. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
    6. ^ a b Thant Myint-U (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps--Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 113, 125–127. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6.
    7. ^ Webster, Anthony (1998). Gentlemen Capitalists: British Imperialism in South East Asia, 1770-1890. I.B.Tauris. pp. 142–145. ISBN 978-1-86064-171-8.
     
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    6 March 1992 – The Michelangelo computer virus begins to affect computers.

    Michelangelo (computer virus)

    The Michelangelo virus is a computer virus first discovered on 4 February 1991 in Australia.[1] The virus was designed to infect DOS systems, but did not engage the operating system or make any OS calls. Michelangelo, like all boot sector viruses, operated at the BIOS level. Each year, the virus remained dormant until March 6, the birthday of Renaissance artist Michelangelo. There is no reference to the artist in the virus, and it is doubtful that the virus' developer(s) intended Michelangelo to be referenced to the virus. The name was chosen by researchers who noticed the coincidence of the activation date. The actual significance of the date to the author is unknown. Michelangelo is a variant of the already endemic Stoned virus.[citation needed]

    On March 6, if the PC is an AT or a PS/2, the virus overwrites the first one hundred sectors of the hard disk with nulls. The virus assumes a geometry of 256 cylinders, 4 heads, 17 sectors per track. Although all the user's data would still be on the hard disk, it would be irretrievable for the average user.[citation needed]

    On hard disks, the virus moves the original master boot record to cylinder 0, head 0, sector 7.

    On floppy disks, if the disk is 360 KB, the virus moves the original boot sector to cylinder 0, head 1, sector 3.

    On other disks, the virus moves the original boot sector to cylinder 0, head 1, sector 14.

    • This is the last directory of the 1.2 MB disks.
    • This is the second-to-last directory of the 1.44 MB disks.
    • The directory does not exist on 720 KB disks.

    Although designed to infect DOS systems, the virus can easily disrupt other operating systems installed on the system since, like many viruses of its era, the Michelangelo infects the master boot record of a hard drive. Once a system became infected, any floppy disk inserted into the system (and written to; in 1992 a PC system could not detect that a floppy had been inserted, so the virus could not infect the floppy until some access to the disk is made) becomes immediately infected as well. And because the virus spends most of its time dormant, activating only on March 6, it is conceivable that an infected computer could go for years without detection — as long as it wasn't booted on that date, while infected.

    The virus first came to widespread international attention in January 1992, when it was revealed that a few computer and software manufacturers had accidentally shipped products, for example Intel's LANSpool print server, infected with the virus. Although the infected machines numbered only in the hundreds, the resulting publicity spiraled into "expert" claims, partially led by anti-virus company founder John McAfee,[2][3] of thousands or even millions of computers infected by Michelangelo. However, on March 6, 1992, only 10,000 to 20,000 cases of data loss were reported.[citation needed]

    In subsequent years, users were advised not to run PCs on March 6, waiting until March 7, or else reset the PC date to March 7 at some time on March 5 (to skip March 6). Eventually, the news media lost interest, and the virus was quickly forgotten. Despite the scenario given above, in which an infected computer could evade detection for years, by 1997 no cases were being reported in the wild.[citation needed]

     
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    7 March 1965Bloody Sunday: A group of 600 civil rights marchers is brutally attacked by state and local police in Selma, Alabama.

    Selma to Montgomery marches

    The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression; they were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the civil rights movement.

    Southern state legislatures had passed and maintained a series of discriminatory requirements and practices that had disenfranchised most of the millions of African Americans across the South throughout the 20th century. The African-American group known as the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) launched a voter registration campaign in Selma in 1963. Joined by organizers from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), they began working that year in a renewed effort to register black voters.

    Finding resistance by white officials to be intractable, even after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended legal segregation, the DCVL invited Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and the activists of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to join them. SCLC brought many prominent civil rights and civic leaders to Selma in January 1965. Local and regional protests began, with 3,000 people arrested by the end of February. According to Joseph A. Califano Jr., who served as head of domestic affairs for U.S. President Lyndon Johnson between the years 1965 and 1969, the President viewed King as an essential partner in getting the Voting Rights Act enacted.[3] Califano, whom the President also assigned to monitor the final march to Montgomery,[4] said that Johnson and King talked by telephone on January 15 to plan a strategy for drawing attention to the injustice of using literacy tests and other barriers to stop black Southerners from voting, and that King later informed the President on February 9 of his decision to use Selma to achieve this objective.[3]

    On February 26, 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson died after being shot several days earlier by state trooper James Bonard Fowler, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama. To defuse and refocus the community's outrage, James Bevel, who was directing SCLC's Selma voting rights movement, called for a march of dramatic length, from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery.[5][6] Bevel had been working on his Alabama Project for voting rights since late 1963.

    The first march took place on March 7, 1965, organized locally by Bevel, Amelia Boynton, and others. State troopers and county possemen attacked the unarmed marchers with billy clubs and tear gas after they passed over the county line, and the event became known as Bloody Sunday.[7][8] Law enforcement beat Boynton unconscious, and the media publicized worldwide a picture of her lying wounded on the Edmund Pettus Bridge.[9]

    The second march took place March 9. Troopers, police, and marchers confronted each other at the county end of the bridge, but when the troopers stepped aside to let them pass, King led the marchers back to the church.[10] He was obeying a federal injunction while seeking protection from federal court for the march. That night, a white group beat and murdered civil rights activist James Reeb, a Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, who had come to Selma to march with the second group.[11] Many other clergy and sympathizers from across the country also gathered for the second march.

    The violence of "Bloody Sunday" and Reeb's murder resulted in a national outcry and some acts of civil disobedience, targeting both the Alabama and federal governments. The protesters demanded protection for the Selma marchers and a new federal voting rights law to enable African Americans to register and vote without harassment. President Lyndon Johnson, whose administration had been working on a voting rights law, held a historic, nationally televised joint session of Congress on March 15 to ask for the bill's introduction and passage.

    With Governor Wallace refusing to protect the marchers, President Johnson committed to do so. The third march started on March 21. Protected by 1,900 members of the Alabama National Guard under federal command, and many FBI agents and federal marshals, the marchers averaged 10 miles (16 km) a day along U.S. Route 80, known in Alabama as the "Jefferson Davis Highway". The marchers arrived in Montgomery on March 24 and at the Alabama State Capitol on March 25.[12] With thousands having joined the campaign, 25,000 people entered the capital city that day in support of voting rights.

    The route is memorialized as the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail, a designated National Historic Trail. The Voting Rights Act became law on August 6, 1965.

    1. ^ Taylor Branch, At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years 1965-1968 (Simon & Schuster, 2007), p. 198.
    2. ^ "Swarthmore College Bulletin (July 2014)".
    3. ^ a b Joseph A. Califano Jr. (December 26, 2014). "The movie 'Selma' has a glaring flaw". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
    4. ^ From Selma to Montgomery Archived April 23, 2015, at Archive.today LBJ Presidential Library. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
    5. ^ Randall Kryn, "James L. Bevel The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement," In David Garrow's 1989 book We Shall Overcome, Volume II, New York: Carlson Publishing Company, 1989.
    6. ^ Randy Kryn, "Movement Revision Research Summary Regarding James Bevel", October 2005, Middlebury College.
    7. ^ "Student March at Nyack". The New York Times. March 11, 1965. p. 19. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
    8. ^ Reed, Roy (March 6, 1966). "'Bloody Sunday' Was Year Ago". The New York Times. p. 76. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
    9. ^ Sheila Jackson Hardy; P. Stephen Hardy (August 11, 2008). Extraordinary People of the Civil Rights Movement. Paw Prints. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-4395-2357-5. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
    10. ^ Branch, Taylor (2013). The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement. Simon & Schuster.
    11. ^ "James Joseph Reeb". uudb.org. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
    12. ^ Davis, Townsend (1998). Weary Feet, Rested Souls. W.W. Norton.
     
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    8 March 1971 – The Fight of the Century between Joe Frazier and Muhammad Ali commences. Frazier wins in 15 rounds.

    Fight of the Century

    Muhammad Ali vs. Joe Frazier, billed as the "Fight of the Century"[2] (also known as The Fight[3]), was the boxing match between WBC/WBA heavyweight champion Joe Frazier (26–0, 23 KOs) and The Ring/lineal heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali (31–0, 25 KOs), held on Monday, March 8, 1971, at Madison Square Garden in New York City.[4][5][6]

    The Fight is widely regarded as the biggest boxing match in history and arguably the single most anticipated and hyped sporting event ever. It was the first time ever that two undefeated boxers fought each other for the heavyweight title.

    The bout held broad appeal for many Americans, including non-boxing and non-sport fans. Ali had become a symbol of the left-wing anti-establishment movement during his government-imposed exile from the ring,[7] while Frazier had been adopted by the conservative, pro-war movement.

    Frazier won in 15 rounds via unanimous decision. It was the first of a trilogy, followed by the rematch fights Super Fight II (1974) and Thrilla in Manila (1975), both won by Ali.

    1. ^ "Weigh-ins held". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. March 8, 1971. p. 10.
    2. ^ "This Is It! Ali, Frazier Fight Tonight". Detroit Free Press. March 8, 1971.
    3. ^ "Thriller in Manila". Top Documentary Films. 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
    4. ^ "The Great Fights: Ali vs. Frazier I". Life. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
    5. ^ Kram, Mark (March 15, 1971). "The battered face of a winner". Sports Illustrated. p. 16.
    6. ^ Zavoral, Nolan (March 9, 1971). "Frazier bores in and Ali is kaput". Milwaukee Journal. p. 11.
    7. ^ George, Thomas (February 24, 2011). "Fight of the Century: Muhammad Ali's legacy grows in defeat". AOL News. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012.
     
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    9 March 1959 – The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York.

    Barbie

    Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration.

    Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over sixty years, and has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits, often involving parodies of the doll and her lifestyle.

    Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company's largest and most profitable line. However, sales have declined sharply since 2014.[1] The doll has transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise (accessories, clothes, friends of Barbie, etc.). She has a significant impact on social values by conveying characteristics of female independence, and with her multitude of accessories, an idealized upscale life-style that can be shared with affluent friends.[2] Starting in 1987, Barbie has expanded into a media franchise, including animated films, television specials, video games and music.

    In 2020, Mattel sold $1.35 billion worth of Barbie dolls and accessories and this was their best sales growth in two decades This is an increase from the $950 million the brand sold during 2017.[3]

    1. ^ Paul Ziobro (January 28, 2016). "Mattel to Add Curvy, Petite, Tall Barbies: Sales of the doll have fallen at double-digit rate for past eight quarters". Wall Street Journal.
    2. ^ Don Richard Cox, "Barbie and her playmates." Journal of Popular Culture 11.2 (1977): 303-307.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gilblom was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    10 March 2020 – The World Health Organization officially announces the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic

    COVID-19 pandemic

    The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding COVID-19 on 30 January 2020, and later declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 15 April 2021, more than 138 million cases have been confirmed, with more than 2.97 million deaths attributed to COVID-19, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in history.

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are highly variable, ranging from none to life-threatening illness. The virus spreads mainly through the air when people are near each other.[b] It leaves an infected person as they breathe, cough, sneeze, or speak and enters another person via their mouth, nose, or eyes. It may also spread via contaminated surfaces. People remain contagious for up to two weeks, and can spread the virus even if they are asymptomatic.[8][9]

    Recommended preventive measures include social distancing, wearing face masks in public, ventilation and air-filtering, hand washing, covering one's mouth when sneezing or coughing, disinfecting surfaces, and monitoring and self-isolation for people exposed or symptomatic. Several vaccines have been developed and widely distributed since December 2020. Current treatments focus on addressing symptoms, but work is underway to develop therapeutic drugs that inhibit the virus. Authorities worldwide have responded by implementing travel restrictions, lockdowns/quarantines, workplace hazard controls, and business closures. Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of the infected.[9]

    The pandemic has resulted in significant global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.[10] It has led to widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying, agricultural disruption and food shortages, and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Numerous educational institutions and public areas have been partially or fully closed, and many events have been cancelled or postponed. Misinformation has circulated through social media and mass media. The pandemic has raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Zoumpourlis, Vassilios; Goulielmaki, Maria; Rizos, Emmanouil; Baliou, Stella; Spandidos, Demetrios A. (22 October 2020). "The COVID-19 pandemic as a scientific and social challenge in the 21st century". Molecular Medicine Reports. 22 (4): 3035–3048. doi:10.3892/mmr.2020.11393. ISSN 1791-2997. PMC 7453598. PMID 32945405.
    2. ^ a b "Novel Coronavirus – China". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 9 April 2020.
    3. ^ a b c "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
    4. ^ "WHO: 10% of world's people may have been infected with virus". AP NEWS. 5 October 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
    5. ^ CDC. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
    6. ^ "Quarantine for coronavirus (COVID-19)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
    7. ^ "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 18 September 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
    8. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    9. ^ a b "Coronavirus (COVID-19): General advice". www.nhsinform.scot. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
    10. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
     
  23. NewsBot

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    Articles:
    1
    10 March 2020 – The World Health Organization officially announces the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic

    COVID-19 pandemic

    The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding COVID-19 on 30 January 2020, and later declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 15 April 2021, more than 138 million cases have been confirmed, with more than 2.97 million deaths attributed to COVID-19, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in history.

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are highly variable, ranging from none to life-threatening illness. The virus spreads mainly through the air when people are near each other.[b] It leaves an infected person as they breathe, cough, sneeze, or speak and enters another person via their mouth, nose, or eyes. It may also spread via contaminated surfaces. People remain contagious for up to two weeks, and can spread the virus even if they are asymptomatic.[8][9]

    Recommended preventive measures include social distancing, wearing face masks in public, ventilation and air-filtering, hand washing, covering one's mouth when sneezing or coughing, disinfecting surfaces, and monitoring and self-isolation for people exposed or symptomatic. Several vaccines have been developed and widely distributed since December 2020. Current treatments focus on addressing symptoms, but work is underway to develop therapeutic drugs that inhibit the virus. Authorities worldwide have responded by implementing travel restrictions, lockdowns/quarantines, workplace hazard controls, and business closures. Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of the infected.[9]

    The pandemic has resulted in significant global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.[10] It has led to widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying, agricultural disruption and food shortages, and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Numerous educational institutions and public areas have been partially or fully closed, and many events have been cancelled or postponed. Misinformation has circulated through social media and mass media. The pandemic has raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Zoumpourlis, Vassilios; Goulielmaki, Maria; Rizos, Emmanouil; Baliou, Stella; Spandidos, Demetrios A. (22 October 2020). "The COVID-19 pandemic as a scientific and social challenge in the 21st century". Molecular Medicine Reports. 22 (4): 3035–3048. doi:10.3892/mmr.2020.11393. ISSN 1791-2997. PMC 7453598. PMID 32945405.
    2. ^ a b "Novel Coronavirus – China". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 9 April 2020.
    3. ^ a b c "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
    4. ^ "WHO: 10% of world's people may have been infected with virus". AP NEWS. 5 October 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
    5. ^ CDC. "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
    6. ^ "Quarantine for coronavirus (COVID-19)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
    7. ^ "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 18 September 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
    8. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    9. ^ a b "Coronavirus (COVID-19): General advice". www.nhsinform.scot. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
    10. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
     
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    11 March 2020 – The World Health Organization (WHO) declares COVID-19 virus a pandemic.

    COVID-19

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.[7] The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.[8]

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever,[9] cough, headache,[10] fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste.[11][12] Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms.[13] Of those people who develop noticeable symptoms enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction).[14] Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects—known as long COVID—for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed.[15] Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.[15]

    The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads mainly when an infected person is in close contact[a] with another person.[19][20] Small droplets and aerosols containing the virus can spread from an infected person's nose and mouth as they breathe, cough, sneeze, sing, or speak. Other people are infected if the virus gets into their mouth, nose or eyes. The virus may also spread via contaminated surfaces, although this is not thought to be the main route of transmission.[20] The exact route of transmission is rarely proven conclusively,[21] but infection mainly happens when people are near each other for long enough. People who are infected can transmit the virus to another person up to two days before they themselves show symptoms, as can people who do not experience symptoms.[22][23] People remain infectious for up to ten days after the onset of symptoms in moderate cases and up to 20 days in severe cases.[24]

    Several testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus' nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab.

    Preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimise the risk of transmissions. Several vaccines have been developed and many countries have initiated mass vaccination campaigns.

    Although work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

    1. ^ "Covid-19". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
    2. ^ "Symptoms of Coronavirus". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 13 May 2020. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
    3. ^ "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". World Health Organization (WHO). 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
    4. ^ Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AI, Chapman A, Persad E, Klerings I, et al. (April 2020). "Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD013574. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013574. PMC 7141753. PMID 32267544.CS1 maint: PMC embargo expired (link)
    5. ^ "COVID-19 vaccines". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 3 March 2021.
    6. ^ a b "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
    7. ^ Page J, Hinshaw D, McKay B (26 February 2021). "In Hunt for Covid-19 Origin, Patient Zero Points to Second Wuhan Market – The man with the first confirmed infection of the new coronavirus told the WHO team that his parents had shopped there". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
    8. ^ Zimmer C (26 February 2021). "The Secret Life of a Coronavirus – An oily, 100-nanometer-wide bubble of genes has killed more than two million people and reshaped the world. Scientists don't quite know what to make of it". Retrieved 28 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
    9. ^ Islam MA (April 2021). "Prevalence and characteristics of fever in adult and paediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 17515 patients". PLOS ONE: e0249788. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249788. PMID 33822812.
    10. ^ Islam MA (November 2020). "Prevalence of Headache in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 14,275 Patients". Frontiers in Neurology: 1–9. doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.562634. PMID 33329305.
    11. ^ Saniasiaya J, Islam MA (April 2021). "Prevalence of Olfactory Dysfunction in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Meta-analysis of 27,492 Patients". The Laryngoscope: 865–878. doi:10.1002/lary.29286. PMID 33219539.
    12. ^ Saniasiaya J, Islam MA (November 2020). "Prevalence and Characteristics of Taste Disorders in Cases of COVID-19: A Meta-analysis of 29,349 Patients". Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery: 1–10. doi:10.1177/0194599820981018. PMID 33320033.
    13. ^ Oran DP, Topol EJ (January 2021). "The Proportion of SARS-CoV-2 Infections That Are Asymptomatic : A Systematic Review". Annals of Internal Medicine: M20-6976. doi:10.7326/M20-6976. PMC 7839426. PMID 33481642.
    14. ^ "Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
    15. ^ a b CDC (11 February 2020). "COVID-19 and Your Health". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
    16. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 22 October 2020.
    17. ^ "Quarantine for coronavirus (COVID-19)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
    18. ^ "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 18 September 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
    19. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted?". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    20. ^ a b "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    21. ^ "Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions". World Health Organization (WHO).
    22. ^ "Transmission of COVID-19". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    23. ^ Buitrago-Garcia D, Egli-Gany D, Counotte MJ, Hossmann S, Imeri H, Ipekci AM, et al. (September 2020). "Occurrence and transmission potential of asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: A living systematic review and meta-analysis". PLOS Medicine. 17 (9): e1003346. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003346. PMC 7508369. PMID 32960881.
    24. ^ Clinical Questions about COVID-19: Questions and Answers Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    11 March 2020 – The World Health Organization (WHO) declares COVID-19 virus a pandemic.

    COVID-19

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.[7] The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.[8]

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever,[9] cough, headache,[10] fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste.[11][12] Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms.[13] Of those people who develop noticeable symptoms enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction).[14] Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects—known as long COVID—for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed.[15] Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.[15]

    The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads mainly when an infected person is in close contact[a] with another person.[19][20] Small droplets and aerosols containing the virus can spread from an infected person's nose and mouth as they breathe, cough, sneeze, sing, or speak. Other people are infected if the virus gets into their mouth, nose or eyes. The virus may also spread via contaminated surfaces, although this is not thought to be the main route of transmission.[20] The exact route of transmission is rarely proven conclusively,[21] but infection mainly happens when people are near each other for long enough. People who are infected can transmit the virus to another person up to two days before they themselves show symptoms, as can people who do not experience symptoms.[22][23] People remain infectious for up to ten days after the onset of symptoms in moderate cases and up to 20 days in severe cases.[24]

    Several testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus' nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab.

    Preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimise the risk of transmissions. Several vaccines have been developed and many countries have initiated mass vaccination campaigns.

    Although work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

    1. ^ "Covid-19". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
    2. ^ "Symptoms of Coronavirus". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 13 May 2020. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
    3. ^ "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". World Health Organization (WHO). 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
    4. ^ Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AI, Chapman A, Persad E, Klerings I, et al. (April 2020). "Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD013574. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013574. PMC 7141753. PMID 32267544.CS1 maint: PMC embargo expired (link)
    5. ^ "COVID-19 vaccines". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 3 March 2021.
    6. ^ a b "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
    7. ^ Page J, Hinshaw D, McKay B (26 February 2021). "In Hunt for Covid-19 Origin, Patient Zero Points to Second Wuhan Market – The man with the first confirmed infection of the new coronavirus told the WHO team that his parents had shopped there". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
    8. ^ Zimmer C (26 February 2021). "The Secret Life of a Coronavirus – An oily, 100-nanometer-wide bubble of genes has killed more than two million people and reshaped the world. Scientists don't quite know what to make of it". Retrieved 28 February 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
    9. ^ Islam MA (April 2021). "Prevalence and characteristics of fever in adult and paediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 17515 patients". PLOS ONE: e0249788. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249788. PMID 33822812.
    10. ^ Islam MA (November 2020). "Prevalence of Headache in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 14,275 Patients". Frontiers in Neurology: 1–9. doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.562634. PMID 33329305.
    11. ^ Saniasiaya J, Islam MA (April 2021). "Prevalence of Olfactory Dysfunction in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Meta-analysis of 27,492 Patients". The Laryngoscope: 865–878. doi:10.1002/lary.29286. PMID 33219539.
    12. ^ Saniasiaya J, Islam MA (November 2020). "Prevalence and Characteristics of Taste Disorders in Cases of COVID-19: A Meta-analysis of 29,349 Patients". Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery: 1–10. doi:10.1177/0194599820981018. PMID 33320033.
    13. ^ Oran DP, Topol EJ (January 2021). "The Proportion of SARS-CoV-2 Infections That Are Asymptomatic : A Systematic Review". Annals of Internal Medicine: M20-6976. doi:10.7326/M20-6976. PMC 7839426. PMID 33481642.
    14. ^ "Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
    15. ^ a b CDC (11 February 2020). "COVID-19 and Your Health". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
    16. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 22 October 2020.
    17. ^ "Quarantine for coronavirus (COVID-19)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
    18. ^ "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 18 September 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
    19. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted?". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    20. ^ a b "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    21. ^ "Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions". World Health Organization (WHO).
    22. ^ "Transmission of COVID-19". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
    23. ^ Buitrago-Garcia D, Egli-Gany D, Counotte MJ, Hossmann S, Imeri H, Ipekci AM, et al. (September 2020). "Occurrence and transmission potential of asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: A living systematic review and meta-analysis". PLOS Medicine. 17 (9): e1003346. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003346. PMC 7508369. PMID 32960881.
    24. ^ Clinical Questions about COVID-19: Questions and Answers Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    12 March 1993 – Several bombs explode in Mumbai, India, killing about 300 people and injuring hundreds more

    1993 Bombay bombings

    The 1993 Bombay bombings were a series of 12[3][4][5] terrorist bombings that took place in Mumbai, India, then known as Bombay, on 12 March 1993.[6] The single-day attacks resulted in 257 fatalities and 1,400 injuries.[1][2][7][8][9]

    The attacks were reported to be coordinated by Dawood Ibrahim,[10] leader of the Mumbai-based international organised crime syndicate D-Company.[11] Ibrahim was believed to have ordered and helped organize the bombings through his subordinates Tiger Memon and Yakub Memon.

    The Supreme Court of India gave its judgement on 21 March 2013, after over 20 years of judicial proceedings, upholding the death sentence against suspected ringleader Yakub Memon while commuting the previous death sentences against 10 others to life in prison.[12][13][14] However, two of the main suspects in the case, Dawood Ibrahim and Tiger Memon, have not yet been arrested or tried.[15] After India's three-judge Supreme Court bench rejected his curative petition, saying the grounds raised by him do not fall within the principles laid down by the apex court in 2002,[16] the Maharashtra state government executed Yakub Memon on 30 July 2015.[17]

    1. ^ a b Chris Quillen (19 February 2004). "Mass Casualty Bombings Chronology". StudiesStudiesgk in Conflict and Terrorism. 25 (5): 293–302. doi:10.1080/10576100290101205. S2CID 108769875.
    2. ^ a b "How the 1993 blasts changed Mumbai forever". 30 July 2015 – via www.bbc.com.
    3. ^ [http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/to-keep-the-peace-i-misled-people-on--93-blasts-pawar--------/10419/ "To keep the peace, I misled people on �93 blasts: Pawar - Indian Express"]. archive.indianexpress.com. Retrieved 20 January 2021. replacement character in |title= at position 39 (help)
    4. ^ "Sharad Pawar's white lies: How he landed in trouble over Dawood". Hindustan Times. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
    5. ^ "1993 Mumbai Blasts: When Sharad Pawar made up a thirteenth blast". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
    6. ^ "Mumbai bombings: 400 detained". CNN. 13 July 2006. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
    7. ^ Hansen, Thomas (2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Mumbai. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-691-08840-2.
    8. ^ "The 1993 Mumbai Blasts: What Exactly Happened on March 12 That Year". News18. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
    9. ^ Pawar, Sharad (2016). On my terms: from the grassroots to the corridors of power. New Delhi: Speaking Tiger. ISBN 9789385755392.
    10. ^ "TADA court accepts Dawood's role in 1993 blasts". rediff.com. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
    11. ^ James S. Robbins (12 July 2006). "The Mumbai Blasts". National Review. Archived from the original on 1 May 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
    12. ^ "Ruling on the 1993 Mumbai bomb blasts, Supreme Court sends a strong anti-terror message". The Times of India. 22 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
    13. ^ "Death sentence upheld in 1993 Indian bombing that killed 257". Los Angeles Times. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
    14. ^ "1993 Mumbai bomb blasts: Finally, justice for 257 victims". The Times of India. 22 March 2013. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
    15. ^ "1993 blasts: 98 punished, big fish still free". Hindustan Times. 22 March 2013. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
    16. ^ "After SC denies relief, Yakub Memon submits mercy petition to Maharashtra governor". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
    17. ^ "Mumbai bombings: Yakub Memon hanged" – via www.bbc.com.
     
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    13 March 1996 – The Dunblane massacre leads to the death of sixteen primary school children and one teacher in Dunblane, Scotland.

    Dunblane massacre

    The Dunblane massacre took place at Dunblane Primary School near Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom, on 13 March 1996, when Thomas Hamilton shot sixteen pupils and one teacher dead, and injured fifteen others, before killing himself. It remains the deadliest mass shooting in British history.[2]

    Public debate about the killings centred on gun control laws, including public petitions for a ban on private ownership of handguns and an official inquiry, which produced the 1996 Cullen Report.[3] In response to this debate, two new Firearms Acts were passed which outlawed the private ownership of most handguns within the United Kingdom.[2]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference h2g2_Dunblane was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ a b "Mass shootings and gun control". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
    3. ^ "Public inquiry into the shootings at Dunblane Primary School". gov.uk. Scottish Office. 16 October 1996.
     
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    14 March 2017 – A naming ceremony for the chemical element nihonium takes place in Tokyo

    Nihonium

    Nihonium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Nh and atomic number 113. It is extremely radioactive; its most stable known isotope, nihonium-286, has a half-life of about 10 seconds. In the periodic table, nihonium is a transactinide element in the p-block. It is a member of period 7 and group 13 (boron group).

    Nihonium was first reported to have been created in 2003 by a Russian–American collaboration at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, and in 2004 by a team of Japanese scientists at Riken in Wakō, Japan. The confirmation of their claims in the ensuing years involved independent teams of scientists working in the United States, Germany, Sweden, and China, as well as the original claimants in Russia and Japan. In 2015, the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party recognised the element and assigned the priority of the discovery and naming rights for the element to Riken. The Riken team suggested the name nihonium in 2016, which was approved in the same year. The name comes from the common Japanese name for Japan (日本, nihon).

    Very little is known about nihonium, as it has only been made in very small amounts that decay within seconds. The anomalously long lives of some superheavy nuclides, including some nihonium isotopes, are explained by the "island of stability" theory. Experiments support the theory, with the half-lives of the confirmed nihonium isotopes increasing from milliseconds to seconds as neutrons are added and the island is approached. Nihonium has been calculated to have similar properties to its homologues boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium. All but boron are post-transition metals, and nihonium is expected to be a post-transition metal as well. It should also show several major differences from them; for example, nihonium should be more stable in the +1 oxidation state than the +3 state, like thallium, but in the +1 state nihonium should behave more like silver and astatine than thallium. Preliminary experiments in 2017 showed that elemental nihonium is not very volatile; its chemistry remains largely unexplored.

    1. ^ a b c d e f g Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.
    2. ^ a b Seaborg, Glenn T. (c. 2006). "transuranium element (chemical element)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
    3. ^ a b c Bonchev, Danail; Kamenska, Verginia (1981). "Predicting the Properties of the 113–120 Transactinide Elements". Journal of Physical Chemistry. 85 (9): 1177–1186. doi:10.1021/j150609a021.
    4. ^ a b c d e f Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. Structure and Bonding. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. ISBN 978-3-540-07109-9. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
    5. ^ Thayer, John S. (2010). "Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heavier Main Group Elements". In Barysz, Maria; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki (eds.). Relativistic Methods for Chemists. Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics. 10. Springer. pp. 63–67. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9975-5_2. ISBN 978-1-4020-9974-8.
    6. ^ Keller, O. L., Jr.; Burnett, J. L.; Carlson, T. A.; Nestor, C. W., Jr. (1969). "Predicted Properties of the Super Heavy Elements. I. Elements 113 and 114, Eka-Thallium and Eka-Lead". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 74 (5): 1127−1134. doi:10.1021/j100700a029.
    7. ^ Atarah, Samuel A.; Egblewogbe, Martin N. H.; Hagoss, Gebreyesus G. (2020). "First principle study of the structural and electronic properties of Nihonium". MRS Advances: 1–9. doi:10.1557/adv.2020.159.
    8. ^ Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H. G.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Moody, K. J.; Morita, K.; Nishio, K.; Popeko, A. G.; Roberto, J. B.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saro, S.; Schneidenberger, C.; Schött, H. J.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Tinschert, K.; Trautmann, N.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V. (2016). "Remarks on the Fission Barriers of SHN and Search for Element 120". In Peninozhkevich, Yu. E.; Sobolev, Yu. G. (eds.). Exotic Nuclei: EXON-2016 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Exotic Nuclei. Exotic Nuclei. pp. 155–164. ISBN 9789813226555.
    9. ^ Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H. G.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Moody, K. J.; Morita, K.; Nishio, K.; Popeko, A. G.; Roberto, J. B.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saro, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schött, H. J.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thörle-Popiesch, P.; Tinschert, K.; Trautmann, N.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V. (2016). "Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120". The European Physics Journal A. 2016 (52). Bibcode:2016EPJA...52..180H. doi:10.1140/epja/i2016-16180-4.
     
  29. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    15 March 2011 – Beginning of the Syrian Civil War.

    Syrian civil war

    The Syrian civil war (Arabic: الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ‎, al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah) is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Arab Republic led by Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations.[108]

    The unrest in Syria, which began on 15 March 2011 as part of the wider 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Syrian government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for Assad's removal were violently suppressed.[109][110][111] The war is being fought by several factions: the Syrian Armed Forces and its domestic and international allies, a loose alliance of mostly Sunni opposition rebel groups (such as the Free Syrian Army), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front and Tahrir al-Sham), the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). A number of foreign countries, such as Iran, Israel, Russia, Turkey, and the United States, have either directly involved themselves in the conflict or provided support to one or another faction.

    Iran, Russia, and Hezbollah support the Syrian Arab Republic and the Syrian Armed Forces militarily, with Russia conducting airstrikes and other military operations since September 2015. The U.S.-led international coalition, established in 2014 with the declared purpose of countering ISIL, has conducted airstrikes primarily against ISIL as well as some against government and pro-government targets. They have also deployed special forces and artillery units to engage ISIL on the ground. Since 2015, the U.S. has supported the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and its armed wing, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), materially, financially, and logistically. At different times, the Turkish state has fought the SDF, ISIL, and the Syrian government since 2016, but has also actively supported the Syrian opposition and occupied large swaths of northwestern Syria while engaging in significant ground combat. Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian civil war spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian government traveled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil, with ISIL and Al-Nusra also engaging the Lebanese Army. Furthermore, while officially neutral, Israel has exchanged border fire and carried out repeated strikes against Hezbollah and Iranian forces, whose presence in southwestern Syria it views as a threat.[112][113]

    International organizations have criticized virtually all sides involved, including the Ba'athist Syrian government, ISIL, opposition rebel groups, Russia,[114] Turkey,[115] and the U.S.-led coalition[116] of severe human rights violations and massacres.[117] The conflict has caused a major refugee crisis. Over the course of the war, a number of peace initiatives have been launched, including the March 2017 Geneva peace talks on Syria led by the United Nations, but fighting has continued.[118]

    1. ^ a b References:
      • Damascus allows Iraq to hit ISIL targets in Syria: State media, Al Jazeera, Dec 30, 2018.
      • Assad gives Iraq green light to launch attacks in Syria without approval, Al-Masdar News, Dec 30, 2018.
      • Assad Authorizes Iraq to Attack ISIS in Syria , Haaretz, Dec 30, 2018.
      • Iraqi jets strike ISIS target in Syria a day after Damascus carte blanche, The National, Dec 31, 2018.
      • Iraqi Air Force bombs ISIS command meeting in Syria, Al-Masdar News, Jan 3, 2019.
      • Iraq’s Air Force will begin bombing ISIS in Syria, NewsRep, Jan 1, 2019.
      • "Iraq conducts first airstrikes against ISIS in Syria". CNN. 24 February 2017.
    2. ^ Finn, William Maclean, Tom (27 November 2016). "Qatar will help Syrian rebels even if Trump ends U.S. role" – via www.reuters.com.
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    51. ^ "Leader of Qaeda Cell in Syria, Muhsin al-Fadhli, Is Killed in Airstrike, U.S. Says". The New York Times. 2 July 2015.
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    56. ^ Starr, Barbara (14 March 2016). "U.S. assesses ISIS operative Omar al-Shishani is dead". CNN.
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    66. ^ "Top Syrian Kurdish commander Abu Layla killed by Isis sniper fire". The Independent. 5 June 2016.
    67. ^ Hisham Arafat (31 August 2017). "Senior SDF commander lost his life in Raqqa fighting IS". Kurdistan 24.
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    69. ^ "Syria's diminished security forces". Agence France-Presse. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
    70. ^ ISIS’ Iraq offensive could trigger Hezbollah to fill gap left in Syria The Daily Star, 16 June 2014
    71. ^ Ahmad Shuja Jamal (13 February 2018). "Mission Accomplished? What's Next for Iran's Afghan Fighters in Syria". War on the Rocks. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
    72. ^ "Syrian war widens Sunni-Shia schism as foreign jihadis join fight for shrines". The Guardian. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
    73. ^ a b "Iran 'Foreign Legion' Leads Battle in Syria's North". The Wall Street Journal. 17 February 2016.
    74. ^ "Russia's Syria force has reportedly grown to 4,000 people". Business Insider.
    75. ^ Grove, Thomas (18 December 2015). "Up to Nine Russian Contractors Die in Syria, Experts Say". Wall Street Journal.
    76. ^ "State-of-the-art technology is giving Assad's army the edge in Syria". 26 February 2016.
    77. ^ "Here's The Extremist-To-Moderate Spectrum Of The 100,000 Syrian Rebels". Business Insider.
    78. ^ "Front to Back". Foreign Policy.
    79. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (11 December 2013). "West suspends aid for Islamist rebels in Syria, underlining their disillusionment with those forces opposed to President Bashar al-Assad". The Independent.
    80. ^ Who are these 70,000 Syrian fighters David Cameron is relying on?. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
    81. ^ Şafak, Yeni (5 January 2017). "8 bin asker emir bekliyor". Yeni Şafak.
    82. ^ "US Assistant Secretary of Defense tells Turkey only ISIS is a target, not Kurds". ARA News. 16 January 2017.
    83. ^ "Is Syria's Idlib being groomed as Islamist killing ground?". Asia Times.
    84. ^ "Al Qaeda Is Starting to Swallow the Syrian Opposition". Foreign Policy. 15 March 2017.
    85. ^ Stewart, Phil (4 September 2018). "Top U.S. general warns against major assault on Syria's Idlib". Reuters.
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    88. ^ Rashid (2018), p. 7.
    89. ^ Rashid (2018), p. 16.
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    94. ^ Sisk, Richard (10 November 2019). "Up to 600 Troops Now Set to Remain in Syria Indefinitely, Top General Says". Military.com.
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    98. ^ 151–201 killed (2015-17),[1][2][3] 14–64 killed (Battle of Khasham, Feb. 2018),[4][5] 18 killed (May 2018-June 2019),[6][7][8][9][10][11] total of 183–283 reported dead
    99. ^ "IRGC Strategist Hassan Abbasi Praises Iranian Parents Who Handed Over Their Oppositionist Children For Execution: Educating People To This Level Is The Pinnacle Of The Islamic Republic's Achievement; Adds: 2,300 Iranians Have Been Killed In Syria War". MEMRI.
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    101. ^ 72 killed in Operation Euphrates Shield, 61–96 killed in Operation Olive Branch, 70–84 killed in Idlib buffer zone, 18 killed in Operation Peace Spring, 16–24 killed after Operation Spring Shield, 2 killed after Operation Euphates Shield, total of 239–296 reported killed (for more details see here)
    102. ^ "On International Human Rights Day: Millions of Syrians robbed of "rights" and 593 thousand killed in a decade". SOHR. 9 December 2020.
    103. ^ "Pilot killed as U.S. F-16 crashes in Jordan".
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      "US service member killed in Syria identified as 22-year-old from Georgia". ABC News. 27 May 2017.
      "US identifies American service member killed by IED in Syria". ABC News. 27 May 2017.
      "French soldier killed in Iraq-Syria military zone, Élysée Palace says". France24. 27 May 2017.
      "4 Americans among those killed in Syria attack claimed by ISIS". CNN. 27 May 2017.
      "Mystery surrounds the killing of a US soldier in the countryside of Ayn al-Arab (Kobani) amid accusations against Turkey of targeting him". Syrian Observatory of Human Rights. 2 May 2019.
      "US service member killed in Syria identified as 22-year-old from Georgia". ABC News. 27 May 2017.
      "Army identifies U.S. soldier killed in Syria". The Washington Times. 27 January 2020.
      "Pentagon identifies US soldier killed in Syria". The Hill. 23 July 2020.
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    107. ^ Fadel, Leith (27 September 2016). "US Coalition knew they were bombing the Syrian Army in Deir Ezzor".
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    109. ^ "Syria: The story of the conflict". BBC News. 11 March 2016. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
    110. ^ "Syrian Troops Open Fire on Protestors in Several Cities". The New York Times. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
    111. ^ "Mid-East unrest: Syrian protests in Damascus and Aleppo". BBC News. 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
    112. ^ "U.S.-Russian ceasefire deal holding in southwest Syria". Reuters. 9 July 2017. Archived from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
    113. ^ Death toll in alleged Israeli strikes near Damascus up to 23 fighters — monitor, Times of Israel
    114. ^ "Russia accused of war crimes in Syria at UN security council session". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
    115. ^ "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria". Amnesty International. 18 October 2019.
    116. ^ Dewan, Angela; McGann, Hillary (5 June 2018). "US-led strikes on Raqqa may amount to war crimes, Amnesty says". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
    117. ^ Hubbard, Anne Barnard, Ben; Fisher, Ian (15 April 2017). "As Atrocities Mount in Syria, Justice Seems Out of Reach". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
    118. ^ Lundgren, Magnus (2016). "Mediation in Syria: Initiatives, strategies, and obstacles, 2011–2016". Contemporary Security Policy. 37 (2): 283–298. doi:10.1080/13523260.2016.1192377. S2CID 156447200. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
     
  30. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    15 March 2011 – Beginning of the Syrian Civil War.

    Syrian civil war

    The Syrian civil war (Arabic: الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ‎, al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah) is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Arab Republic led by Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations.[108]

    The unrest in Syria, which began on 15 March 2011 as part of the wider 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Syrian government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for Assad's removal were violently suppressed.[109][110][111] The war is being fought by several factions: the Syrian Armed Forces and its domestic and international allies, a loose alliance of mostly Sunni opposition rebel groups (such as the Free Syrian Army), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front and Tahrir al-Sham), the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). A number of foreign countries, such as Iran, Israel, Russia, Turkey, and the United States, have either directly involved themselves in the conflict or provided support to one or another faction.

    Iran, Russia, and Hezbollah support the Syrian Arab Republic and the Syrian Armed Forces militarily, with Russia conducting airstrikes and other military operations since September 2015. The U.S.-led international coalition, established in 2014 with the declared purpose of countering ISIL, has conducted airstrikes primarily against ISIL as well as some against government and pro-government targets. They have also deployed special forces and artillery units to engage ISIL on the ground. Since 2015, the U.S. has supported the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and its armed wing, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), materially, financially, and logistically. At different times, the Turkish state has fought the SDF, ISIL, and the Syrian government since 2016, but has also actively supported the Syrian opposition and occupied large swaths of northwestern Syria while engaging in significant ground combat. Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian civil war spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian government traveled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil, with ISIL and Al-Nusra also engaging the Lebanese Army. Furthermore, while officially neutral, Israel has exchanged border fire and carried out repeated strikes against Hezbollah and Iranian forces, whose presence in southwestern Syria it views as a threat.[112][113]

    International organizations have criticized virtually all sides involved, including the Ba'athist Syrian government, ISIL, opposition rebel groups, Russia,[114] Turkey,[115] and the U.S.-led coalition[116] of severe human rights violations and massacres.[117] The conflict has caused a major refugee crisis. Over the course of the war, a number of peace initiatives have been launched, including the March 2017 Geneva peace talks on Syria led by the United Nations, but fighting has continued.[118]

    1. ^ a b References:
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      • Assad gives Iraq green light to launch attacks in Syria without approval, Al-Masdar News, Dec 30, 2018.
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      • Iraqi jets strike ISIS target in Syria a day after Damascus carte blanche, The National, Dec 31, 2018.
      • Iraqi Air Force bombs ISIS command meeting in Syria, Al-Masdar News, Jan 3, 2019.
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    98. ^ 151–201 killed (2015-17),[1][2][3] 14–64 killed (Battle of Khasham, Feb. 2018),[4][5] 18 killed (May 2018-June 2019),[6][7][8][9][10][11] total of 183–283 reported dead
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    101. ^ 72 killed in Operation Euphrates Shield, 61–96 killed in Operation Olive Branch, 70–84 killed in Idlib buffer zone, 18 killed in Operation Peace Spring, 16–24 killed after Operation Spring Shield, 2 killed after Operation Euphates Shield, total of 239–296 reported killed (for more details see here)
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      "French soldier killed in Iraq-Syria military zone, Élysée Palace says". France24. 27 May 2017.
      "4 Americans among those killed in Syria attack claimed by ISIS". CNN. 27 May 2017.
      "Mystery surrounds the killing of a US soldier in the countryside of Ayn al-Arab (Kobani) amid accusations against Turkey of targeting him". Syrian Observatory of Human Rights. 2 May 2019.
      "US service member killed in Syria identified as 22-year-old from Georgia". ABC News. 27 May 2017.
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      "Pentagon identifies US soldier killed in Syria". The Hill. 23 July 2020.
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    107. ^ Fadel, Leith (27 September 2016). "US Coalition knew they were bombing the Syrian Army in Deir Ezzor".
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    113. ^ Death toll in alleged Israeli strikes near Damascus up to 23 fighters — monitor, Times of Israel
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    115. ^ "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria". Amnesty International. 18 October 2019.
    116. ^ Dewan, Angela; McGann, Hillary (5 June 2018). "US-led strikes on Raqqa may amount to war crimes, Amnesty says". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
    117. ^ Hubbard, Anne Barnard, Ben; Fisher, Ian (15 April 2017). "As Atrocities Mount in Syria, Justice Seems Out of Reach". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
    118. ^ Lundgren, Magnus (2016). "Mediation in Syria: Initiatives, strategies, and obstacles, 2011–2016". Contemporary Security Policy. 37 (2): 283–298. doi:10.1080/13523260.2016.1192377. S2CID 156447200. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
     
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    Articles:
    1
    16 March 1898 – In Melbourne the representatives of five colonies adopted a constitution, which would become the basis of the Commonwealth of Australia.

    Australia

    Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133

    Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.[13] It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Its population of nearly 26 million[7] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[14] Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

    Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years[15] prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.

    Australia is the oldest,[16] flattest,[17] and driest inhabited continent,[18][19] with the least fertile soils.[20][21] It has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi).[22] A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Australia generates its income from various sources, including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.[23][24][25]

    Australia is a developed country, with the world's thirteenth-largest economy and tenth-highest per capita income.[26] It is considered a regional power and has the world's thirteenth-highest military expenditure.[27] Immigrants account for 30% of the population,[28] the highest proportion in any country with a population over 10 million.[29] The country ranks highly in measures of health, education, economic freedom, and civil liberties.[30] Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and the ASEAN Plus Six.

    1. ^ "Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.
      "16. Other matters – 16.3 Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
      "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (29th ed.). 2005 [2002]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference language was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b "Religion in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
    4. ^ See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.
    5. ^ Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2.
    6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
    7. ^ a b "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 23 July 2020. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
    8. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 27 June 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
    9. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: October 2020". International Monetary Fund. April 2021.
    10. ^ "Inequality in Australia" (PDF). University of New South Wales. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
    11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    12. ^ Style manual for authors, editors and printers (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Australia. 2002. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7016-3647-0.
    13. ^ "Constitution of Australia". ComLaw. 9 July 1900. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
    14. ^ "Geographic Distribution of the Population". 24 May 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
    15. ^ Clarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G.; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S. Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J.; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E. A.; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin (2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310. Bibcode:2017Natur.547..306C. doi:10.1038/nature22968. hdl:2440/107043. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 28726833. S2CID 205257212.
    16. ^ Korsch RJ.; et al. (2011). "Australian island arcs through time: Geodynamic implications for the Archean and Proterozoic". Gondwana Research. 19 (3): 716–734. Bibcode:2011GondR..19..716K. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.018.
    17. ^ Macey, Richard (21 January 2005). "Map from above shows Australia is a very flat place". The Sydney Morning Herald. ISSN 0312-6315. OCLC 226369741. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
    18. ^ "The Australian continent". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
    19. ^ "Deserts". Geoscience Australia. Australian Government. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
    20. ^ Kelly, Karina (13 September 1995). "A Chat with Tim Flannery on Population Control". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010. "Well, Australia has by far the world's least fertile soils".
    21. ^ Grant, Cameron (August 2007). "Damaged Dirt" (PDF). The Advertiser. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2010. Australia has the oldest, most highly weathered soils on the planet.
    22. ^ "Australia's Size Compared". Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on 24 March 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
    23. ^ Cassen, Robert (1982). Rich Country Interests and Third World Development. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7099-1930-8.
    24. ^ "Australia, wealthiest nation in the world". 20 October 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
    25. ^ "Australians the world's wealthiest". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
    26. ^ Data refer mostly to the year 2017. World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 1 April 2019.
    27. ^ "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2017" (PDF). www.sipri.org.
    28. ^ "Main Features – Australia's Population by Country of Birth". 3412.0 – Migration, Australia, 2018–19. Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 April 2020.
    29. ^ United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015). 'International Migration' in International migrant stock 2015. Accessed from International migrant stock 2015: maps on 24 May 2017.
    30. ^ "Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=N> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=N}} template (see the help page).

     
  32. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    16 March 1898 – In Melbourne the representatives of five colonies adopted a constitution, which would become the basis of the Commonwealth of Australia.

    Australia

    Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133

    Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.[13] It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Its population of nearly 26 million[7] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[14] Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

    Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years[15] prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.

    Australia is the oldest,[16] flattest,[17] and driest inhabited continent,[18][19] with the least fertile soils.[20][21] It has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi).[22] A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Australia generates its income from various sources, including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.[23][24][25]

    Australia is a developed country, with the world's thirteenth-largest economy and tenth-highest per capita income.[26] It is considered a regional power and has the world's thirteenth-highest military expenditure.[27] Immigrants account for 30% of the population,[28] the highest proportion in any country with a population over 10 million.[29] The country ranks highly in measures of health, education, economic freedom, and civil liberties.[30] Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and the ASEAN Plus Six.

    1. ^ "Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.
      "16. Other matters – 16.3 Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
      "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (29th ed.). 2005 [2002]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference language was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b "Religion in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
    4. ^ See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.
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