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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    25 March 1965Civil rights activists led by Martin Luther King Jr. successfully complete their 4-day 50-mile march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama.

    Selma to Montgomery marches

    The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression; they were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the civil rights movement.

    Southern state legislatures had passed and maintained a series of discriminatory requirements and practices that had disenfranchised most of the millions of African Americans across the South throughout the 20th century. The African-American group known as the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) launched a voter registration campaign in Selma in 1963. Joined by organizers from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), they began working that year in a renewed effort to register black voters.

    Finding resistance by white officials to be intractable, even after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended legal segregation, the DCVL invited Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and the activists of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to join them. SCLC brought many prominent civil rights and civic leaders to Selma in January 1965. Local and regional protests began, with 3,000 people arrested by the end of February. According to Joseph A. Califano Jr., who served as head of domestic affairs for U.S. President Lyndon Johnson between the years 1965 and 1969, the President viewed King as an essential partner in getting the Voting Rights Act enacted.[3] Califano, whom the President also assigned to monitor the final march to Montgomery,[4] said that Johnson and King talked by telephone on January 15 to plan a strategy for drawing attention to the injustice of using literacy tests and other barriers to stop black Southerners from voting, and that King later informed the President on February 9 of his decision to use Selma to achieve this objective.[3]

    On February 26, 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson died after being shot several days earlier by state trooper James Bonard Fowler, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama. To defuse and refocus the community's outrage, James Bevel, who was directing SCLC's Selma voting rights movement, called for a march of dramatic length, from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery.[5][6] Bevel had been working on his Alabama Project for voting rights since late 1963.

    The first march took place on March 7, 1965, organized locally by Bevel, Amelia Boynton, and others. State troopers and county possemen attacked the unarmed marchers with billy clubs and tear gas after they passed over the county line, and the event became known as Bloody Sunday.[7][8] Law enforcement beat Boynton unconscious, and the media publicized worldwide a picture of her lying wounded on the Edmund Pettus Bridge.[9]

    The second march took place March 9. Troopers, police, and marchers confronted each other at the county end of the bridge, but when the troopers stepped aside to let them pass, King led the marchers back to the church.[10] He was obeying a federal injunction while seeking protection from federal court for the march. That night, a white group beat and murdered civil rights activist James Reeb, a Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, who had come to Selma to march with the second group.[11] Many other clergy and sympathizers from across the country also gathered for the second march.

    The violence of "Bloody Sunday" and Reeb's murder resulted in a national outcry and some acts of civil disobedience, targeting both the Alabama and federal governments. The protesters demanded protection for the Selma marchers and a new federal voting rights law to enable African Americans to register and vote without harassment. President Lyndon Johnson, whose administration had been working on a voting rights law, held a historic, nationally televised joint session of Congress on March 15 to ask for the bill's introduction and passage.

    With Governor Wallace refusing to protect the marchers, President Johnson committed to do so. The third march started on March 21. Protected by 1,900 members of the Alabama National Guard under federal command, and many FBI agents and federal marshals, the marchers averaged 10 miles (16 km) a day along U.S. Route 80, known in Alabama as the "Jefferson Davis Highway". The marchers arrived in Montgomery on March 24 and at the Alabama State Capitol on March 25.[12] With thousands having joined the campaign, 25,000 people entered the capital city that day in support of voting rights.

    The route is memorialized as the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail, a designated National Historic Trail. The Voting Rights Act became law on August 6, 1965.

    1. ^ Taylor Branch, At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years 1965-1968 (Simon & Schuster, 2007), p. 198.
    2. ^ "Swarthmore College Bulletin (July 2014)".
    3. ^ a b Joseph A. Califano Jr. (December 26, 2014). "The movie 'Selma' has a glaring flaw". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
    4. ^ From Selma to Montgomery Archived April 23, 2015, at archive.today LBJ Presidential Library. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
    5. ^ Randall Kryn, "James L. Bevel The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement," In David Garrow's 1989 book We Shall Overcome, Volume II, New York: Carlson Publishing Company, 1989.
    6. ^ Randy Kryn, "Movement Revision Research Summary Regarding James Bevel", October 2005, Middlebury College.
    7. ^ "Student March at Nyack". The New York Times. March 11, 1965. p. 19. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
    8. ^ Reed, Roy (March 6, 1966). "'Bloody Sunday' Was Year Ago". The New York Times. p. 76. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
    9. ^ Sheila Jackson Hardy; P. Stephen Hardy (August 11, 2008). Extraordinary People of the Civil Rights Movement. Paw Prints. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-4395-2357-5. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
    10. ^ Branch, Taylor (2013). The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement. Simon & Schuster.
    11. ^ "James Joseph Reeb". uudb.org. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
    12. ^ Davis, Townsend (1998). Weary Feet, Rested Souls. W.W. Norton.
     
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    26 March 1997 – Thirty-nine bodies are found in the Heaven's Gate mass suicides.

    Heaven's Gate (religious group)

    Heaven's Gate was an American new religious movement, often described as a cult. It was founded in 1974 and led by Bonnie Nettles (1927–1985) and Marshall Applewhite (1931–1997), known within the movement as Ti and Do respectively.[1] Nettles and Applewhite first met in 1972, and went on a journey of spiritual discovery, identifying themselves as the two witnesses of Revelation, attracting a following of several hundred people in the mid 1970s. In 1976, the group stopped recruiting and instituted a monastic lifestyle. Scholars have described the theology of Heaven's Gate as a mixture of Christian millenarianism, New Age and Ufology, and as such it has been characterised as a UFO religion. The central belief of the group was that followers could transform themselves into immortal extraterrestrial beings by rejecting their human nature, and they would ascend to heaven, referred to as the "Next Level" or "The Evolutionary Level Above Human". The death of Nettles to cancer in 1985 challenged the groups views on ascension, where they originally believed that they would ascend to heaven while alive aboard a UFO, they later came to believe that the body was merely a "container" or "vehicle" for the soul, and that their consciousness would be transferred to new "Next Level bodies" upon death.

    On March 26, 1997, deputies of the San Diego County Sheriff's Department discovered the bodies of the 39 active members of the group, including that of Applewhite, in a house in the San Diego suburb of Rancho Santa Fe. They had participated in a mass suicide, a coordinated series of ritual suicides, coinciding with the closest approach of the Comet Hale–Bopp.[2][3] Just before the mass suicide, the group's website was updated with the message: 'Hale–Bopp brings closure to Heaven's Gate ...our 22 years of classroom here on planet Earth is finally coming to conclusion — 'graduation' from the Human Evolutionary Level. We are happily prepared to leave 'this world' and go with Ti's crew.'[4]

    The name "Heaven's Gate" was only used for the final few years of the group's existence, and they had previously been known under the names Human Individual Metamorphosis and Total Overcomers Anonymous.

    1. ^ Hexham, Irving; Poewe, Karla (7 May 1997). "UFO Religion—Making Sense of the Heaven's Gate Suicides". Christian Century. pp. 439–40. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
    2. ^ "Mass suicide involved sedatives, vodka and careful planning". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
    3. ^ Ayres, B. Drummond, Jr. (March 29, 1997). "Families Learning of 39 Cultists Who Died Willingly". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-09. According to material the group posted on its Internet site, the timing of the suicides were probably related to the arrival of the Hale–Bopp comet, which members seemed to regard as a cosmic emissary beckoning them to another world.
    4. ^ "Heaven's Gate". Retrieved 2018-07-31.
     
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    27 March 1625Charles I becomes King of England, Scotland and Ireland as well as claiming the title King of France.

    Charles I of England

    Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603 (as James I), he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1612 on the death of his elder brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France.

    After his succession in 1625, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, and was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated antipathy and mistrust from Reformed religious groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to aid continental Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, and helped precipitate his own downfall.

    From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament (the "Long Parliament"). Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and the Commonwealth of England was established as a republic. The monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    27 March 1625Charles I becomes King of England, Scotland and Ireland as well as claiming the title King of France.

    Charles I of England

    Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603 (as James I), he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1612 on the death of his elder brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France.

    After his succession in 1625, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, and was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated antipathy and mistrust from Reformed religious groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to aid continental Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, and helped precipitate his own downfall.

    From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament (the "Long Parliament"). Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and the Commonwealth of England was established as a republic. The monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

     
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    28 March 1990 – United States President George H. W. Bush posthumously awards Jesse Owens the Congressional Gold Medal.

    Jesse Owens

    James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (September 12, 1913 – March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete and four-time gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games.[3]

    Owens specialized in the sprints and the long jump and was recognized in his lifetime as "perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history".[4] He set three world records and tied another, all in less than an hour at the 1935 Big Ten track meet in Ann Arbor, Michigan — a feat that has never been equaled and has been called "the greatest 45 minutes ever in sport".[5]

    He achieved international fame at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, by winning four gold medals: 100 meters, long jump, 200 meters, and 4 × 100-meter relay. He was the most successful athlete at the Games and, as a black man, was credited with "single-handedly crushing Hitler's myth of Aryan supremacy", although he "wasn't invited to the White House to shake hands with the President, either".[6]

    The Jesse Owens Award is USA Track and Field's highest accolade for the year's best track and field athlete. Owens was ranked by ESPN as the sixth greatest North American athlete of the 20th century and the highest-ranked in his sport. In 1999, he was on the six-man short-list for the BBC's Sports Personality of the Century.

    1. ^ "East Technical High School". Cleveland Metro Schools. April 5, 2017.
    2. ^ Edmondson, Jacqueline (2007). Jesse Owens: A Biography. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 9780313339882. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
    3. ^ Treasure Trove: A Collection of ICSE Poems and Short Stories. 4738/23, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi- 110002, India: Evergreen Publications (INDIA) Ltd. 2020. p. 103. ISBN 9789350637005.CS1 maint: location (link)
    4. ^ Litsky, Frank (1980), Jesse Owens Dies Of Cancer at 66, The New York Times, retrieved March 23, 2014
    5. ^ Rothschild, Richard (May 24, 2010). "Greatest 45 minutes ever in sports". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2019.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
    6. ^ Schwartz, Larry (2000). "Owens Pierced A Myth". ESPN. ESPN Internet Ventures. Archived from the original on July 6, 2000.
     
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    29 March 1945 – World War II: The German 4th Army is almost destroyed by the Soviet Red Army.

    Heiligenbeil Pocket

    The Heiligenbeil Pocket or Heiligenbeil Cauldron (German: Kessel von Heiligenbeil) was the site of a major encirclement battle on the Eastern Front during the closing weeks of World War II, in which the Wehrmacht's 4th Army was almost entirely destroyed during the Soviet Braunsberg Offensive Operation (13–22 March 1945). The pocket was located near Heiligenbeil in East Prussia in eastern Germany (now Mamonovo, Kaliningrad Oblast), and the battle, part of a broader Soviet offensive into the region of East Prussia, lasted from 26 January until 29 March 1945.

     
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    30 March 1856 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War.

    Treaty of Paris (1856)

    The Treaty of Paris of 1856 brought an end to the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.[1][2]

    The treaty, signed on 30 March 1856 at the Congress of Paris, made the Black Sea neutral territory, closing it to all warships and prohibiting fortifications and the presence of armaments on its shores.

    The treaty diminished Russian influence in the region. Conditions for the return of Sevastopol and other towns and cities in the south of Crimea to Russia were severe since no naval or military arsenal could be established by Russia on the coast of the Black Sea.

    1. ^ a b Hertslet, Edward (1875). "General treaty between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia and Turkey, signed at Paris on 30th March 1856". The Map of Europe by Treaty showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the general peace of 1814, with numerous maps and notes. 2. London: Butterworth. pp. 1250–1265.
    2. ^ a b Albin, Pierre (1912). "Acte General Du Congres de Paris, 30 Mars 1856". Les Grands Traités Politiques: Recueil des Principaux Textes Diplomatiques Depuis 1815 Jusqu'à nos Jours avec des Notices Historiques et des Notes. Paris: Librairie Félix Alcan. pp. 170–180.
     
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    31 March 1970Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth's atmosphere after 12 years in orbit.

    Explorer 1

    Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States and was part of the U.S. participation in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). The mission followed the first two satellites the previous year; the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2, beginning the Cold War Space Race between the two nations.

    Explorer 1 was launched on 1 February 1958 at 03:47:56 GMT (or 31 January 1958 at 22:47:56 Eastern Time) atop the first Juno booster from LC-26A at the Cape Canaveral Missile Test Center of the Atlantic Missile Range (AMR), in Florida. It was the first spacecraft to detect the Van Allen radiation belt,[2] returning data until its batteries were exhausted after nearly four months. It remained in orbit until 1970 and was followed by more than ninety scientific spacecraft in the Explorers Program.

    Explorer 1 was given Satellite Catalog Number 00004 and the Harvard designation 1958 Alpha 1,[3] the forerunner to the modern International Designator.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Trajectory was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Paul Dickson, Sputnik: The Launch of the Space Race, Toronto: MacFarlane Walter & Ross, 2001, page=190
    3. ^ Yost, Charles W. (6 September 1963). Registration data for United States Space Launches (PDF). United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
     
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    1 April 1924Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years imprisonment for his participation in the "Beer Hall Putsch" but spends only nine months in jail.

    Beer Hall Putsch

    The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,[1][note 1] was a failed coup d'état by Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders in Munich, Bavaria, on 8–9 November 1923, during the Weimar Republic. Approximately two thousand Nazis marched on the Feldherrnhalle, in the city centre, but were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the deaths of 16 Nazi Party members and four police officers.[2]

    Hitler, who was wounded during the clash, escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, he was arrested and charged with treason.[3]

    The putsch brought Hitler to the attention of the German nation for the first time and generated front-page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, which was widely publicised and gave him a platform to express his nationalist sentiments to the nation. Hitler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison,[note 2] where he dictated Mein Kampf to fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released.[4][5] Once released, Hitler redirected his focus towards obtaining power through legal means rather than by revolution or force, and accordingly changed his tactics, further developing Nazi propaganda.[6]

    1. ^ Dan Moorhouse, ed. The Munich Putsch. Archived 5 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine schoolshistory.org.uk, accessed 2008-05-31.
    2. ^ Evans 2003, pp. 193–194.
    3. ^ Hitler, Adolf (1924). Der Hitler-Prozeß vor dem Volksgericht in München [The Hitler Trial Before the People's Court in Munich]. Munich: Knorr & Hirth. OCLC 638670803.
    4. ^ Harold J. Gordon Jr., The Hitler Trial Before the People's Court in Munich (Arlington, VA: University Publications of America 1976)
    5. ^ Fulda, Bernhard (2009). Press and politics in the Weimar Republic. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-19-954778-4.
    6. ^ Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p. 24, ISBN 0-674-01172-4.


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    2 April 2015 – Gunmen attack Garissa University College in Kenya, killing at least 148 people and wounding 79 others.

    Garissa University College attack

    On 2 April 2015, gunmen stormed the Garissa University College in Garissa, Kenya, killing 148 people,[1][2] and injuring 79 or more. The militant group and Al-Qaeda offshoot Al-Shabaab, which the gunmen claimed to be from, took responsibility for the attack. The gunmen took over 700 students hostage, freeing Muslims and killing those who identified as Christians. The siege ended the same day, when all four of the attackers were killed. Five men were later arrested in connection with the attack, and a bounty was placed for the arrest of a suspected organizer.

    The attack was the deadliest in Kenya since the 1998 United States embassy bombings,[3] and is the second deadliest overall, with more casualties than the 2002 Mombasa attacks, the 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack,[4] the 2014 Nairobi bus bombings, the 2014 Gikomba bombings, the 2014 Mpeketoni attacks and the 2014 Lamu attacks.

    1. ^ a b "Kenya al-Shabab attack: Security questions as Garissa dead mourned". BBC News. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
    2. ^ "Death toll from Kenyan attack rises to 148". RTÉ.ie. 3 April 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Reuters1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Mutambo, Aggrey; Hajir, Abdimalik (2 April 2015). "147 killed as Garissa University College attacked by gunmen". The EastAfrican. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
     
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    3 April 2018YouTube headquarters shooting.

    YouTube headquarters shooting

    On April 3, 2018 around 12:46 p.m. PDT, a shooting occurred at the headquarters of the video-sharing website YouTube in San Bruno, California. The shooter was identified as 38-year-old Nasim Najafi Aghdam, who entered through an exterior parking garage, approached an outdoor patio, and opened fire with a Smith & Wesson 9 mm semi-automatic pistol. Aghdam wounded three people, one of them critically, before killing herself.[6][7][8]

    1. ^ Zwirz, Elizabeth (May 31, 2018). "YouTube shooter asked about a job when she visited the campus a day earlier, police say". Fox News. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
    2. ^ D'Onfro, Jillian (April 3, 2018). "Female suspect in YouTube HQ shooting is dead". NBC News. CNBC. Archived from the original on April 3, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ankle was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "Woman who allegedly carried out YouTube shooting is identified by police". CNBC. April 3, 2018. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018.
    5. ^ Coldeway, Devin; Hatmaker, Taylor (April 4, 2018). "Police say shooter's anger over YouTube policies 'appears to be the motive'". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
    6. ^ Allen, Karma (April 4, 2018). "Family of alleged YouTube shooter warned police 'she might do something'". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
    7. ^ "Shooter dead, at least 3 injured in YouTube shooting, police say". KRON. April 3, 2018. Archived from the original on April 3, 2018.
    8. ^ Astor, Maggie; Salam, Maya (April 3, 2018). "YouTube Shooting: Woman Wounds 3 Before Killing Herself, Police Say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2018.
     
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    4 April 1965 – The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft is unveiled.

    Saab 37 Viggen

    The Saab 37 Viggen (Swedish for "the bolt" or "the tufted duck" (see name))[Nb 1][2] is a retired Swedish single-seat, single-engine, short-medium range combat aircraft. Development work on the type was initiated at Saab in 1952 and, following the selection of a radical delta wing configuration, the resulting aircraft performed its first flight on 8 February 1967 and entered service in 21 June 1971. It was the first canard design produced in quantity.[3] The Viggen was also the most advanced[vague] fighter jet in Europe until the introduction of the Panavia Tornado into operational service in 1981.[4]

    Several distinct variants of the Viggen were produced to perform the roles of strike fighter (AJ 37), aerial reconnaissance (SF 37), maritime patrol aircraft (SH 37) and a two-seat trainer (SK 37). In the late 1970s, the all-weather fighter-interceptor aircraft JA 37 variant was introduced. In November 2005, the Viggen was retired from service by the Swedish Air Force, the only operator, having been replaced by the newer Saab JAS 39 Gripen.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference bomber 247 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Nilsson, Axel (13 January 2012). "JAS 39 Gripen − Milestones". Projects. Swedish Defence Materiel Administration. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014. Swedish naming of aircraft
    3. ^ Fredriksen 2001, p. 279.
    4. ^ Zorro, Mario H (8 May 2016), "Saab S37 Viggen", Plane Encyclopedia.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=Nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    4 April 1965 – The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft is unveiled.

    Saab 37 Viggen

    The Saab 37 Viggen (Swedish for "the bolt" or "the tufted duck" (see name))[Nb 1][2] is a retired Swedish single-seat, single-engine, short-medium range combat aircraft. Development work on the type was initiated at Saab in 1952 and, following the selection of a radical delta wing configuration, the resulting aircraft performed its first flight on 8 February 1967 and entered service in 21 June 1971. It was the first canard design produced in quantity.[3] The Viggen was also the most advanced[vague] fighter jet in Europe until the introduction of the Panavia Tornado into operational service in 1981.[4]

    Several distinct variants of the Viggen were produced to perform the roles of strike fighter (AJ 37), aerial reconnaissance (SF 37), maritime patrol aircraft (SH 37) and a two-seat trainer (SK 37). In the late 1970s, the all-weather fighter-interceptor aircraft JA 37 variant was introduced. In November 2005, the Viggen was retired from service by the Swedish Air Force, the only operator, having been replaced by the newer Saab JAS 39 Gripen.

    1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference bomber 247 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Nilsson, Axel (13 January 2012). "JAS 39 Gripen − Milestones". Projects. Swedish Defence Materiel Administration. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014. Swedish naming of aircraft
    3. ^ Fredriksen 2001, p. 279.
    4. ^ Zorro, Mario H (8 May 2016), "Saab S37 Viggen", Plane Encyclopedia.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=Nb> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=Nb}} template (see the help page).

     
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    5 April 1976 – In China, the April Fifth Movement leads to the Tiananmen Incident.

    Tiananmen Incident

    The Tiananmen Incident (Chinese: 四五天安门事件; pinyin: sìwǔ tiān'ānmén shìjiàn or the April 5 Tiananmen Incident) was a mass gathering and protest that took place on 5 April 1976, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. The incident occurred on the traditional day of mourning, the Qingming Festival, after the Nanjing Incident, and was triggered by the death of Premier Zhou Enlai earlier that year. Some people strongly disapproved of the removal of the displays of mourning, and began gathering in the Square to protest against the central authorities, then largely under the auspices of the Gang of Four, who ordered the Square to be cleared.

    The event was labeled as counterrevolutionary immediately after its occurrence by the Communist Party's Central Committee and served as a gateway to the dismissal and house arrest of then–Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping, who was accused of planning the event, while he insisted that he came to Tiananmen Square only for a haircut. The Central Committee's decision on the event was reversed after the Cultural Revolution ended, as it would later be officially hailed as a display of patriotism.

     
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    6 April 1947 – The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievement.

    Tony Awards

    The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre,[1] more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League[2] at an annual ceremony in Midtown Manhattan.

    The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances. One is also given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are given, as well, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award.[3]

    The awards founded by Brock Pemberton are named after Antoinette "Tony" Perry, an actress, producer and theatre director who was co-founder and secretary of the American Theatre Wing. The trophy consists of a medallion, with a face portraying an adaptation of the comedy and tragedy masks, mounted on a black base with a pewter swivel.

    The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only.[4] The Tony Awards are considered the highest U.S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards (Oscars) for film, the Emmy Awards for television, and the Grammy Awards for music. It also forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is, someone who has won all four major annual American entertainment awards. The Tony Awards are also considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France.

    The 73rd annual ceremony was held on June 9, 2019 at Radio City Music Hall in New York City and was broadcast live on CBS.[5] James Corden served as the host.[6]

    1. ^ American Theatre Wing. "2014 Rules for use of Tony Awards trademarks" tonyawards.com, Apr 8, 2017
    2. ^ Gans, Andrew (December 18, 2007). "League of American Theatres and Producers Announces Name Change" Archived December 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013. The League of American Theatres and Producers was renamed "The Broadway League".
    3. ^ Staff (undated). "Who's Who". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    4. ^ "Tony Awards Rules and Regulations for 2013–14 season" tonyawards.com, accessed June 12, 2014
    5. ^ "Date Set for the 2019 Tony Awards: June 9 on CBS". TonyAwards.com. October 17, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
    6. ^ McPhee, Ryan. "James Corden to Host 2019 Tony Awards" playbill, March 19, 2019
     
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    7 April 1990 – A fire breaks out on the passenger ferry Scandinavian Star, killing 159 people.

    MS Scandinavian Star

    MS Scandinavian Star, originally named MS Massalia, was a car and passenger ferry built in France in 1971. The ship was set on fire on April 7, 1990, killing 159 people, and the official investigation blamed the fires on a convicted arsonist, who died in the fire.[1] This finding has since been disputed.[2]

    1. ^ Solheim, T.; Lorentsen, M.; Sundnes, P.K.; Bang, G. & Bremnes, L. (1992): The “Scandinavian Star” ferry disaster 1990 – a challenge to forensic odontology. International Journal of Legal Medicine 104: 339-345.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference reopen was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    8 April 1908Harvard University votes to establish the Harvard Business School.

    Harvard Business School

    Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts. It is consistently ranked among the top business schools in the world[2][3] and offers a large full-time MBA program, management-related doctoral programs, and many executive education programs. It owns Harvard Business Publishing, which publishes business books, leadership articles, case studies, and the monthly Harvard Business Review. It is also home to the Baker Library/Bloomberg Center.

    1. ^ a b c d "Statistics – About Us – Harvard Business School". Hbs.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
    2. ^ Hess, Abigail (2019-03-12). "The 15 best business schools in the US, according to US News & World Report". CNBC. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
    3. ^ "Out Now: QS Global MBA Rankings 2019". Top Universities. 2018-09-24. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
     
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    8 April 1908Harvard University votes to establish the Harvard Business School.

    Harvard Business School

    Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts. It is consistently ranked among the top business schools in the world[2][3] and offers a large full-time MBA program, management-related doctoral programs, and many executive education programs. It owns Harvard Business Publishing, which publishes business books, leadership articles, case studies, and the monthly Harvard Business Review. It is also home to the Baker Library/Bloomberg Center.

    1. ^ a b c d "Statistics – About Us – Harvard Business School". Hbs.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
    2. ^ Hess, Abigail (2019-03-12). "The 15 best business schools in the US, according to US News & World Report". CNBC. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
    3. ^ "Out Now: QS Global MBA Rankings 2019". Top Universities. 2018-09-24. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
     
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    9 April 1288Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Yuan forces are defeated by Trần forces in the Battle of Bach Dang in present-day northern Vietnam.

    Mongol invasions of Vietnam

    The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol–Vietnamese wars and Mongol–Cham war were military campaigns launched by the Mongol Empire, and later the Yuan dynasty, against the kingdom of Đại Việt (modern-day northern Vietnam) ruled by the Trần dynasty and the kingdom of Champa (modern-day central Vietnam) in 1258, 1282–1284, 1285, and 1287–88. In studies of China and Mongolia, the campaigns are often treated as a success due to the establishment of tributary relations with Đại Việt despite the Mongols suffering several military defeats.[11][12][13] In contrast, Vietnamese historiography emphasizes the Đại Việt military victories.[11]

    The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade the Song dynasty. The Mongol general Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Vietnamese capital Thang Long (modern-day Hanoi) before turning north in 1259 to invade the Song dynasty in modern-day Guangxi as part of a coordinated Mongol attack with armies attacking in Sichuan under Möngke Khan and other Mongol armies attacking in modern-day Shandong and Henan.[14] The first invasion also established tributary relations between the Vietnamese kingdom, formerly a Song dynasty tributary state, and the Yuan dynasty. In 1282, Kublai Khan and the Yuan dynasty launched a naval invasion of Champa that also resulted in the establishment of tributary relations.

    Intending to demand greater tribute and direct Yuan oversight of local affairs in Đại Việt and Champa, the Yuan launched another invasion in 1285. The second invasion of Đại Việt failed to accomplish its goals, and the Yuan launched a third invasion in 1287 with the intent of replacing the uncooperative Đại Việt ruler Trần Nhân Tông with the defected Trần prince Trần Ích Tắc. By the end of the second and third invasions, which involved both initial successes and large losses for the Mongols, the Đại Việt and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.[15][16]

    1. ^ Anderson 2014, p. 129.
    2. ^ Atwood 2004, p. 579.
    3. ^ Hà & Phạm 2003, p. 66-68.
    4. ^ Man 2012, p. 350.
    5. ^ Atwood 2004, p. 579–580.
    6. ^ Anderson 2014, p. 127.
    7. ^ Lo 2012, p. 288.
    8. ^ Lo 2012, p. 292.
    9. ^ Man 2012, p. 351.
    10. ^ Lo 2012, p. 302.
    11. ^ a b Baldanza 2016, p. 17.
    12. ^ Weatherford 2005, p. 212.
    13. ^ Hucker 1975, p. 285.
    14. ^ Haw 2013, p. 361-371.
    15. ^ Bulliet et al. 2014, p. 336.
    16. ^ Baldanza 2016, p. 17-26.
     
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    10 April 1971Ping-pong diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a week-long visit.

    Ping-pong diplomacy

    Ping-pong diplomacy (Chinese: 乒乓外交 Pīngpāng wàijiāo) refers to the exchange of table tennis (ping-pong) players between the United States (US) and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the early 1970s, that began during the 1971 World Table Tennis Championships in Nagoya, Japan as a result of an encounter between players Glenn Cowan (of the US) and Zhuang Zedong (of the PRC).[1] The event marked a thaw in Sino-American relations that paved the way to a visit to Beijing by President Richard Nixon in 1972. The event has been seen as a key turning point in relations, and the policy approach has since been carried out elsewhere.

    1. ^ [1] Archived June 3, 2019, at the Wayback Machine.
     
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    11 April 1979Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is deposed.

    Idi Amin

    Idi Amin Dada Oumee (/ˈdi ɑːˈmn, ˈɪdi -/, UK also /- æˈmn/; c. 1925 – 16 August 2003) was a Ugandan military officer who served as the president of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Commonly known as the "Butcher of Uganda", he is considered one of the most brutal despots in world history.[3]

    Amin was born in Koboko to a Kakwa father and Lugbara mother. In 1946, he joined the King's African Rifles (KAR) of the British Colonial Army as a cook. He rose to the rank of lieutenant, taking part in British actions against Somali rebels in the Shifta War and then the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. Uganda gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, and Amin remained in the armed forces, rising to the position of major and being appointed commander of the Uganda Army in 1965. He became aware that Ugandan President Milton Obote was planning to arrest him for misappropriating army funds, so he launched a military coup in 1971 and declared himself president.

    During his years in power, Amin shifted from being a pro-Western ruler enjoying considerable support from Israel to being backed by Libya's Muammar Gaddafi, Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko, the Soviet Union, and East Germany.[4][5][6] In 1975, Amin became the chairman of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), a Pan-Africanist group designed to promote solidarity among African states.[7] Uganda was a member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 1977 to 1979.[8] The UK broke diplomatic relations with Uganda in 1977, and Amin declared that he had defeated the British and added "CBE" to his title for "Conqueror of the British Empire".[9]

    As Amin's rule progressed into the late 1970s, there was increased unrest against his persecution of certain ethnic groups and political dissidents, along with Uganda's very poor international standing due to Amin's support for the terrorist hijackers in Operation Entebbe. He then attempted to annex Tanzania's Kagera Region in 1978, so Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere had his troops invade Uganda; they captured Kampala on 11 April 1979 and ousted Amin from power. Amin went into exile, first in Libya, then Iraq, and finally in Saudi Arabia, where he lived until his death on 16 August 2003.[10]

    Amin's rule was characterised by rampant human rights abuses, including political repression, ethnic persecution and extrajudicial killings, as well as nepotism, corruption, and gross economic mismanagement. International observers and human rights groups estimate that between 100,000[11] and 500,000 people were killed under his regime.[9]

    1. ^ Nakajubi, Gloria (15 July 2015). "Ugandan dictator Idi Amin's widow Sarah Kyolaba dies in the UK aged 59". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
    2. ^ Decker 2014, p. 137.
    3. ^ Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "Biography of Idi Amin, Brutal Dictator of Uganda". ThoughtCo. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
    4. ^ Roland Anthony Oliver, Anthony Atmore. Africa Since 1800. p. 272.
    5. ^ Dale C. Tatum. Who influenced whom?. p. 177.
    6. ^ Gareth M. Winrow. The Foreign Policy of the GDR in Africa, p. 141.
    7. ^ "Idi Amin: A Byword for Brutality". News24. 21 July 2003. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
    8. ^ Gershowitz, Suzanne (20 March 2007). "The Last King of Scotland, Idi Amin, and the United Nations". Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
    9. ^ a b Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). "Idi Amin". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
    10. ^ "Dictator Idi Amin dies". 16 August 2003. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2020 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
    11. ^ Ullman, Richard H. (April 1978). "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin". Foreign Affairs. 56 (3): 529–543. doi:10.2307/20039917. JSTOR 20039917. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2018. The most conservative estimates by informed observers hold that President Idi Amin Dada and the terror squads operating under his loose direction have killed 100,000 Ugandans in the seven years he has held power.
     
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    12 April 2002 – A suicide bomber blows herself up at the entrance to Jerusalem's Mahane Yehuda Market, killing seven people and wounding 104.

    Suicide attack

    USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) after a kamikaze attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on May 11, 1945
    Several coordinated suicide attacks targeted the United States on September 11, 2001

    A suicide attack is any violent attack in which attackers accept their own death as a direct result of the attacking method used. Suicide attacks have occurred throughout history, often as part of a military campaign (as with the Japanese kamikaze pilots of 1944-1945 during World War II), and more recently as part of terrorist campaigns (such as the September 11 attacks in 2001).

    While few, if any, successful suicide attacks took place anywhere in the world from the end of World War II until 1980,[1][need quotation to verify] between 1981 and September 2015 a total of 4,814 suicide attacks occurred in over 40 countries,[2] killing over 45,000 people. During this time the global rate of such attacks grew from an average of three a year in the 1980s to about one a month in the 1990s to almost one a week from 2001 to 2003[3] to approximately one a day from 2003 to 2015.[2]

    Suicide attacks tend to be more deadly and destructive than other terror attacks[4] because they give their perpetrators the ability to conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, and because they dispense with the need for remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams.[4] They constituted only 4% of all terrorist attacks around the world over one period (between 1981 and 2006), but caused 32% of all terrorism-related deaths (14,599). Ninety percent of those attacks occurred in Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.[5] Overall, as of mid-2015, about three-quarters of all suicide attacks occurred in just three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq.[6]

    Suicide attacks have been described[by whom?] as a weapon of psychological warfare[7] to instill fear in the target population,[8] a strategy to eliminate or at least drastically diminish areas where the public feels safe and the "fabric of trust that holds societies together", as well as to demonstrate the lengths to which perpetrators will go to achieve their goals.[4]

    Suicide attackers may have various motivations. Kamikaze pilots, motivated by obedience and nationalism,[citation needed] acted under military orders. Before 2003, most attacks targeted forces occupying the attackers' homeland, according to analyst Robert Pape.[9] Anthropologist Scott Atran states that since 2004 the ideology of Islamist martyrdom has motivated the overwhelming majority of bombers.[10][need quotation to verify]

    1. ^ Kay, Jonathan (13 September 2005). "Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism". Islam Daily. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
    2. ^ a b "Chicago Project on Security and Terrorism. Suicide Attack Database". Cpostdata.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
    3. ^ Atran, Scott. "The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism (figure 1, pg. 128)" (PDF). sitemaker.umich.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
    4. ^ a b c Hoffman, Bruce (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 October 2015. According to data from the Rand Corporation's chronology of international terrorism incidents, suicide attacks on average kill four times as many people as other terrorist acts.
    5. ^ Hassan, Riaz (September 3, 2009). "What Motivates the Suicide Bombers?". YaleGlobal. Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
    6. ^ (Click "Search Database", then under "filter by", click "location". Afghanistan (1059) Iraq (1938) and Pakistan (490) have a total 3487 attacks out of a total of 4620 worldwide.)"Year: 1982–2015. Group". Chicago Project on Security and Terrorism Suicide Attack Database. Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
    7. ^ Hutchinson, W. (March 2007). "The systemic roots of suicide bombing". Systems Research and Behavioral Science. 24 (2): 191–200. doi:10.1002/sres.824.
    8. ^ de la Corte Ibáñez, Luis (19 October 2014). "The Social Psychology of Suicide Terrorism". ict.org.il. International Institute for Counter Terrorism. Retrieved 22 December 2015. Terrorism involves the use of force or violence in order to instill fear as a means of coercing individuals or groups to change their political or social positions which means that social influence is the ultimate goal of terrorism. Obviously we could say the same about suicide terrorism. [...] An alternative perspective views terrorism, including suicide terrorism, as tool: a means to an end and a tactic of warfare that anyone could use.
    9. ^ For example, 90% of attacks in Iraq prior to the civil war (starting in 2003) aimed at forcing out occupying forces. Pape's tabulation of suicide attacks runs from 1980 to early 2004 in Dying to Win and to 2009 in Cutting the Fuse.
    10. ^ Scott Atran| The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism Archived June 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine (pp. 131, 133); sitemaker.umich.edu; accessed July 11, 2015.
     
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    12 April 2002 – A suicide bomber blows herself up at the entrance to Jerusalem's Mahane Yehuda Market, killing seven people and wounding 104.

    Suicide attack

    USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) after a kamikaze attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on May 11, 1945
    Several coordinated suicide attacks targeted the United States on September 11, 2001

    A suicide attack is any violent attack in which attackers accept their own death as a direct result of the attacking method used. Suicide attacks have occurred throughout history, often as part of a military campaign (as with the Japanese kamikaze pilots of 1944-1945 during World War II), and more recently as part of terrorist campaigns (such as the September 11 attacks in 2001).

    While few, if any, successful suicide attacks took place anywhere in the world from the end of World War II until 1980,[1][need quotation to verify] between 1981 and September 2015 a total of 4,814 suicide attacks occurred in over 40 countries,[2] killing over 45,000 people. During this time the global rate of such attacks grew from an average of three a year in the 1980s to about one a month in the 1990s to almost one a week from 2001 to 2003[3] to approximately one a day from 2003 to 2015.[2]

    Suicide attacks tend to be more deadly and destructive than other terror attacks[4] because they give their perpetrators the ability to conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, and because they dispense with the need for remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams.[4] They constituted only 4% of all terrorist attacks around the world over one period (between 1981 and 2006), but caused 32% of all terrorism-related deaths (14,599). Ninety percent of those attacks occurred in Afghanistan, Iraq, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.[5] Overall, as of mid-2015, about three-quarters of all suicide attacks occurred in just three countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq.[6]

    Suicide attacks have been described[by whom?] as a weapon of psychological warfare[7] to instill fear in the target population,[8] a strategy to eliminate or at least drastically diminish areas where the public feels safe and the "fabric of trust that holds societies together", as well as to demonstrate the lengths to which perpetrators will go to achieve their goals.[4]

    Suicide attackers may have various motivations. Kamikaze pilots, motivated by obedience and nationalism,[citation needed] acted under military orders. Before 2003, most attacks targeted forces occupying the attackers' homeland, according to analyst Robert Pape.[9] Anthropologist Scott Atran states that since 2004 the ideology of Islamist martyrdom has motivated the overwhelming majority of bombers.[10][need quotation to verify]

    1. ^ Kay, Jonathan (13 September 2005). "Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism". Islam Daily. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
    2. ^ a b "Chicago Project on Security and Terrorism. Suicide Attack Database". Cpostdata.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
    3. ^ Atran, Scott. "The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism (figure 1, pg. 128)" (PDF). sitemaker.umich.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
    4. ^ a b c Hoffman, Bruce (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 October 2015. According to data from the Rand Corporation's chronology of international terrorism incidents, suicide attacks on average kill four times as many people as other terrorist acts.
    5. ^ Hassan, Riaz (September 3, 2009). "What Motivates the Suicide Bombers?". YaleGlobal. Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
    6. ^ (Click "Search Database", then under "filter by", click "location". Afghanistan (1059) Iraq (1938) and Pakistan (490) have a total 3487 attacks out of a total of 4620 worldwide.)"Year: 1982–2015. Group". Chicago Project on Security and Terrorism Suicide Attack Database. Archived from the original on 2016-01-24. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
    7. ^ Hutchinson, W. (March 2007). "The systemic roots of suicide bombing". Systems Research and Behavioral Science. 24 (2): 191–200. doi:10.1002/sres.824.
    8. ^ de la Corte Ibáñez, Luis (19 October 2014). "The Social Psychology of Suicide Terrorism". ict.org.il. International Institute for Counter Terrorism. Retrieved 22 December 2015. Terrorism involves the use of force or violence in order to instill fear as a means of coercing individuals or groups to change their political or social positions which means that social influence is the ultimate goal of terrorism. Obviously we could say the same about suicide terrorism. [...] An alternative perspective views terrorism, including suicide terrorism, as tool: a means to an end and a tactic of warfare that anyone could use.
    9. ^ For example, 90% of attacks in Iraq prior to the civil war (starting in 2003) aimed at forcing out occupying forces. Pape's tabulation of suicide attacks runs from 1980 to early 2004 in Dying to Win and to 2009 in Cutting the Fuse.
    10. ^ Scott Atran| The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism Archived June 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine (pp. 131, 133); sitemaker.umich.edu; accessed July 11, 2015.
     
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    13 April 1972 – Vietnam War: The Battle of An Lộc begins.

    Battle of An Lộc

    The Battle of An Lộc was a major battle of the Vietnam War that lasted for 66 days and culminated in a tactical victory for South Vietnam. The struggle for An Lộc in 1972 was an important battle of the war, as South Vietnamese forces halted the North Vietnamese advance towards Saigon.

    1. ^ "Richard Tallman, Brigadier General, United States Army". The Virtual Wall. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
    2. ^ https://www.armyupress.army.mil › ...PDF Thiet Giap! The Battle of An Loc, April 1972 - Army University Press p. 5.
    3. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 51. ISBN 9781851099603.
    4. ^ Hồ sơ cục Quân y: Chiến dịch Nguyễn Huệ 4/1972 - 1/1973: 13.412 wounded (26,83% total forces); included fase 1 (battle of Loc Ninh and battle of An Loc): 6,214 wounded. Total killed or missing during the campaign: 3,961 (included 50% in fase 1)
    5. ^ Thi, Lam Quang (2009). Hell in An Loc: The 1972 Easter Invasion and the Battle that Saved South Vietnam. University of North Texas Press. ISBN 9781574412765.
     
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    14 April 1909A massacre is organized by the Ottoman Empire against the Armenian population of Cilicia.

    Adana massacre

    The Adana massacre (Armenian: Ադանայի կոտորած, Turkish: Adana İğtişaşı) or Cilicia massacre (Armenian: Կիլիկիայի կոտորած, Turkish: Kilikiya İğtişaşı) occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in April 1909. A massacre of Armenian Christians by Ottoman Muslims in the city of Adana amidst the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 expanded to a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the province.[3] Around 20,000 to 25,000 people were killed in Adana and surrounding towns, mostly Armenians;[4] it was reported about 1,300 Assyrians were also killed during the massacres.[5] Unlike the earlier Hamidian massacres, the events were not organized by the central government but instead instigated by local officials, intellectuals, and Islamic clerics, including CUP supporters in Adana. Professor of History Ronald Grigor Suny from the University of Michigan describes Adana as "more like an urban riot that degenerated into a pogrom rather than a state-initiated mass killing".[2]

    Ottoman and Armenian revolutionary groups had cooperated to secure the deposition of Sultan Abdul Hamid II and the restoration of constitutional rule in 1908. In reaction, on 31 March 1909 (13 April by the Western calendar) a military revolt directed against the Committee of Union and Progress seized Constantinople (Istanbul after 1928). While the revolt lasted only ten days, it precipitated a pogrom and massacres in Adana Province against Armenians that lasted over a month.

    The massacres were rooted in political, economic, and religious differences.[6] The Armenian segment of the population of Adana was described as the "richest and most prosperous"; the violence included destruction of "tractors and other kinds of mechanized equipment."[7]

    1. ^ Nazan Maksudyan (2014). Women and the City, Women in the City: A Gendered Perspective on Ottoman Urban History. Berghahn Books. p. 122.
    2. ^ a b Suny 2015, pp. 172–173.
    3. ^ Raymond H. Kévorkian, "The Cilician Massacres, April 1909" in Armenian Cilicia, eds. Richard G. Hovannisian and Simon Payaslian. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 7. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2008, pp. 339–69.
    4. ^ Suny 2015, p. 171.
    5. ^ Gaunt, David (2009). "The Assyrian Genocide of 1915". Assyrian Genocide Research Center.
    6. ^ "ARMENIAN WEALTH CAUSED MASSACRES". The New York Times. April 25, 1909.
    7. ^ Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
     
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    15 April 1941 – In the Belfast Blitz, two-hundred bombers of the German Luftwaffe attack Belfast, killing around one thousand people.

    Belfast Blitz

    Rescue workers searching through rubble after an air raid on Belfast

    The Belfast Blitz consisted of four German air raids on strategic targets in the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland, in April and May 1941 during World War II, causing high casualties. The first was on the night of 7–8 April 1941, a small attack which probably took place only to test Belfast's defences. The next took place on Easter Tuesday, 15 April 1941. 200 Luftwaffe bombers attacked military and manufacturing targets in the city of Belfast. Some 900 people died as a result of the bombing and 1,500 were injured. High explosive bombs predominated in this raid. Apart from those on London, this was the greatest loss of life in any night raid during the Blitz.[1][2]

    The third raid on Belfast took place over the evening and morning of 4–5 May 1941; 150 were killed. Incendiary bombs predominated in this raid. The fourth and final Belfast raid took place on the following night, 5–6 May. In total over 1,300 houses were demolished, some 5,000 badly damaged, nearly 30,000 slightly damaged while 20,000 required "first aid repairs".[3]

    1. ^ BBC (11 April 2001). "The Belfast blitz is remembered". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2015. On 16 April 1941 Belfast was devastated as it bore the worst air raid of any city outside London […] It was one of the largest German strike forces used to date in the war and the Luftwaffe was heading for a city later described as the most poorly defended in the United Kingdom.
    2. ^ Belfast Central Library. "Memories of the Belfast Blitz". WW2 People's War. BBC. Retrieved 19 January 2015. No city, save London, suffered more loss of life in one night’s raid on the United Kingdom.
    3. ^ Barton, Brian, The Belfast Blitz: The City in the War Years (2015) p. 397.
     
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    16 April 1947 – An explosion on board a freighter in port causes the city of Texas City, Texas, to catch fire, killing almost 600.

    Texas City disaster

    The SS Wilson B. Keene, destroyed in the disaster's second explosion

    The 1947 Texas City disaster was an industrial accident that occurred on April 16, 1947, in the Port of Texas City, Texas, at Galveston Bay. It was the deadliest industrial accident in United States history and one of history's largest non-nuclear explosions. A mid-morning fire started on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp (docked in the port) and detonated her cargo of about 2,300 tons (about 2,100 metric tons) of ammonium nitrate.[1] This started a chain reaction of fires and explosions in other ships and nearby oil-storage facilities, ultimately killing at least 581 people, including all but one member of the Texas City fire department.[2]

    The disaster drew the first class action lawsuit against the United States government, on behalf of 8,485 victims, under the 1946 Federal Tort Claims Act.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference fire report was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Stephens, Hugh W. (1997). The Texas City Disaster, 1947. University of Texas Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-292-77723-X.
     
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    17 April 1978Mir Akbar Khyber is assassinated, provoking a communist coup d'état in Afghanistan.

    Mir Akbar Khyber

    Mir Akbar Khyber (Pashto: مير اکبر خيبر‎) (sometimes spelled Khaibar) (January 11, 1925 – April 17, 1978) was an Afghan left-wing intellectual and a leader of the Parcham faction of People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). His assassination by an unidentified person or people led to the overthrow of Mohammed Daoud Khan's republic, and to the advent of a socialist regime in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

    Born on March 11, 1925 in Logar province. Khyber graduated from Harbi Pohantoon Military University in 1947. In 1950, he was imprisoned for his revolutionary activities. Later he was employed by the Ministry of Education, until he was expelled from Paktia for taking part in a riot in 1965. After returning to Kabul, he became editor of the Parcham newspaper, Parcham, and oversaw the Parchams recruitment program in the Afghan Army.[1] He was a close confidant of the Parcham leader Babrak Karmal.[2]

    He was assassinated outside his home on 17 April 1978. The Daoud regime attempted to put the blame for Khyber's death on Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezbi Islami,[3] but Nur Mohammad Taraki of the PDPA charged that the government itself was responsible, a belief that was shared by much of the Kabul intelligentsia. Louis Dupree, an American historian and specialist of Afghanistan, concluded that interior minister Mohammed Issa Nuristani, a virulent anti-communist, had ordered the killing.[3] However, several sources, including fellow Parchamites Babrak Karmal and Anahita Ratebzad, claimed that Hafizullah Amin, a leader of the rival Khalq faction, was the instigator of the assassination. But some former ministers of Khalq faction claim that the assassination was ordered by the Soviet Union and Karmal.[1] Daoud's confidant, Abdul Samad Ghaus, suggested that a strong rivalry existed between Amin and Khyber as they both attempted to infiltrate the military for their respective factions. Also, Khyber's attempts to reunite Khalq and Parcham cells within the military would have undermined Amin's power, according to communist sources.[3] Mr. Ghaus suggest that Amin's henchmen, Siddiq Alamyar and his brother, are responsible for assasination of both Khyber and Inamulhaq Gran (mistakenly thought to be Karmal) upon order from Amin. Alamyar became Amin's minister of planning and his brother president of the general transportation authority.[4]

    At Khyber's funeral on April 19, some 15,000 PDPA sympathizers gathered in Kabul, and paraded through the streets chanting slogans against the CIA and the SAVAK, the Shah of Iran's secret police.[5] Alarmed by this demonstration of communist strength, Daoud ordered a crackdown on the PDPA leadership, which in turn prompted the PDPA to launch a military coup that became known as the Saur Revolution, during which Daoud was killed, and the PDPA took power.

    1. ^ a b Anthony Arnold (1983). Afghanistan's two-party communism. Hoover Press. p. 182. Retrieved 2009-03-21 – via Internet Archive. Ghulam Dastagir Panjsheri. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link), page 180
    2. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=86w4DgAAQBAJ&pg=PT92
    3. ^ a b c Cordovez, Diego; Harrison, Selig (1995). Out of Afghanistan: The inside story of the Soviet withdrawal. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-19-506294-9.
    4. ^ https://www.amazon.com/Fall-Afghanistan-Insiders-Account/dp/0080347010/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=the+fall+of+afghanistan
    5. ^ Urban, Mark (1990). War in Afghanistan. London: Palgrave MacMillan. p. 7. ISBN 0-333-51477-7. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
     
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    18 April 1909Joan of Arc is beatified in Rome.

    Joan of Arc

    Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d’Arc[3][4] pronounced [ʒan daʁk]; c. 1412 – 30 May 1431),[5] nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (French: La Pucelle d'Orléans) or "Maid of Lorraine" (French: La Pucelle de Lorraine), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a saint. She was born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in the Vosges of northeast France. Joan said that she received visions of the archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The as-yet-unanointed King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's consecration at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory at Castillon in 1453.

    On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English. She was later handed over to the English[6] and put on trial by the pro-English bishop, Pierre Cauchon, on a variety of charges.[7] After Cauchon declared her guilty, she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at nineteen years of age.[8]

    In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr.[9] In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte.[10] She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.

    Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, playwrights, filmmakers, artists, and composers have created, and continue to create, cultural depictions of her.

    1. ^ (in French) Philippe Contamine, "Remarques critiques sur les étendards de Jeanne d'Arc", Francia, Ostfildern: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, n° 34/1, 2007, p. 199-200[permanent dead link].
    2. ^ "Holy Days". Archived from the original on 26 October 2011.
    3. ^ Her name was written in a variety of ways, particularly before the mid-19th century. See Pernoud and Clin, pp. 220–21. Her signature appears as "Jehanne" (see www.stjoan-center.com/Album/, parts 47 and 49; it is also noted in Pernoud and Clin).
    4. ^ In archaic form, Jehanne Darc (Pernoud Clin 1998, pp. 220–221), but also Tarc, Daly or Day (Contamine Bouzy Hélary 2012 pp. 511; 517–519).
    5. ^ An exact date of birth (6 January, without mention of the year), is uniquely indicated by Perceval de Boulainvilliers, councillor of King Charles VII, in a letter to the duke of Milan. Régine Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January". However, Marius Sepet has alleged that Boulainvilliers' letter is mythographic and therefore, in his opinion, unreliable (Marius Sepet, "Observations critiques sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc. La lettre de Perceval de Boulainvilliers", in Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, n°77, 1916, pp. 439–47. Gerd Krumeich shares the same analysis (Gerd Krumeich, "La date de la naissance de Jeanne d'Arc", in De Domremy ... à Tokyo: Jeanne d'Arc et la Lorraine, 2013, pp. 21–31). Colette Beaune emphasizes the mythical character of the Epiphany feast, the peasants' joy and the long rooster crow mentioned by Boulainvilliers (Colette Beaune, Jeanne d'Arc, Paris: Perrin, 2004, ISBN 2-262-01705-0, pp. 26–30). As a medieval peasant, Joan of Arc knew only approximately her age. Olivier Bouzy says that accurate birthdates were commonly ignored in the Middle Ages, even within the nobility, except for the princes and kings. Therefore, Boulainvilliers' precise date is quite extraordinary for that time. At least, the year 1412 rates in the chronological range, between 1411 and 1413, referenced by the chronicles, Joan herself and her squire Jean d'Aulon (Olivier Bouzy, Jeanne d'Arc en son siècle, Paris: Fayard, 2013, ISBN 978-2-213-67205-2, pp. 91–93).
    6. ^ "Le procès de Jeanne d'Arc".
    7. ^ Régine Pernoud, "Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses", pp. 179, 220–22
    8. ^ Taylor, Craig (2006). Joan of Arc: La Pucelle. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6847-8 – via Google Books.
    9. ^ McMillan, James F. (21 March 2016). "Reclaiming a Martyr: French Catholics and the Cult of Joan of Arc, 1890–1920". Studies in Church History. 30: 359–370. doi:10.1017/S0424208400011827. ISSN 0424-2084.
    10. ^ Dirk Arend Berents, D.E.H. de Boer, Marina Warner (1994). Joan of Arc: Reality and Myth. Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 8. ISBN 978-90-6550-412-8.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
     
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    19 April 1987The Simpsons first appear as a series of shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show, first starting with Good Night.

    The Simpsons

    The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.[2][3][4] The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society, television, and the human condition.

    The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. He created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; he thought Simpson was a funny name in that it sounded similar to "simpleton".[5] The shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season (1989–1990).

    Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 703 episodes of the show have been broadcast. It is the longest-running American animated series, longest-running American sitcom, and the longest-running American scripted primetime television series, both in terms of seasons and number of episodes. A feature-length film, The Simpsons Movie, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, and grossed over $527 million, with a sequel in development as of 2018. The series has also spawned numerous comic book series, video games, books, and other related media, as well as a billion-dollar merchandising industry. The Simpsons is a joint production by Gracie Films and 20th Television.[6] Its thirty-second season premiered on September 27, 2020 and includes the show's 700th episode. On March 3, 2021, it was announced that the series had been renewed for seasons 33 and 34 up to 2023, surpassing an episode count of 750.[7]

    The Simpsons received acclaim throughout its early seasons in the 1990s, which are generally considered its "golden age". Since then, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality. Time named it the 20th century's best television series,[8] and Erik Adams of The A.V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format".[9] On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. It has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 34 Primetime Emmy Awards, 34 Annie Awards, and 2 Peabody Awards. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other later adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Nellie Andreeva (August 21, 2020). "Disney Television Studios Rebrands Its Three Units As 20th Television, ABC Signature & Touchstone Television". Deadline Hollywood.
    2. ^ Ortved, John (October 12, 2010). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History. Faber & Faber. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-86547-939-5. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    3. ^ Facts on File, Incorporated (2010). Animation. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-3249-5. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    4. ^ Irwin, William; Conard, Mark T.; Skoble, Aeon J. (August 21, 2013). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Open Court. p. 1972. ISBN 978-0-8126-9694-3. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    5. ^ "Matt Groening Reveals the Location of the Real Springfield". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
    6. ^ "The Simpsons About the Show". Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
    7. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (March 3, 2021). "'The Simpsons' Renewed For Seasons 33 & 34 By Fox". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
    8. ^ "The Best of the Century". Time. December 31, 1999. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
    9. ^ "The best animated series ever". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
     
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    19 April 1987The Simpsons first appear as a series of shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show, first starting with Good Night.

    The Simpsons

    The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.[2][3][4] The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society, television, and the human condition.

    The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. He created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; he thought Simpson was a funny name in that it sounded similar to "simpleton".[5] The shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season (1989–1990).

    Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 703 episodes of the show have been broadcast. It is the longest-running American animated series, longest-running American sitcom, and the longest-running American scripted primetime television series, both in terms of seasons and number of episodes. A feature-length film, The Simpsons Movie, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, and grossed over $527 million, with a sequel in development as of 2018. The series has also spawned numerous comic book series, video games, books, and other related media, as well as a billion-dollar merchandising industry. The Simpsons is a joint production by Gracie Films and 20th Television.[6] Its thirty-second season premiered on September 27, 2020 and includes the show's 700th episode. On March 3, 2021, it was announced that the series had been renewed for seasons 33 and 34 up to 2023, surpassing an episode count of 750.[7]

    The Simpsons received acclaim throughout its early seasons in the 1990s, which are generally considered its "golden age". Since then, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality. Time named it the 20th century's best television series,[8] and Erik Adams of The A.V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format".[9] On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. It has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 34 Primetime Emmy Awards, 34 Annie Awards, and 2 Peabody Awards. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other later adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Nellie Andreeva (August 21, 2020). "Disney Television Studios Rebrands Its Three Units As 20th Television, ABC Signature & Touchstone Television". Deadline Hollywood.
    2. ^ Ortved, John (October 12, 2010). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History. Faber & Faber. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-86547-939-5. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    3. ^ Facts on File, Incorporated (2010). Animation. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-3249-5. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    4. ^ Irwin, William; Conard, Mark T.; Skoble, Aeon J. (August 21, 2013). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Open Court. p. 1972. ISBN 978-0-8126-9694-3. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
    5. ^ "Matt Groening Reveals the Location of the Real Springfield". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
    6. ^ "The Simpsons About the Show". Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
    7. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (March 3, 2021). "'The Simpsons' Renewed For Seasons 33 & 34 By Fox". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
    8. ^ "The Best of the Century". Time. December 31, 1999. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
    9. ^ "The best animated series ever". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
     
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    20 April 2010 – The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing eleven workers and beginning an oil spill that would last six months.

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was an industrial disaster that began on 20 April 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect,[6][7][8][9] considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8 to 31 percent larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. federal government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3).[3] After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared sealed on 19 September 2010.[10] Reports in early 2012 indicated that the well site was still leaking.[11][12] The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is regarded as one of the largest environmental disasters in American history.

    A massive response ensued to protect beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil utilizing skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns and 1.84 million US gallons (7,000 m3) of oil dispersant.[13] Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries was reported.[14][15] In Louisiana, 4,900,000 pounds (2,200 t) of oily material was removed from the beaches in 2013, over double the amount collected in 2012. Oil cleanup crews worked four days a week on 55 miles (89 km) of Louisiana shoreline throughout 2013.[16] Oil continued to be found as far from the Macondo site as the waters off the Florida Panhandle and Tampa Bay, where scientists said the oil and dispersant mixture is embedded in the sand.[17] In April 2013, it was reported that dolphins and other marine life continued to die in record numbers with infant dolphins dying at six times the normal rate.[18] One study released in 2014 reported that tuna and amberjack that were exposed to oil from the spill developed deformities of the heart and other organs that would be expected to be fatal or at least life-shortening and another study found that cardiotoxicity might have been widespread in animal life exposed to the spill.[19][20]

    Numerous investigations explored the causes of the explosion and record-setting spill. The U.S. Government report, published in September 2011, pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton.[21][22] Earlier in 2011, a White House commission likewise blamed BP and its partners for a series of cost cutting decisions and an inadequate safety system, but also concluded that the spill resulted from "systemic" root causes and "absent significant reform in both industry practices and government policies, might well recur".[23]

    In November 2012, BP and the United States Department of Justice settled federal criminal charges, with BP pleading guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to Congress. BP also agreed to four years of government monitoring of its safety practices and ethics, and the Environmental Protection Agency announced that BP would be temporarily banned from new contracts with the US government. BP and the Department of Justice agreed to a record-setting $4.525 billion in fines and other payments.[24][25][26] As of 2018, cleanup costs, charges and penalties had cost the company more than $65 billion.[27][28]

    In September 2014, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that BP was primarily responsible for the oil spill because of its gross negligence and reckless conduct.[29] In July 2015, BP agreed to pay $18.7 billion in fines, the largest corporate settlement in United States history.[30]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference MHL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference report2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "BP / Gulf Oil Spill – 68,000 Square Miles of Direct Impact" (Press release). SkyTruth.org. 27 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2001.
    5. ^ "Frontline: The Spill". Frontline on PBS. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
    6. ^ Robertson, Campbell; Krauss, Clifford (2 August 2010). "Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
    7. ^ "BP leak the world's worst accidental oil spill". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
    8. ^ Jervis, Rick; Levin, Alan (27 May 2010). "Obama, in Gulf, pledges to push on stopping leak". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
    9. ^ "Memorial service honors 11 dead oil rig workers". USA Today.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Aspress was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Jamail, Dahr (4 March 2012). "BP settles while Macondo 'seeps'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
    12. ^ "Rocky Kistner: The Macondo Monkey on BP's Back". Huffington Post. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference staff4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference nation180412 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ "For BP Cleanup, 2013 Meant 4.6 Million Pounds Of Oily Gunk". NPR.
    17. ^ "Oil from BP spill pushed onto shelf off Tampa Bay by underwater currents, study finds". Tampa Bay Times. 20 August 2013.
    18. ^ Viegas, Jen (2 April 2013). "Record Dolphin, Sea Turtle Deaths Since Gulf Spill". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016.
    19. ^ Sahagun, Louis (13 February 2014). "Toxins released by oil spills send fish hearts into cardiac arrest". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
    20. ^ Wines, Michael (24 March 2014). "Fish Embryos Exposed to Oil From BP Spill Develop Deformities, a Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference BOERMEPR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-16 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt151112 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference latimes290113 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-21 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ Bousso, Ron (16 January 2018). "BP Deepwater Horizon costs balloon to $65 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    28. ^ Ward, Andrew (1 May 2018). "BP hints at future dividend increases". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference Times - barbier - 18 billion was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "BP reaches $18.7 billion settlement over deadly 2010 spill". Reuters. 2 July 2015.
     
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    20 April 2010 – The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing eleven workers and beginning an oil spill that would last six months.

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was an industrial disaster that began on 20 April 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect,[6][7][8][9] considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8 to 31 percent larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. federal government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3).[3] After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared sealed on 19 September 2010.[10] Reports in early 2012 indicated that the well site was still leaking.[11][12] The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is regarded as one of the largest environmental disasters in American history.

    A massive response ensued to protect beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil utilizing skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns and 1.84 million US gallons (7,000 m3) of oil dispersant.[13] Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries was reported.[14][15] In Louisiana, 4,900,000 pounds (2,200 t) of oily material was removed from the beaches in 2013, over double the amount collected in 2012. Oil cleanup crews worked four days a week on 55 miles (89 km) of Louisiana shoreline throughout 2013.[16] Oil continued to be found as far from the Macondo site as the waters off the Florida Panhandle and Tampa Bay, where scientists said the oil and dispersant mixture is embedded in the sand.[17] In April 2013, it was reported that dolphins and other marine life continued to die in record numbers with infant dolphins dying at six times the normal rate.[18] One study released in 2014 reported that tuna and amberjack that were exposed to oil from the spill developed deformities of the heart and other organs that would be expected to be fatal or at least life-shortening and another study found that cardiotoxicity might have been widespread in animal life exposed to the spill.[19][20]

    Numerous investigations explored the causes of the explosion and record-setting spill. The U.S. Government report, published in September 2011, pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton.[21][22] Earlier in 2011, a White House commission likewise blamed BP and its partners for a series of cost cutting decisions and an inadequate safety system, but also concluded that the spill resulted from "systemic" root causes and "absent significant reform in both industry practices and government policies, might well recur".[23]

    In November 2012, BP and the United States Department of Justice settled federal criminal charges, with BP pleading guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to Congress. BP also agreed to four years of government monitoring of its safety practices and ethics, and the Environmental Protection Agency announced that BP would be temporarily banned from new contracts with the US government. BP and the Department of Justice agreed to a record-setting $4.525 billion in fines and other payments.[24][25][26] As of 2018, cleanup costs, charges and penalties had cost the company more than $65 billion.[27][28]

    In September 2014, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that BP was primarily responsible for the oil spill because of its gross negligence and reckless conduct.[29] In July 2015, BP agreed to pay $18.7 billion in fines, the largest corporate settlement in United States history.[30]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference MHL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference report2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "BP / Gulf Oil Spill – 68,000 Square Miles of Direct Impact" (Press release). SkyTruth.org. 27 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2001.
    5. ^ "Frontline: The Spill". Frontline on PBS. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
    6. ^ Robertson, Campbell; Krauss, Clifford (2 August 2010). "Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
    7. ^ "BP leak the world's worst accidental oil spill". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
    8. ^ Jervis, Rick; Levin, Alan (27 May 2010). "Obama, in Gulf, pledges to push on stopping leak". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
    9. ^ "Memorial service honors 11 dead oil rig workers". USA Today.
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Aspress was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ Jamail, Dahr (4 March 2012). "BP settles while Macondo 'seeps'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
    12. ^ "Rocky Kistner: The Macondo Monkey on BP's Back". Huffington Post. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference staff4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Cite error: The named reference nation180412 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    16. ^ "For BP Cleanup, 2013 Meant 4.6 Million Pounds Of Oily Gunk". NPR.
    17. ^ "Oil from BP spill pushed onto shelf off Tampa Bay by underwater currents, study finds". Tampa Bay Times. 20 August 2013.
    18. ^ Viegas, Jen (2 April 2013). "Record Dolphin, Sea Turtle Deaths Since Gulf Spill". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016.
    19. ^ Sahagun, Louis (13 February 2014). "Toxins released by oil spills send fish hearts into cardiac arrest". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
    20. ^ Wines, Michael (24 March 2014). "Fish Embryos Exposed to Oil From BP Spill Develop Deformities, a Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
    21. ^ Cite error: The named reference BOERMEPR was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    22. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-16 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ Cite error: The named reference nyt151112 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    25. ^ Cite error: The named reference latimes290113 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoBB-21 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ Bousso, Ron (16 January 2018). "BP Deepwater Horizon costs balloon to $65 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    28. ^ Ward, Andrew (1 May 2018). "BP hints at future dividend increases". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
    29. ^ Cite error: The named reference Times - barbier - 18 billion was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    30. ^ "BP reaches $18.7 billion settlement over deadly 2010 spill". Reuters. 2 July 2015.
     
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    21 April 753 BCRomulus founds Rome

    Founding of Rome

    Capitoline Wolf, sculpture of the she-wolf feeding the twins Romulus and Remus, the most famous image associated with the founding of Rome
    Romulus and Remus on the House of the She-wolf at the Grand Place of Brussels.

    The tale of the founding of Rome is recounted in traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves as the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, twins who were suckled by a she-wolf as infants.[1] Another account, set earlier in time, claims that the Roman people are descended from Trojan War hero Aeneas, who escaped to Italy after the war, and whose son, Iulus, was the ancestor of the family of Julius Caesar.[2] The archaeological evidence of human occupation of the area of modern-day Rome, Italy dates from about 14,000 years ago.[3]

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference wslivy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Livy (2005). The Early History of Rome. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-196307-5.
    3. ^ "The Capitoline Wolf". Joy of Museums. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
     
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    22 April 2016 – The Paris Agreement is signed, an agreement to help fight global warming.

    Paris Agreement

    The Paris Agreement (French: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on climate change mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. As of March 2021, 191 members of the UNFCCC are parties to the agreement. Of the six UNFCCC member states which have not ratified the agreement, the only major emitters are Iran, Iraq and Turkey, though Iraq's President has approved that country's accession. The United States withdrew from the agreement in 2020, but rejoined in 2021.

    The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the rise in global average temperature to well below 2 °C (3.6 °F) above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F), recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. This should be done by reducing emissions as soon as possible, in order to "achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases" in the second half of the 21st century.[3] It also aims to increase the ability of parties to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and make "finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."

    Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming. No mechanism forces a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond previously set targets. In contrast to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the distinction between developed and developing countries is blurred, so that the latter also have to submit plans for emission reductions.

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference depo2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference dateffect was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Pathways for balancing CO2 emissions and sinks" Archived 24 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine 13 April 2017.
     
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    23 April 1999NATO bombs the headquarters of Radio Television of Serbia, as part of their aerial campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    Radio Television of Serbia

    Radio Television of Serbia (Serbian: Radio-televizija Srbije, Serbian Cyrillic: Радио-телевизија Србије; abbr. RTS/PTC) is Serbia's public broadcaster. It broadcasts and produces news, drama, and sports programming through radio, television and the Internet. RTS is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. Radio Television of Serbia has four organizational units - radio, television, music production, and record label (PGP-RTS). It is financed primarily through monthly subscription fees and advertising revenue.[3]

    1. ^ a b c "Analiza medijskog tržišta u Srbiji" (PDF). rem.rs (in Serbian). August 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
    2. ^ a b "Финансијски извeштаји 31. децембaр 2018. године и Извештај независног ревизора" (PDF). rts.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 8 September 2019.
    3. ^ "Consumer protection group wants TV fees abolished". B92. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
     
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    24 April 1933Nazi Germany begins its persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses by shutting down the Watch Tower Society office in Magdeburg.

    Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany

    Jehovah's Witnesses suffered religious persecution in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945 after refusing to perform military service, join Nazi organizations, or give allegiance to the Hitler regime. An estimated 10,000 Witnesses—half of the number of members in Germany during that period—were imprisoned, including 2000 who were sent to Nazi concentration camps. An estimated 1200 died in custody, including 250 who were executed. They were the first Christian denomination banned by the Nazi government and the most extensively and intensively persecuted.[1]

    Unlike Jews and Romani, who were persecuted on the basis of their ethnicity, Jehovah's Witnesses could escape persecution and personal harm by renouncing their religious beliefs by signing a document indicating renunciation of their faith, submission to state authority, and support of the German military.[2] Historian Sybil Milton concludes that "their courage and defiance in the face of torture and death punctures the myth of a monolithic Nazi state ruling over docile and submissive subjects."[3]

    Despite early attempts to demonstrate shared goals with the National Socialist regime,[4][5] the group came under increasing public and governmental persecution from 1933, with many expelled from jobs and schools, deprived of income, and suffering beatings and imprisonment. Historians are divided over whether the Nazis intended to exterminate them, but several authors have claimed the Witnesses' outspoken condemnation of the Nazis contributed to their level of suffering.

    1. ^ Garbe, Detlef (2008). Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah's Witnesses in the Third Reich. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 100, 102, 514. ISBN 978-0-299-20794-6.
    2. ^ Berenbaum, Michael. "Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi-Regime".
    3. ^ Laqueur, Walter; Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). The Holocaust encyclopedia. Yale University Press. pp. 346–50. ISBN 978-0-300-08432-0. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
    4. ^ Garbe 2008, pp. 90–91.
    5. ^ Watch Tower Society. "Declaration of Facts" (June 1933) as quoted in Awake!, July 8, 1998, page 14: "A careful examination of our books and literature will disclose the fact that the very high ideals held and promulgated by the present national government are set forth in and endorsed and strongly emphasized in our publications, and show that Jehovah God will see to it that these high ideals in due time will be attained by all persons who love righteousness."
     
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    25 April 1916Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at ANZAC Cove.

    Anzac Day

    The remembrance poppy is an artificial flower that has been used since 1921 to commemorate war dead.
    Flags on the cenotaph in Wellington for the 2007 Dawn March. From left to right, the flags of New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Australia
    First Anzac Day parade in Sydney, along Macquarie Street, 25 April 1916

    Anzac Day (/ˈænzæk/) is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[1][2] Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who served in the Gallipoli Campaign, their first engagement in the First World War (1914–1918).

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
     
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    26 April 1903Atlético Madrid Association football club is founded

    Atlético Madrid

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox football club with unknown parameter "nicknames" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Club Atlético de Madrid, S.A.D. (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkluβ aˈtletiko ðe maˈðɾið]; meaning "Athletic Club of Madrid"), commonly referred to as Atlético Madrid in English or simply as Atlético or Atleti, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid, that play in La Liga. The club play their home games at the Wanda Metropolitano Stadium, which has a capacity of 68,456.[1]

    In terms of league titles won, Atlético Madrid are the third most successful club in Spanish football – behind Real Madrid and Barcelona. Atlético have won La Liga on 10 occasions, including a league and cup double in 1996; the Copa del Rey on 10 occasions; two Supercopas de España, one Copa Presidente FEF and one Copa Eva Duarte; in Europe, they won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1962, were runners-up in 1963 and 1986, were UEFA Champions League runners-up in 1974, 2014 and 2016,[5] won the Europa League in 2010, 2012 and 2018, and won the UEFA Super Cup in 2010, 2012 and 2018 as well as the 1974 Intercontinental Cup.

    Atlético's home kit is red and white vertical striped shirts, blue shorts, and blue and red socks. This combination has been used since 1911. Throughout their history the club has been known by a number of nicknames, including Los Colchoneros ("The Mattress Makers"), due to their first team stripes being the same colours as traditional mattresses. During the 1970s, they became known as Los Indios, which some attribute to the club's signing several South American players after the restrictions on signing foreign players were lifted. However, there are a number of alternative theories which claim they were named so because their stadium was "camped" on the river bank, or because Los Indios (The Indians) were the traditional enemy of Los Blancos (The Whites), which is the nickname of the club's city rivals, Real Madrid.[6] Felipe VI, the king of Spain, has been the honorary president of the club since 2003.

    The club co-owned the Indian Super League (ISL) franchise in Kolkata, formerly named Atlético de Kolkata, which won the competition twice, but in 2017 Atlético decided to end its franchise partnership with the ISL club due to broken commitments.[7] Atlético also co-owns Liga MX club Atlético San Luis, and the Canadian Premier League side Atlético Ottawa.[8]

    1. ^ a b "Wanda Metropolitano (Estadio Olimpico de la Peineta)". Stadium DB.com.
    2. ^ "Israeli Billionaire Idan Ofer Makes Progress in Bid to Buy Stake in Atletico Madrid Soccer Club". Haaretz. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
    3. ^ Welch, Ben (17 November 2017). "Israeli billionaire Idan Ofer buys share of Spanish football giants Atlético Madrid". The JC. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
    4. ^ Hazani, Golan (17 November 2017). "Israeli Business Magnate Buys a 15% Stake in Atlético Madrid". CTECH. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
    5. ^ "1973/74: Müller ends Bayern wait". UEFA. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
    6. ^ "Real Madrid vs Atlético Madrid Derby: Great Local Football Derbies". Eurorivals. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
    7. ^ "Atletico de Madrid are ditching their ISL franchise partnership with Atletico de Kolkata". TFG team. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
    8. ^ Thapa, Chirinjibi (20 March 2020). "It's no more just about Real or Barca breaking records: La Liga India head". Business Standard India. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
     
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    26 April 1903Atlético Madrid Association football club is founded

    Atlético Madrid

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox football club with unknown parameter "nicknames" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Club Atlético de Madrid, S.A.D. (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkluβ aˈtletiko ðe maˈðɾið]; meaning "Athletic Club of Madrid"), commonly referred to as Atlético Madrid in English or simply as Atlético or Atleti, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid, that play in La Liga. The club play their home games at the Wanda Metropolitano Stadium, which has a capacity of 68,456.[1]

    In terms of league titles won, Atlético Madrid are the third most successful club in Spanish football – behind Real Madrid and Barcelona. Atlético have won La Liga on 10 occasions, including a league and cup double in 1996; the Copa del Rey on 10 occasions; two Supercopas de España, one Copa Presidente FEF and one Copa Eva Duarte; in Europe, they won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1962, were runners-up in 1963 and 1986, were UEFA Champions League runners-up in 1974, 2014 and 2016,[5] won the Europa League in 2010, 2012 and 2018, and won the UEFA Super Cup in 2010, 2012 and 2018 as well as the 1974 Intercontinental Cup.

    Atlético's home kit is red and white vertical striped shirts, blue shorts, and blue and red socks. This combination has been used since 1911. Throughout their history the club has been known by a number of nicknames, including Los Colchoneros ("The Mattress Makers"), due to their first team stripes being the same colours as traditional mattresses. During the 1970s, they became known as Los Indios, which some attribute to the club's signing several South American players after the restrictions on signing foreign players were lifted. However, there are a number of alternative theories which claim they were named so because their stadium was "camped" on the river bank, or because Los Indios (The Indians) were the traditional enemy of Los Blancos (The Whites), which is the nickname of the club's city rivals, Real Madrid.[6] Felipe VI, the king of Spain, has been the honorary president of the club since 2003.

    The club co-owned the Indian Super League (ISL) franchise in Kolkata, formerly named Atlético de Kolkata, which won the competition twice, but in 2017 Atlético decided to end its franchise partnership with the ISL club due to broken commitments.[7] Atlético also co-owns Liga MX club Atlético San Luis, and the Canadian Premier League side Atlético Ottawa.[8]

    1. ^ a b "Wanda Metropolitano (Estadio Olimpico de la Peineta)". Stadium DB.com.
    2. ^ "Israeli Billionaire Idan Ofer Makes Progress in Bid to Buy Stake in Atletico Madrid Soccer Club". Haaretz. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
    3. ^ Welch, Ben (17 November 2017). "Israeli billionaire Idan Ofer buys share of Spanish football giants Atlético Madrid". The JC. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
    4. ^ Hazani, Golan (17 November 2017). "Israeli Business Magnate Buys a 15% Stake in Atlético Madrid". CTECH. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
    5. ^ "1973/74: Müller ends Bayern wait". UEFA. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
    6. ^ "Real Madrid vs Atlético Madrid Derby: Great Local Football Derbies". Eurorivals. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
    7. ^ "Atletico de Madrid are ditching their ISL franchise partnership with Atletico de Kolkata". TFG team. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
    8. ^ Thapa, Chirinjibi (20 March 2020). "It's no more just about Real or Barca breaking records: La Liga India head". Business Standard India. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
     

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