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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

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    5 June 1968 – Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan.

    Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

    On June 5, 1968, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was mortally wounded shortly after midnight at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Earlier that evening, the 42-year-old junior senator from New York was declared the winner in the South Dakota and California 1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries during the 1968 United States presidential election. He was pronounced dead at 1:44 a.m. PDT on June 6, about 26 hours after he had been shot.[3]

    Following dual victories in the California and South Dakota primary elections for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, Senator Kennedy spoke to journalists and campaign workers at a live televised celebration from the stage of his headquarters at the Ambassador Hotel. Shortly after leaving the podium and exiting through a kitchen hallway, he was mortally wounded by multiple shots fired from a handgun. Kennedy died in the Good Samaritan Hospital 26 hours later. The shooter was 24-year-old Sirhan Sirhan. In 1969, Sirhan was convicted of murdering the senator and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted to life in prison in 1972. A freelance newspaper reporter recorded the shooting on audio tape, and the aftermath was captured on film.[4]

    Kennedy's remains were taken to St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York for two days of public viewing before a funeral Mass was held on June 8. His funeral train traveled from New York to Washington, D.C., and throngs of spectators lined the route to view the journey.[5] His body was interred at night in Arlington National Cemetery near his brother John.[6] His death prompted the United States Secret Service to protect presidential candidates. Vice President Hubert Humphrey was also a presidential candidate; he went on to win the Democratic nomination but ultimately lost the election to Republican candidate Richard Nixon.

    Much like his brother's assassination, Robert Kennedy's assassination has led to a number of conspiracy theories; to date, no credible evidence has emerged that Sirhan was not the shooter, or that he did not act alone. Kennedy and Huey Long of Louisiana (in 1935) are the only two sitting United States Senators to be assassinated.

    1. ^ "A busboy kneels again next to RFK". Los Angeles Times.
    2. ^ Jud Etsy-Kendall, Emma Bowman, "The Busboy who Cradled a Dying RFK Recalls Those Final Moments", "NPR Storycorps", June 1, 2018
    3. ^ Thomas, Evan (2002). Robert Kennedy: His Life. Simon and Schuster. p. 392. ISBN 978-0-7432-0329-6.
    4. ^ Martinez, Michael (April 30, 2012). "RFK assassination witness tells CNN: There was a second shooter". CNN.
    5. ^ British Pathé. "Robert Kennedy Funeral (1969)". YouTube. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
    6. ^ British Pathé. "Funeral Of Robert Kennedy (1969)". YouTube.
     
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    6 June 1964Rocket experiments at Cuxhaven are banned by the German authorities.

    Rocket experiments in the area of Cuxhaven

    Between 1933 and 1964 numerous rocket experiments were carried out in the area of Cuxhaven, Germany.

     
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    7 June 1977 – Five hundred million people watch the high day of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II begin on television.

    Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II

    The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days", held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued to be for the rest of that month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country.

     
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    8 June 1949 – George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is published.

    Nineteen Eighty-Four

    Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Novel, often referred to as 1984, is a dystopian social science fiction novel by the English novelist George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair). It was published on 8 June 1949 by Secker & Warburg as Orwell's ninth and final book completed in his lifetime. Thematically, Nineteen Eighty-Four centres on the consequences of totalitarianism, mass surveillance, and repressive regimentation of persons and behaviours within society.[2][3] Orwell, himself a democratic socialist, modelled the totalitarian government in the novel after Stalinist Russia and Nazi Germany.[2][3][4] More broadly, the novel examines the role of truth and facts within politics and the ways in which they are manipulated.

    The story takes place in an imagined future, the year 1984, when much of the world has fallen victim to perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance, historical negationism, and propaganda. Great Britain, known as Airstrip One, has become a province of a totalitarian superstate named Oceania that is ruled by the Party who employ the Thought Police to persecute individuality and independent thinking.[5] Big Brother, the leader of the Party, enjoys an intense cult of personality despite the fact that he may not even exist. The protagonist, Winston Smith, is a diligent and skillful rank-and-file worker and Outer Party member who secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion. He enters into a forbidden relationship with a colleague, Julia, and starts to remember what life was like before the Party came to power.

    Nineteen Eighty-Four has become a classic literary example of political and dystopian fiction. It also popularised the term "Orwellian" as an adjective, with many terms used in the novel entering common usage, including "Big Brother", "doublethink", "Thought Police", "thoughtcrime", "Newspeak", "memory hole", "2 + 2 = 5", and "proles". Time included it on its 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.[6] It was placed on the Modern Library's 100 Best Novels, reaching No. 13 on the editors' list and No. 6 on the readers' list.[7] In 2003, the novel was listed at No. 8 on The Big Read survey by the BBC.[8] Parallels have been drawn between the novel's subject matter and real life instances of totalitarianism, mass surveillance, and violations of freedom of expression among other themes.[9][10][11]

    1. ^ "OCLC Classify". classify.oclc.org. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
    2. ^ a b Murphy, Bruce (1996). Benét's reader's encyclopedia. New York: Harper Collins. p. 734. ISBN 0061810886. OCLC 35572906.
    3. ^ a b Aaronovitch, David (8 February 2013). "1984: George Orwell's road to dystopia". BBC News. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
    4. ^ Orwell, George (1968) [1958]. Bott, George (ed.). Selected Writings. London: Heinemann. p. 103. ISBN 978-0435136758. Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it. [italics in original]
    5. ^ Chernow, Barbara; Vallasi, George (1993). The Columbia Encyclopedia (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 2030. OCLC 334011745.
    6. ^ Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (6 October 2005). "All-Time 100 Novels. 1984 (1949), by George Orwell". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 October 2012
    7. ^ "100 Best Novels". Modern Library. Retrieved 19 October 2012
    8. ^ "BBC – The Big Read". BBC. April 2003. Retrieved 19 October 2012
    9. ^ Crouch, Ian (11 June 2013). "So Are We Living in 1984?". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
    10. ^ Seaton, Jean. "Why Orwell's 1984 could be about now". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
    11. ^ Leetaru, Kalev. "As Orwell's 1984 Turns 70 It Predicted Much Of Today's Surveillance Society". Forbes. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
     
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    9 June AD 53 – The Roman emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia.

    Nero

    Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (/ˈnɪər/ NEER-oh; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD), originally named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was the fifth emperor of Rome, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty line of emperors following his suicide. He was adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of thirteen, and succeeded him to the throne at the age of seventeen. Nero was popular with the lower-class Roman citizens during his time and his reign is commonly associated with unrestricted tyranny, extravagance, religious persecution and debauchery.[2][i][ii]

    Nero was born in Antium, south of Rome, in AD 37. When Nero was two years old, his father died of edema, which enabled his mother (Agrippina the Younger) to marry the emperor Claudius. Nero was initially heavily guided by his mother Agrippina, his tutor Seneca the Younger, and Roman official Afranius Burrus.

    Nero received a classical education (including Greek, philosophy and rhetoric) under the tutelage of Seneca, who was to become a major influence throughout his early reign. However, these early years saw Nero attempting to free himself from all such advisors and become his own man. As time passed, Nero played a more active role in government and foreign policy and came to rely much less on his initial influences.

    Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy and trade, as well as on the cultural life of the empire. He ordered the construction of amphitheaters and promoted athletic games. He also made public appearances as an actor, poet, musician, and charioteer. This extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxation—a move that was much resented by the upper-class. In contrast, his populist-style of rule remained well-admired among the lower classes (of both Rome and the Roman provinces) until his death and beyond.

    Most Roman sources (including the Ancient Roman historians Suetonius and Cassius Dio) offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign. The contemporary historian Tacitus claims the Roman people thought him compulsive and corrupt. Suetonius tells that many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome was instigated by Nero as a way to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea.[3] Also, according to Tacitus, he was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire, and had them made burned alive, seemingly motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty.[4]

    Some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts[5][6] due to the overwhelming evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners (especially in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return). After his death, at least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as "Nero reborn" in order to gain popular support.

    A significant event that took place during his reign was the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, where the prestigious general Corbulo had acted as commander and had successfully negotiated peace with the hostile Parthian Empire as a result of the war. The Roman general Suetonius Paulinus had also quashed a major revolt in Britain led by the Iceni tribal Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom was briefly annexed to the empire, and the First Jewish–Roman War began.

    During Nero's reign, various plots against his life developed, and Nero had many of those involved in these conspiracies put to death. In AD 68, the Roman senator Vindex, who had support from the eventual Roman emperor Galba, rebelled against Nero. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim; however, Nero fled Rome when its discontented civil and military authorities eventually chose Galba as emperor. On 9 June in AD 68, Nero committed suicide, becoming the first Roman Emperor to do so. He made this decision after learning that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy.[7][8] His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors.

    1. ^ Cooley, Alison E. (2012). The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge University Press. p. 489. ISBN 978-0-521-84026-2.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference britannica was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ "Suetonius • Vita Neronis". penelope.uchicago.edu.
    4. ^ Tacitus, Annals. XV.44.
    5. ^ On fire and Christian persecution, see: Clayton, F. W. "Tacitus and Christian Persecution." The Classical Quarterly:81–85; and Henderson, B. W. Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero. p. 437.
    6. ^ Champlin, Edward. 2005. Nero. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01822-8. pp. 36–52.
    7. ^ "Suetonius • Life of Nero". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
    8. ^ Barnes, T.D. (1977). "The Fragments of Tacitus' Histories". Classical Philology. 72 (3): 224–31 [228]. doi:10.1086/366355. JSTOR 268314. S2CID 161875316.


    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-roman> tags or {{efn-lr}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-roman}} template or {{notelist-lr}} template (see the help page).

     
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    10 June 1999Kosovo War: NATO suspends its airstrikes after Slobodan Milošević agrees to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo.

    Kosovo War

    The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo[a] that started in February 1998[46][47] and lasted until 11 June 1999.[48] It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (i.e. Serbia and Montenegro), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The conflict ended when the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) intervened by beginning air strikes in March 1999 which resulted in Yugoslav forces withdrawing from Kosovo.

    The KLA, formed in the early 1990s to fight against Serbian persecution of Kosovo Albanians,[49] initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks against Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo. In June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations, during the Kosovo Insurgency.[50][51] In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. In early 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents;[52] this campaign killed 1,500 to 2,000 civilians and KLA combatants.[53][54]

    After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign as a "humanitarian war".[55] This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombing of Yugoslavia (March–June 1999).[56][57] By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of almost three thousand victims of all ethnicities,[58] and in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population.[59]

    The war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces[60] agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence.[61][62] The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley[63] and others joining the National Liberation Army (NLA) and Albanian National Army (ANA) during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia,[64] while others went on to form the Kosovo Police.[65] After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict.[66] The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million[67] to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians.[68] After the war, around 200,000 Serbs, Romani, and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse.[69] Serbia became home to the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons in Europe.[70][71]

    The NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths,[72] including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees.[73][74][75]

    1. ^ "The Balkans/Allied Force: Statistics". planken.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
    2. ^ Thomas (2006), p. 47
    3. ^ Daniszewski, John (14 April 1999). "Yugoslav Troops Said to Cross Into Albania". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    4. ^ Daly, Emma (14 April 1999). "War In The Balkans: Serbs enter Albania and burn village". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    5. ^ https://fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/sup6.pdf
    6. ^ "A Chronology of U.S.-Middle East Relations". WRMEA.
    7. ^ Reitman, Valerie; Richter, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (10 June 1999). "Yugoslav, NATO Generals Sign Peace Agreement for Kosovo / Alliance will end air campaign when Serbian troops pull out". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    8. ^ "Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo". Human Rights Watch. August 1999.
    9. ^ Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn (2012). After Yugoslavia: Identities and Politics Within the Successor States. p. 30. ISBN 9780230201316.
    10. ^ "Kosovo Crisis Update". UNHCR. 4 August 1999.
    11. ^ "Forced Expulsion of Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians from OSCE Participated state to Kosovo". OSCE. 6 October 2006.
    12. ^ Siobhán Wills (26 February 2009). Protecting Civilians: The Obligations of Peacekeepers. Oxford University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-19-953387-9. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
    13. ^ John Pike. "Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA / UCK]". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    14. ^ 12 mal bewertet (24 March 1999). "Die Bundeswehr zieht in den Krieg". 60xdeutschland.de. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    15. ^ John Pike. "Kosovo Order of Battle". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    16. ^ a b c d e f "NATO Operation Allied Force". Defense.gov. Archived from the original on 28 February 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
    17. ^ Kosovo Map The Guardian
    18. ^ "Fighting for a foreign land". BBC News. 20 May 1999. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
    19. ^ "Russian volunteer's account of Kosovo". The Russia Journal. 5 July 1999. Archived from the original on 26 December 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
    20. ^ Daalder & O'Hanlon 2000, p. 151
    21. ^ a b c d "Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Evaluation" (PDF). Humanitarian Law Center. 4 February 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
    22. ^ "Two die in Apache crash". BBC News. 5 May 1999. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    23. ^ Cite error: The named reference John Pike was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    24. ^ "How to Take Down an F-117". Strategypage.com. 21 November 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    25. ^ "Holloman commander recalls being shot down in Serbia". F-16.net. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    26. ^ Cite error: The named reference ejection-history1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    27. ^ "F-117 damage said attributed to full moon". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 6 May 1999. p. A14. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
    28. ^ "Nato loses two planes". BBC News. 2 May 1999. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    29. ^ Andrei Kislyakov (9 October 2007). "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Increase In Numbers". Radardaily.com. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
    30. ^ "NATO nam ubio 1.008 vojnika i policajaca". Mondo. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
    31. ^ Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Stradalo 1.008 vojnika i policajaca". www.rts.rs.
    32. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. Routledge. p. 558. ISBN 978-0-203-96911-3.
    33. ^ Chambers II, John Whiteclay (1999). The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-507198-6.
    34. ^ Coopersmith, Jonathan; Launius, Roger D. (2003). Taking Off: A Century of Manned Flight. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-56347-610-5.
    35. ^ Andrew Cockburn (3 April 2011). "The limits of air power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
    36. ^ Macdonald 2007, pp. 99.
    37. ^ Bacevich & Cohen 2001, p. 22
    38. ^ a b "Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Expert Evaluation" (PDF). Humanitarian Law Center. 4 February 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
    39. ^ a b "Facts and Figurues - War in Europe". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
    40. ^ Judah, Tim (1997). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (2009, 3rd ed.). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7. Retrieved 3 January 2021 – via Google Books. the Serbian police began clearing ... people [who] were marched down to the station and deported... the UNCHR registered 848,000 people who had either been forcibly expelled or had fled
    41. ^ Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen. pp. Part III, Chap 14.
    42. ^ a b "Serbia marks anniversary of NATO bombing". B92. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    43. ^ Judah, Tim (29 September 2008). Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-974103-8.
    44. ^ "Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign – The Crisis In Kosovo". HRW. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
    45. ^ "754 Victims of NATO Bombing - Fond za humanitarno pravo/Humanitarian Law Center/Fondi për të Drejtën Humanitare | Fond za humanitarno pravo/Humanitarian Law Center/Fondi për të Drejtën Humanitare". www.hlc-rdc.org.
    46. ^ Independent International Commission on Kosovo (2000). The Kosovo Report (PDF). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0199243099.
    47. ^ Quackenbush, Stephen L. (2015). International Conflict: Logic and Evidence. Los Angeles: Sage. p. 202. ISBN 9781452240985.
    48. ^ Boyle, Michael J. (2014). Violence After War: Explaining Instability in Post-Conflict States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9781421412573.
    49. ^ Reveron, 2006, pages 68–69
    50. ^ "UNDER ORDERS: War Crimes in Kosovo - 2. Background". www.hrw.org. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
    51. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Chronology for Kosovo Albanians in Yugoslavia". Refworld. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
    52. ^ Mincheva & Gurr 2013, p. 27–28
    53. ^ "Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo (March–June 1999)". Human Rights Watch. 12 June 1999. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    54. ^ Judah (2009). The Serbs. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
    55. ^ "Endgame in Kosovo". The New York Times. 9 December 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
    56. ^ "A Review of NATO's War over Kosovo". chomsky.info.
    57. ^ Tanner, Marcus (20 April 1999). "War in the Balkans: The day the men of Bela Crkva died – Anatomy Of A Massacre". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
    58. ^ Pilger, John (4 September 2000). "US and British officials told us that at least 100,000 were murdered in Kosovo. A year later, fewer than 3,000 bodies have been found". www.newstatesman.com.
    59. ^ "Kosovo assault 'was not genocide'". BBC. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
    60. ^ "BBC News | Europe | K-For: The task ahead". news.bbc.co.uk.
    61. ^ "Kosovo war chronology". Human Rights Watch.
    62. ^ "The Balkan wars: Reshaping the map of south-eastern Europe". The Economist. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
    63. ^ "Kosovo one year on". BBC. 16 March 2000. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
    64. ^ Huggler, Justin (12 March 2001). "KLA veterans linked to latest bout of violence in Macedonia". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
    65. ^ Kosovo Liberation Army: the inside story of an insurgency, By Henry H. Perritt[page needed]
    66. ^ "List of Kosovo War Victims Published". 10 December 2014.
    67. ^ Heike Krieger, ed. (2001). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780521800716.
    68. ^ "KOSOVO / KOSOVA: As Seen, As Told". OSCE. 5 November 1999. p. 13. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
    69. ^ Abrahams, Fred (2001). Under Orders:War Crimes in Kosovo. Human Rights Watch. pp. 454–456. ISBN 978-1-56432-264-7.
    70. ^ "Serbia home to highest number of refugees and IDPs in Europe". B92. 20 June 2010.
    71. ^ "Serbia: Europe's largest proctracted refugee situation". OSCE. 2008.
    72. ^ "The Civilian Deaths". Civilian deaths in the NATO air campaign. Human Rights Watch. February 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    73. ^ "Case Studies of Civilian Deaths". Civilian deaths in the NATO air campaign. Human Rights Watch. February 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    74. ^ Massa, Anne-Sophie (2006). "NATO's Intervention in Kosovo and the Decision of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Not to Investigate". Berkeley Journal of International Law. 24 (2). Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
    75. ^ "NATO: We Mistakenly Bombed Refugees". AP NEWS. Retrieved 7 August 2020.


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    11 June 2012 – More than 80 people die in a landslide triggered by two earthquakes in Afghanistan; an entire village is buried.

    2012 Afghanistan earthquakes

    On 11 June 2012, two moderate earthquakes struck northern Afghanistan, causing a large landslide. The landslide buried the town of Sayi Hazara, trapping 71 people. After four days of digging, only five bodies were recovered and the search was called off.[3] Overall, 75 people were killed and 13 others were injured.[4]

    1. ^ ANSS. "Hindu Kush 2012a: M 5.4 - Hindu Kush region, Afghanistan". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
    2. ^ ANSS. "Hindu Kush 2012b: M 5.7 - Hindu Kush region, Afghanistan". Comprehensive Catalog. U.S. Geological Survey.
    3. ^ "Afghans halt effort to recover bodies of 66 people killed in landslide from earthquake". Associated Press. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference BNO was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    12 June 2016 – Forty-nine civilians are killed and 58 others injured in an attack on a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida; the gunman, Omar Mateen, is killed in a gunfight with police.

    Orlando nightclub shooting

    On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen, a 29-year-old man, killed 49 people and wounded 53 more in a mass shooting at Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, United States. Orlando Police officers shot and killed him after a three-hour standoff.

    In a 9-1-1 call made shortly after the shooting began, Mateen swore allegiance to the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and said the U.S. killing of Abu Waheeb in Iraq the previous month "triggered" the shooting.[2] He later told a negotiator he was "out here right now" because of the American-led interventions in Iraq and in Syria and that the negotiator should tell the United States to stop the bombing. The incident was deemed a terrorist attack by FBI investigators.

    Pulse was hosting a "Latin Night", and most of the victims were Latino. It is the deadliest incident in the history of violence against LGBT people in the United States, as well as the deadliest terrorist attack in the U.S. since the September 11 attacks in 2001, and was the deadliest mass shooting by a single gunman in U.S. history until the 2017 Las Vegas shooting.

    1. ^ "Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub". Retrieved March 11, 2020 – via www.policefoundation.org.
    2. ^ Fitzsimons, Tim. "What really happened that night at Pulse". NBC News. NBC Universal. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
     
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    13 June 1996 – The Montana Freemen surrender after an 81-day standoff with FBI agents.

    Montana Freemen

    The Montana Freemen was an anti-government militant "Christian Patriot movement" based outside the town of Jordan, Montana, United States. The members of the group referred to their land as "Justus Township" and had declared themselves no longer under the authority of any outside government. They became the center of public attention in 1996 when they engaged in a prolonged armed standoff with agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

     
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    14 June 1982Falklands War: Argentine forces in the capital Stanley conditionally surrender to British forces.

    Falklands War

    The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was a 10-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

    The conflict began on 2 April, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands, followed by the invasion of South Georgia the next day. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with an Argentine surrender on 14 June, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.

    The conflict was a major episode in the protracted dispute over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentine territory,[4] and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and strongly favour British sovereignty. Neither state officially declared war, although both governments declared the Islands a war zone.

    The conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the unfavourable outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall and the democratisation of the country. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year. The cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it has remained a common topic for discussion.[5]

    Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement.[6] No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina adopted a new Constitution,[7] which declared the Falkland Islands by law as an Argentine province.[8] However, the islands continue to operate as a self-governing British Overseas Territory.[9]

    1. ^ "Falkland Islands profile". BBC News. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
    2. ^ Burns, John F. (5 January 2013). "Vitriol Over Falklands Resurfaces, as Do Old Arguments". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
    3. ^ a b Historia Marítima Argentina, Volume 10, p. 137. Departamento de Estudios Históricos Navales, Cuántica Editora, Argentina: 1993.
    4. ^ "Argentine to reaffirm Sovereignty Rights over The Falkland Islands". National Turk. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
    5. ^ "Cómo evitar que Londres convierta a las Malvinas en un Estado independiente". Clarin. 1 April 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
    6. ^ "Joint statement of 19 October 1989: Re-establishing Consular Relations Between Britain and Argentina, and Agreeing a Framework on Sovereignty Which Would Allow Further Talks". Falklands info. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
    7. ^ "Constitución Nacional". Argentine Senate (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 June 2004. La Nación Argentina ratifica su legítima e imprescriptible soberanía sobre las Islas Malvinas, Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur y los espacios marítimos e insulares correspondientes, por ser parte integrante del territorio nacional.
    8. ^ "Argentina: Constitución de 1994". pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
    9. ^ Cahill 2010, "Falkland Islands".
     
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    15 June 1844Charles Goodyear receives a patent for vulcanization, a process to strengthen rubber.

    Charles Goodyear

    Charles Goodyear (December 29, 1800 – July 1, 1860) was an American self-taught chemist[1][2] and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844.[3]

    Goodyear is credited with inventing the chemical process to create and manufacture pliable, waterproof, moldable rubber.[4]

    Goodyear's discovery of the vulcanization process followed five years of searching for a more stable rubber and stumbling upon the effectiveness of heating after Thomas Hancock.[5] His discovery initiated decades of successful rubber manufacturing in the Lower Naugatuck Valley in Connecticut, as rubber was adopted to multiple applications, including footwear and tires. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company is named after him.

    1. ^ Zumdahl, Steven; Zumdahl, Susan (2014). Chemistry (Ninth ed.). Belmont, California: Brookes Cole/Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-133-61109-7. Retrieved October 25, 2014. However, in 1839 Charles Goodyear (1800 – 1860), an American chemist, . . .
    2. ^ Haven, Kendall; Berg, Roni (1999). The Science and Math Bookmark Book:300 Fascinating, Fact-Filled Bookmarks. Englewood, Colorado: Teacher Ideas Press/Libraries Unlimited, Inc. ISBN 1-56308-675-1. Retrieved October 25, 2014. Famous Scientists: Charles Goodyear, chemist.
    3. ^ "United States Patent Office" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2015.
    4. ^ Hosler, D. (18 June 1999). "Prehistoric Polymers: Rubber Processing in Ancient Mesoamerica". Science. 284 (5422): 1988–1991. doi:10.1126/science.284.5422.1988. PMID 10373117.
    5. ^ Slack, Charles (2003). Noble Obsession, 225, Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-8856-3.
     
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    16 June 2016Shanghai Disneyland Park, the first Disney Park in Mainland China, opens to the public

    Shanghai Disneyland

    Shanghai Disneyland (Chinese: 上海迪士尼乐园) is a theme park located in Chuansha New Town, Pudong, Shanghai, China, that is part of the Shanghai Disney Resort. The park is operated by Disney Parks, Experiences and Products and Shanghai Shendi Group, through a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company and Shendi.[1] Construction began on April 8, 2011.[3][4] The park opened on June 16, 2016.[2] The park operated in its first half-year with a visitor attendance of 5.60 million guests.[5]

    The park covers an area of 3.9 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi), costing 24.5 billion RMB, with Shendi holding 57% and Disney holding the remaining 43%. The park currently has seven themed areas: Mickey Avenue, Gardens of Imagination, Fantasyland, Treasure Cove, Adventure Isle, Tomorrowland, and Toy Story Land.

    1. ^ a b c d e Brzeski, Patrick (June 8, 2016). "Shanghai Disney Resort Finally Opens After 5 Years of Construction and $5.5B Spent". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
    2. ^ a b Smith, Thomas (January 12, 2016). "Opening Date Set for Shanghai Disney Resort, Disney's Newest World-Class Destination". DisneyParks Blog. Archived from the original on June 18, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
    3. ^ "Disneyland Shanghai to open 2016". The Independent. April 8, 2011. Archived from the original on November 19, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
    4. ^ "Disney and Partners Break Ground on Shanghai Disney Resort" (Press release). Shanghai Disneyland Press Room. April 8, 2011. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
    5. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2016 Theme Index and Museum Index" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
     
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    17 June 1972Watergate scandal: Five White House operatives are arrested for burgling the offices of the Democratic National Committee during an attempt by members of the administration of President Richard M. Nixon to illegally wiretap the political opposition as part of a broader campaign to subvert the democratic process

    Watergate scandal

    The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal in the United States involving the administration of U.S. President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1974 that led to Nixon's resignation. The scandal stemmed from the Nixon administration's continuous attempts to cover up its involvement in the June 17, 1972 break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Washington, D.C. Watergate Office Building. After the five perpetrators were arrested, the press and the U.S. Justice Department connected the cash found on them at the time to the Nixon re-election campaign committee.[1][2] Further investigations, along with revelations during subsequent trials of the burglars, led the U.S. House of Representatives to grant its judiciary committee additional investigation authority to probe into "certain matters within its jurisdiction",[3][4] and the U.S. Senate to create a special investigative committee. The resulting Senate Watergate hearings were broadcast "gavel-to-gavel" nationwide by PBS and aroused public interest.[5] Witnesses testified that the president had approved plans to cover up administration involvement in the break-in, and that there was a voice-activated taping system in the Oval Office.[6][7] Throughout the investigation, the administration resisted its probes, which led to a constitutional crisis.[8]

    Several major revelations and egregious presidential action against the investigation later in 1973 prompted the House to commence an impeachment process against Nixon.[9] The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to release the Oval Office tapes to government investigators. The tapes revealed that Nixon had conspired to cover up activities that took place after the break-in and had attempted to use federal officials to deflect the investigation.[10][11] The House Judiciary Committee then approved articles of impeachment against Nixon for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress. With his complicity in the cover-up made public and his political support completely eroded, Nixon resigned from office on August 9, 1974. It is believed that, if he had not done so, he would have been impeached by the House and removed from office by a trial in the Senate.[12][13] He is the only U.S. president to have resigned from office. On September 8, 1974, Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, pardoned him.

    There were 69 people indicted and 48 people—many of them top Nixon administration officials—convicted.[14] The metonym 'Watergate' came to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration, including bugging the offices of political opponents and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious; ordering investigations of activist groups and political figures; and using the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Internal Revenue Service as political weapons.[15] The use of the suffix "-gate" after an identifying term has since become synonymous with public scandal, especially political scandal.[16][17][18][19][20]

    1. ^ Perry, James M. "Watergate Case Study". Class Syllabus for "Critical Issues in Journalism.". Columbia School of Journalism, Columbia University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
    2. ^ Dickinson, William B.; Cross, Mercer; Polsky, Barry (1973). Watergate: chronology of a crisis. 1. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. pp. 8, 133, 140, 180, 188. ISBN 0-87187-059-2. OCLC 20974031.
    3. ^ Rybicki, Elizabeth; Greene, Michael (October 10, 2019). "The Impeachment Process in the House of Representatives". CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. pp. 5–7. R45769. Archived from the original on January 22, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    4. ^ "H.Res.74 – 93rd Congress, 1st Session". congress.gov. February 28, 1973. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
    5. ^ ""Gavel-to-Gavel": The Watergate Scandal and Public Television". American Archive of Public Broadcasting. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
    6. ^ "A burglary turns into a constitutional crisis". CNN. June 16, 2004. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    7. ^ "Senate Hearings: Overview". fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
    8. ^ "A burglary turns into a constitutional crisis". CNN. June 16, 2004. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
    9. ^ Manheim, Karl; Solum, Lawrence B. (Spring 1999). "Nixon Articles of Impeachment". Impeachment Seminar. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017.
    10. ^ "The Smoking Gun Tape" (Transcript of the recording of a meeting between President Nixon and H. R. Haldeman). Watergate.info website. June 23, 1972. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
    11. ^ White, Theodore Harold (1975). Breach of Faith: The Fall of Richard Nixon. New York: Atheneum Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-689-10658-0. OCLC 1370091.
    12. ^ White (1975), Breach of Faith, p. 29. "And the most punishing blow of all was to come in late afternoon when the President received, in his Oval Office, the Congressional leaders of his party—Barry Goldwater, Hugh Scott and John Rhodes. The accounts of all three coincide. Goldwater averred that there were not more than fifteen votes left in his support in the Senate."
    13. ^ Dash, Samuel (1976). Chief Counsel: Inside the Ervin Committee – The Untold Story of Watergate. New York: Random House. pp. 259–260. ISBN 0-394-40853-5. OCLC 2388043. Soon Alexander Haig and James St. Clair learned of the existence of this tape and they were convinced that it would guarantee Nixon's impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate.
    14. ^ Cite error: The named reference convictions was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Ervin, Sam, U.S. Senator, et. al., Final Report of the Watergate Committee]
    16. ^ Trahair, R.C.S From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Sciences. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN 0-313-27961-6
    17. ^ Smith, Ronald D. and Richter, William Lee. Fascinating People and Astounding Events From American History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1993. ISBN 0-87436-693-3
    18. ^ Lull, James and Hinerman, Stephen. Media Scandals: Morality and Desire in the Popular Culture Marketplace. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-231-11165-7
    19. ^ Hamilton, Dagmar S. "The Nixon Impeachment and the Abuse of Presidential Power", In Watergate and Afterward: The Legacy of Richard M. Nixon. Leon Friedman and William F. Levantrosser, eds. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1992. ISBN 0-313-27781-8
    20. ^ "El 'valijagate' sigue dando disgustos a Cristina Fernández | Internacional". El País. November 4, 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
     
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    18 June 1953 – The Egyptian revolution of 1952 ends with the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the declaration of the Republic of Egypt.

    Egyptian revolution of 1952

    The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (Arabic: ثورة 23 يوليو 1952‎), also known as the 23 July Revolution,[3] was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt that began on 23 July 1952 with the toppling of King Farouk in a coup d'etat by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Revolution ushered in a wave of revolutionary politics in the Arab World, and Africa, and contributed to the escalation of decolonisation, and the development of Third World solidarity during the Cold War.

    Though initially focused on grievances against King Farouk, the movement had more wide-ranging political ambitions. In the first three years of the Revolution, the Free Officers moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end the British occupation of the country, and secure the independence of Sudan (previously governed as an condominium of Egypt and the United Kingdom).[4] The revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, and international non-alignment.

    The Revolution was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, and France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout Africa, and the Arab World. The ongoing state of war with the State of Israel also posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypt's already strong support of the Palestinians. These two issues converged in the fifth year of the Revolution when Egypt was invaded by the United Kingdom, France, and the State of Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956 (known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression). Despite enormous military losses, the war was seen as a political victory for Egypt, especially as it left the Suez Canal in uncontested Egyptian control for the first time since 1875, erasing what was seen as a mark of national humiliation. This strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other Arab, and African countries.

    Wholesale agrarian reform, and huge industrialisation programmes were initiated in the first decade and half of the Revolution, leading to an unprecedented period of infrastructure building, and urbanisation. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme, transforming Egypt into a centrally planned economy. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, and the conflict with the State of Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, and the prohibition of a multi-party system. These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the Revolution were scaled back or reversed.

    The early successes of the Revolution encouraged numerous other nationalist movements in other Arab, and African countries, such as Algeria, where there were anti-imperialist and anti-colonial rebellions against European empires. It also inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent.

    The Revolution is commemorated each year on 23 July.

    1. ^ Wilford, Hugh (2013). America's Great Game: The CIA's Secret Arabists and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Basic Books. pp. 135–139. ISBN 9780465019656.  ... whether or not the CIA dealt directly with the Free Officers prior to their July 1952 coup, there was extensive secret American-Egyptian contact in the months after the revolution.
    2. ^ Egypt as Recipient of Soviet Aid, 1955-1970 KAREL HOLBIK and EDWARD DRACHMAN Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft / Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics Bd. 127, H. 1. (Januar 1971), pp. 137-165
    3. ^ Matthew, Holland (1996). America and Egypt: From Roosevelt to Eisenhower. United States of America: Praeger. p. 27. ISBN 0-275-95474-9.
    4. ^ Lahav, Pnina. "The Suez Crisis of 1956 and its Aftermath: A Comparative Study of Constitutions, Use of Force, Diplomacy and International Relations". Boston University Law Review.
     
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    18 June 1953 – The Egyptian revolution of 1952 ends with the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the declaration of the Republic of Egypt.

    Egyptian revolution of 1952

    The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (Arabic: ثورة 23 يوليو 1952‎), also known as the 23 July Revolution,[3] was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt that began on 23 July 1952 with the toppling of King Farouk in a coup d'etat by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Revolution ushered in a wave of revolutionary politics in the Arab World, and Africa, and contributed to the escalation of decolonisation, and the development of Third World solidarity during the Cold War.

    Though initially focused on grievances against King Farouk, the movement had more wide-ranging political ambitions. In the first three years of the Revolution, the Free Officers moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end the British occupation of the country, and secure the independence of Sudan (previously governed as an condominium of Egypt and the United Kingdom).[4] The revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, and international non-alignment.

    The Revolution was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, and France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout Africa, and the Arab World. The ongoing state of war with the State of Israel also posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypt's already strong support of the Palestinians. These two issues converged in the fifth year of the Revolution when Egypt was invaded by the United Kingdom, France, and the State of Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956 (known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression). Despite enormous military losses, the war was seen as a political victory for Egypt, especially as it left the Suez Canal in uncontested Egyptian control for the first time since 1875, erasing what was seen as a mark of national humiliation. This strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other Arab, and African countries.

    Wholesale agrarian reform, and huge industrialisation programmes were initiated in the first decade and half of the Revolution, leading to an unprecedented period of infrastructure building, and urbanisation. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme, transforming Egypt into a centrally planned economy. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, and the conflict with the State of Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, and the prohibition of a multi-party system. These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the Revolution were scaled back or reversed.

    The early successes of the Revolution encouraged numerous other nationalist movements in other Arab, and African countries, such as Algeria, where there were anti-imperialist and anti-colonial rebellions against European empires. It also inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent.

    The Revolution is commemorated each year on 23 July.

    1. ^ Wilford, Hugh (2013). America's Great Game: The CIA's Secret Arabists and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Basic Books. pp. 135–139. ISBN 9780465019656.  ... whether or not the CIA dealt directly with the Free Officers prior to their July 1952 coup, there was extensive secret American-Egyptian contact in the months after the revolution.
    2. ^ Egypt as Recipient of Soviet Aid, 1955-1970 KAREL HOLBIK and EDWARD DRACHMAN Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft / Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics Bd. 127, H. 1. (Januar 1971), pp. 137-165
    3. ^ Matthew, Holland (1996). America and Egypt: From Roosevelt to Eisenhower. United States of America: Praeger. p. 27. ISBN 0-275-95474-9.
    4. ^ Lahav, Pnina. "The Suez Crisis of 1956 and its Aftermath: A Comparative Study of Constitutions, Use of Force, Diplomacy and International Relations". Boston University Law Review.
     
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    19 June 2012WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London's Ecuadorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents including footage of civilian killings by the US army.

    Julian Assange

    Julian Paul Assange (/əˈsɑːnʒ/;[3] born 3 July 1971) is an Australian editor, publisher, and activist who founded WikiLeaks in 2006. WikiLeaks came to international attention in 2010 when it published a series of leaks provided by U.S. Army intelligence analyst Chelsea Manning. These leaks included the Baghdad airstrike Collateral Murder video (April 2010),[4][5] the Afghanistan war logs (July 2010), the Iraq war logs (October 2010), and Cablegate (November 2010). After the 2010 leaks, the United States government launched a criminal investigation into WikiLeaks.[6]

    In November 2010, Sweden issued an international arrest warrant for Assange over allegations of sexual misconduct.[7] Assange said the allegations were a pretext for his extradition from Sweden to the United States over his role in the publication of secret American documents.[8][9] After failing in his battle against extradition to Sweden, he breached bail and took refuge in the Embassy of Ecuador in London in June 2012.[10] He was granted asylum by Ecuador in August 2012[11] on the grounds of political persecution, with the presumption that if he were extradited to Sweden, he would be eventually extradited to the US.[12] He was granted Ecuador citizenship in December 2017.[13] Swedish prosecutors dropped their investigation in 2019, saying their evidence had "weakened considerably due to the long period of time that has elapsed since the events in question."[14]

    During the 2016 U.S. election campaign, WikiLeaks published confidential Democratic Party emails, showing that the party's national committee favoured Hillary Clinton over her rival Bernie Sanders in the primaries. In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller charged twelve Russian intelligence officers with computer hacking and working with WikiLeaks and other organisations to disseminate the material. However, Assange said that the Russian government was not the source of the documents.[15][16][17][18]

    On 11 April 2019, Assange's asylum was withdrawn following a series of disputes with the Ecuadorian authorities. The police were invited into the embassy, and he was arrested.[19] He was found guilty of breaching the Bail Act and sentenced to 50 weeks in prison.[20] The United States government unsealed an indictment against Assange, related to the leaks provided by Chelsea Manning. On 23 May 2019, the United States government further charged Assange with violating the Espionage Act of 1917. Editors from newspapers, including The Washington Post and The New York Times, as well as press freedom organisations, criticised the government's decision to charge Assange under the Espionage Act, characterising it as an attack on the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees freedom of the press.[21][22] On 4 January 2021, District Judge Vanessa Baraitser ruled against the United States' request to extradite him and stated that doing so would be "oppressive" given his mental health.[23] On 6 January 2021, Assange was denied bail, pending an appeal by the United States.[24][25] In July 2021, his Ecuador citizenship was revoked.[13]

    1. ^ McGreal, Chris (5 April 2010). "Wikileaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
    2. ^ "WikiLeaks names one-time spokesman as editor-in-chief". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
    3. ^ "The Julian Assange Show: Cypherpunks Uncut (p.1)" on YouTube
    4. ^ Collateral Murder on YouTube, 5 April 2000. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
    5. ^ "Q&A: Julian Assange and the law". BBC News. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
    6. ^ Yost, Pete (29 November 2010). "Holder says WikiLeaks under criminal investigation". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    7. ^ "Wikileaks' Assange faces international arrest warrant". BBC News. 20 November 2010.
    8. ^ "Julian Assange should be extradited to Sweden: British MPs". Deutsche Welle. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
    9. ^ "What is Julian Assange accused of and why is the WikiLeaks founder being extradited?". The Telegraph (UK). 25 February 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
    10. ^ Bowater, Donna (20 June 2012). "Julian Assange faces re-arrest over breaching his bail condition by seeking asylum in Ecuador". The Daily Telegraph.
    11. ^ Neuman, William; Ayala, Maggy (16 August 2012). "Ecuador Grants Asylum to Assange, Defying Britain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    12. ^ Wallace, Arturo (16 August 2012). "Julian Assange: Why Ecuador is offering asylum". BBC. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
    13. ^ a b Ecuador revokes citizenship of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange
    14. ^ "Julian Assange: Sweden drops rape investigation". BBC. 19 November 2019.
    15. ^ "Julian Assange: Russian government not source of leaked DNC and Podesta emails – WikiLeaks editor contradicts CIA claims in new interview". The Belfast Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
    16. ^ Lake, Eli (25 July 2016). "Cyber-Experts Say Russia Hacked the Democratic National Committee". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
    17. ^ "Assange blasts media for 'politicization' of election campaign in Fox interviews". Fox News Channel. 26 August 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
    18. ^ "WikiLeaks Founder: Russian Government Is Not Our 'Source'". ABC News. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    19. ^ Ma, Alexandra (14 April 2019). "Assange's arrest was designed to make sure he didn't press a mysterious panic button he said would bring dire consequences for Ecuador". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
    20. ^ "Julian Assange jailed over bail breach". BBC News. 1 May 2019.
    21. ^ "The U.S. says Julian Assange 'is no journalist.' Here's why that shouldn't matter". The Washington Post. 25 May 2019.
    22. ^ "Washington Post, New York Times editors blast Assange indictment". The Hill. 24 May 2019.
    23. ^ Rebaza, Claudia; Fox, Kara. "UK judge denies US request to extradite Julian Assange". CNN. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
    24. ^ "UK judge denies bail for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange". CNN. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
    25. ^ Presse, Agence France (25 November 2019). "Julian Assange's health is so bad he 'could die in prison', say 60 doctors". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
     
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    19 June 2012WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London's Ecuadorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents including footage of civilian killings by the US army.

    Julian Assange

    Julian Paul Assange (/əˈsɑːnʒ/;[3] born 3 July 1971) is an Australian editor, publisher, and activist who founded WikiLeaks in 2006. WikiLeaks came to international attention in 2010 when it published a series of leaks provided by U.S. Army intelligence analyst Chelsea Manning. These leaks included the Baghdad airstrike Collateral Murder video (April 2010),[4][5] the Afghanistan war logs (July 2010), the Iraq war logs (October 2010), and Cablegate (November 2010). After the 2010 leaks, the United States government launched a criminal investigation into WikiLeaks.[6]

    In November 2010, Sweden issued an international arrest warrant for Assange over allegations of sexual misconduct.[7] Assange said the allegations were a pretext for his extradition from Sweden to the United States over his role in the publication of secret American documents.[8][9] After failing in his battle against extradition to Sweden, he breached bail and took refuge in the Embassy of Ecuador in London in June 2012.[10] He was granted asylum by Ecuador in August 2012[11] on the grounds of political persecution, with the presumption that if he were extradited to Sweden, he would be eventually extradited to the US.[12] He was granted Ecuador citizenship in December 2017.[13] Swedish prosecutors dropped their investigation in 2019, saying their evidence had "weakened considerably due to the long period of time that has elapsed since the events in question."[14]

    During the 2016 U.S. election campaign, WikiLeaks published confidential Democratic Party emails, showing that the party's national committee favoured Hillary Clinton over her rival Bernie Sanders in the primaries. In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller charged twelve Russian intelligence officers with computer hacking and working with WikiLeaks and other organisations to disseminate the material. However, Assange said that the Russian government was not the source of the documents.[15][16][17][18]

    On 11 April 2019, Assange's asylum was withdrawn following a series of disputes with the Ecuadorian authorities. The police were invited into the embassy, and he was arrested.[19] He was found guilty of breaching the Bail Act and sentenced to 50 weeks in prison.[20] The United States government unsealed an indictment against Assange, related to the leaks provided by Chelsea Manning. On 23 May 2019, the United States government further charged Assange with violating the Espionage Act of 1917. Editors from newspapers, including The Washington Post and The New York Times, as well as press freedom organisations, criticised the government's decision to charge Assange under the Espionage Act, characterising it as an attack on the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees freedom of the press.[21][22] On 4 January 2021, District Judge Vanessa Baraitser ruled against the United States' request to extradite him and stated that doing so would be "oppressive" given his mental health.[23] On 6 January 2021, Assange was denied bail, pending an appeal by the United States.[24][25] In July 2021, his Ecuador citizenship was revoked.[13]

    1. ^ McGreal, Chris (5 April 2010). "Wikileaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
    2. ^ "WikiLeaks names one-time spokesman as editor-in-chief". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
    3. ^ "The Julian Assange Show: Cypherpunks Uncut (p.1)" on YouTube
    4. ^ Collateral Murder on YouTube, 5 April 2000. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
    5. ^ "Q&A: Julian Assange and the law". BBC News. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
    6. ^ Yost, Pete (29 November 2010). "Holder says WikiLeaks under criminal investigation". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
    7. ^ "Wikileaks' Assange faces international arrest warrant". BBC News. 20 November 2010.
    8. ^ "Julian Assange should be extradited to Sweden: British MPs". Deutsche Welle. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
    9. ^ "What is Julian Assange accused of and why is the WikiLeaks founder being extradited?". The Telegraph (UK). 25 February 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
    10. ^ Bowater, Donna (20 June 2012). "Julian Assange faces re-arrest over breaching his bail condition by seeking asylum in Ecuador". The Daily Telegraph.
    11. ^ Neuman, William; Ayala, Maggy (16 August 2012). "Ecuador Grants Asylum to Assange, Defying Britain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    12. ^ Wallace, Arturo (16 August 2012). "Julian Assange: Why Ecuador is offering asylum". BBC. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
    13. ^ a b Ecuador revokes citizenship of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange
    14. ^ "Julian Assange: Sweden drops rape investigation". BBC. 19 November 2019.
    15. ^ "Julian Assange: Russian government not source of leaked DNC and Podesta emails – WikiLeaks editor contradicts CIA claims in new interview". The Belfast Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
    16. ^ Lake, Eli (25 July 2016). "Cyber-Experts Say Russia Hacked the Democratic National Committee". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
    17. ^ "Assange blasts media for 'politicization' of election campaign in Fox interviews". Fox News Channel. 26 August 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
    18. ^ "WikiLeaks Founder: Russian Government Is Not Our 'Source'". ABC News. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
    19. ^ Ma, Alexandra (14 April 2019). "Assange's arrest was designed to make sure he didn't press a mysterious panic button he said would bring dire consequences for Ecuador". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
    20. ^ "Julian Assange jailed over bail breach". BBC News. 1 May 2019.
    21. ^ "The U.S. says Julian Assange 'is no journalist.' Here's why that shouldn't matter". The Washington Post. 25 May 2019.
    22. ^ "Washington Post, New York Times editors blast Assange indictment". The Hill. 24 May 2019.
    23. ^ Rebaza, Claudia; Fox, Kara. "UK judge denies US request to extradite Julian Assange". CNN. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
    24. ^ "UK judge denies bail for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange". CNN. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
    25. ^ Presse, Agence France (25 November 2019). "Julian Assange's health is so bad he 'could die in prison', say 60 doctors". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
     
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    20 June 1975 – The film Jaws is released in the United States, becoming the highest-grossing film of that time and starting the trend of films known as "summer blockbusters".

    Jaws (film)

    Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the 1974 novel by Peter Benchley. In the film, a man-eating great white shark attacks beachgoers at a summer resort town, prompting police chief Martin Brody (Roy Scheider) to hunt it with the help of a marine biologist (Richard Dreyfuss) and a professional shark hunter (Robert Shaw). Murray Hamilton plays the mayor, and Lorraine Gary portrays Brody's wife. The screenplay is credited to Benchley, who wrote the first drafts, and actor-writer Carl Gottlieb, who rewrote the script during principal photography.

    Shot mostly on location on Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts, Jaws was the first major motion picture to be shot on the ocean, and resultingly had a troubled production, going over budget and past schedule. As the art department's mechanical sharks often malfunctioned, Spielberg decided mostly to suggest the shark's presence, employing an ominous and minimalist theme created by composer John Williams to indicate its impending appearances. Spielberg and others have compared this suggestive approach to that of director Alfred Hitchcock. Universal Pictures gave the film what was then an exceptionally wide release for a major studio picture, on over 450 screens, accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign with a heavy emphasis on television spots and tie-in merchandise.

    Jaws was the prototypical summer blockbuster, regarded as a watershed moment in motion picture history, and it won several awards for its music and editing. It was the highest-grossing film until the release of Star Wars in 1977. Both films were pivotal in establishing the modern Hollywood business model, which pursues high box-office returns from action and adventure films with simple high-concept premises, released during the summer in thousands of theaters and advertised heavily. Jaws was followed by three sequels (without the involvement of Spielberg or Benchley) and many imitative thrillers. In 2001, it was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

    1. ^ a b "Jaws (1975)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Archived from the original on March 26, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
    2. ^ "JAWS (A)". British Board of Film Classification. June 12, 1975. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
     
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    21 June 1307Külüg Khan is enthroned as Khagan of the Mongols and Wuzong of the Yuan.

    Külüg Khan

    Külüg Khan (Chinese: 曲律汗; Mongolian: Хөлөг хаан, romanized: Hülüg Khaan, Külüg qaγan), born Khayishan (also spelled Khayisan, Chinese: 海山, Mongolian: Хайсан, meaning "wall"[note 1]), also known by the temple name Wuzong (Emperor Wuzong of Yuan; Chinese: 元武宗; pinyin: Yuán Wǔzōng; Wade–Giles: Wu-Tsung) (August 4, 1281 – January 27, 1311), Prince of Huai-ning (懷寧王) in 1304-7, was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the seventh Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. His name means "warrior Khan or fine horse Khan" in the Mongolian language.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

     
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    22 June 2000Wuhan Airlines Flight 343 is struck by lightning and crashes into Wuhan's Hanyang District, killing 49 people

    Wuhan Airlines Flight 343

    Location of Hubei in China

    Wuhan Airlines Flight 343 was a domestic scheduled passenger flight between Enshi Airport and Wuhan Wangjiadun Airport, both in Hubei province, Central China. On June 22, 2000, the Wuhan Airlines Xian Y-7, registration B-3479, flying the route crashed after encountering an area of adverse weather; the aircraft was struck by lightning and encountered windshear.

    Immediately after the accident, China ordered all of Wuhan Airlines' Xian Y-7 aircraft be grounded. One month after the accident, they were allowed to resume service.

    The accident remains the deadliest involving a Xian Y-7 aircraft, and is today the 12th deadliest aviation accident in the history of China.[1]

    1. ^ a b c d e f Cite error: The named reference ASN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    23 June 2017A series of terrorist attacks took place in Pakistan resulting in 96 deaths and wounded 200 others.

    June 2017 Pakistan attacks

    On 23 June 2017, a series of terrorist attacks took place in Pakistan resulting in 96 dead and over 200 wounded. They included a suicide bombing in Quetta targeting policemen, followed by a double bombing at a market in Parachinar, and the targeted killing of four policemen in Karachi.[1][2][3]

    Responsibility for the Quetta attack was claimed by Jamaat-ul-Ahrar and ISIL,[4] while no group accepted responsibility for the Parachinar attack.[5] According to the military, both attacks were coordinated from terrorist sanctuaries in Afghanistan.[6]

    1. ^ "Pakistan: Bombings in 2 cities kill at least 38". CNN. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference DAWN3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference AlJazeera was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference ET1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference DAWN6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    24 June 1995Rugby World Cup: South Africa defeats New Zealand and Nelson Mandela presents Francois Pienaar with the Webb Ellis Cup in an iconic post-apartheid moment.

    1995 Rugby World Cup

    The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. It was hosted and won by South Africa, and was the first Rugby World Cup in which every match was held in one country.

    The World Cup was the first major sporting event to take place in South Africa following the end of apartheid. It was also the first World Cup in which South Africa was allowed to compete; the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB, now World Rugby) had only readmitted South Africa to international rugby in 1992, following negotiations to end apartheid. The World Cup would also be the last major event of rugby union's amateur era; two months after the tournament, the IRFB opened the sport to professionalism.

    In the final, held at Ellis Park in Johannesburg on 24 June, South Africa defeated New Zealand 15–12, with Joel Stransky scoring a drop goal in extra time to win the match. Following South Africa's victory, Nelson Mandela, the President of South Africa, wearing a Springboks rugby shirt and cap, presented the Webb Ellis Cup to the South African captain François Pienaar.

     
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    25 June 1978 – The rainbow flag representing gay pride is flown for the first time during the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.

    Rainbow flag (LGBT)

    The rainbow flag is a symbol of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBT) pride and LGBT social movements in use since the 1970s.

    The rainbow flag is a symbol of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and queer pride and LGBT social movements. Also known as the gay pride flag or LGBT pride flag, the colors reflect the diversity of the LGBT community and the "spectrum" of human sexuality and gender. Using a rainbow flag as a symbol of gay pride began in San Francisco, but eventually became common at LGBT rights events worldwide.

    Originally devised by artist Gilbert Baker, the design has undergone several revisions since its debut in 1978, first to remove colors then restore them based on availability of fabrics.[1][2] Baker's first rainbow flag had eight colors, though the most common variant consists of six stripes: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. The flag is typically flown horizontally, with the red stripe on top, as it would be in a natural rainbow.

    LGBT individuals and allies currently use rainbow flags and many rainbow-themed items and color schemes as an outward symbol of their identity or support. In addition to the rainbow, many other flags and symbols are used to communicate specific identities within the LGBT community.

    1. ^ "The Rainbow Flag". Retrieved May 29, 2021.
    2. ^ Gilbert Baker (October 18, 2007). "Pride-Flyin' Flag: Rainbow-flag founder marks 30-years anniversary". Metro Weekly. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
     
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    26 June 2008 – A suicide bomber dressed as an Iraqi policeman detonates an explosive vest, killing 25 people.

    2008 Karmah bombing

    The 26 June 2008 Karmah bombing was a suicide attack on a meeting of tribal sheiks in the town of Al-Karmah. Three Marines from 2nd Battalion 3rd Marines (including the battalion's commanding officer), as well as twenty Iraqi sheiks and the mayor of Karmah, were killed when a suicide bomber dressed as an Iraqi Policeman detonated an explosive vest. Two interpreters were also killed in the blast.[1][2] The aftermath of the attack was captured on film by photojournalist Zoriah Miller.[3] The commanding officer of 2/3, LtCol Max Galeai and two other Marines (Captain Philip J. Dykeman and Cpl. Marcus W. Preudhomme) from the battalion were killed.[4] In June 2008, it was announced that Anbar would be the tenth province to transfer to Provincial Iraqi Control, the first Sunni Arab region to be handed back. This handover was delayed due to the attack.[5][6] The handover did occur on September 1, 2008.[7] Two insurgents linked to the bombing were later caught in Tamariya.[6]

    1. ^ "Suicide bomber kills 3 Hawaii Marines - Battalion commander among suicide bomber's victims". 2008-06-28. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
    2. ^ DefenseLink News Release: DoD Identifies Marine Casualties
    3. ^ ZORIAH - A PHOTOJOURNALIST AND WAR PHOTOGRAPHER'S BLOG: Anbar Province Suicide Bombing - Zoriah's Eyewitness Account - Iraq War Diary
    4. ^ Vorsino, Mary (2008-06-28). "Suicide bomber kills 3 Hawaii Marines - Battalion commander among suicide bomber's victims". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
    5. ^ Cocks, Tim (2008-06-27). "U.S. handover of Iraqi province delayed". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
    6. ^ a b Yacoub, Sameer (2008-08-01). "Insurgents linked to US Marine deaths caught". AP via Yahoo News. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
    7. ^ "US hands over key Iraq province". BBC News. 2008-09-01. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
     
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    27 June 2013NASA launches the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, a space probe to observe the Sun.

    Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS),[2] also called Explorer 94,[3] is a NASA solar observation satellite. The mission was funded through the Small Explorer program to investigate the physical conditions of the solar limb, particularly the chromosphere of the Sun. The spacecraft consists of a satellite bus and spectrometer built by the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), and a telescope provided by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. IRIS is operated by LMSAL and NASA's Ames Research Center.

    The satellite's instrument is a high-frame-rate ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, providing one image per second at 0.3 arcsecond angular resolution and sub-ångström spectral resolution.

    NASA announced on 19 June 2009 that IRIS was selected from six Small Explorer mission candidates for further study,[4] along with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) space observatory.[5]

    The spacecraft arrived at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on 16 April 2013[6] and was successfully launched on 27 June 2013 by a Pegasus-XL rocket.[7]

    1. ^ "IRIS Satellite details 2013-033A NORAD 39197". N2YO. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
    2. ^ "Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. 2013. 2013-033A.
    3. ^ "NASA's Explorer Program Satellites". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. 2014.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference nasa20080529 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Cite error: The named reference nasa20090619 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    6. ^ Cite error: The named reference nasa20130417 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference nasa20130628 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    28 June 1926Mercedes-Benz is formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two companies.

    Mercedes-Benz

    Mercedes-Benz (German: [mɛɐ̯ˈtseːdəsˌbɛnts, -dɛs-]),[6][7] commonly referred to as Mercedes, is both a German automotive brand and, from late 2019 onwards, a subsidiary – as Mercedes-Benz AG – of Daimler AG.[1] Mercedes-Benz is known for producing luxury vehicles and commercial vehicles.[note 2] The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the largest seller of premium vehicles in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars.[8]

    The company's origins come from Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first internal combustion engine in a self-propelled automobile. The fuel was not gasoline, but rather a much more volatile petroleum spirit called ligroin. The slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing".[9]

    1. ^ a b c "Daimler launches new corporate structure". www.daimler.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    2. ^ "Corporate governance". Mercedes-Benz AG. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    3. ^ "Mercedes-Benz posts eighth consecutive record year and maintains number 1 position in the premium segment". Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
    4. ^ "About us". Mercedes-Benz AG. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    5. ^ "AMG – The Company". Mercedes-AMG GmbH. Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
    6. ^ Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962]. Das Aussprachewörterbuch [The Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German) (7th ed.). Berlin: Dudenverlag. p. 595. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4.
    7. ^ Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch [German Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 738. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
    8. ^ Taylor, Edward; Tajitsu, Naomi; Hummel, Tassilo; Frost, Laurence (11 January 2019). "Volkswagen delivered 10.8 million vehicles in 2018, eyes world No.1 spot". www.reuters.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
    9. ^ "Best Global Brands - 2014 Rankings". Interbrand. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.


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    29 June 1987Vincent Van Gogh’s painting, the Le Pont de Trinquetaille, was bought for $20.4 million at an auction in London, England.

    Vincent van Gogh

    A ceramic vase with sunflowers on a yellow surface against a bright yellow background.
    Sunflowers (F.458), repetition of the 4th version (yellow background), August 1889.[1] Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
    An expansive painting of a wheatfield, with a footpath going through the centre underneath dark and forbidding skies, through which a flock of black crows fly.
    Wheatfield with Crows, 1890. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

    Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [ˈvɪnsənt ˈʋɪləm vɑŋ ˈɣɔx] (About this soundlisten);[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In a decade, he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of which date from the last two years of his life. They include landscapes, still lifes, portraits and self-portraits, and are characterised by bold colours and dramatic, impulsive and expressive brushwork that contributed to the foundations of modern art. He was not commercially successful, and his suicide at thirty-seven came after years of depression and poverty.

    Born into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet, and thoughtful. As a young man, he worked as an art dealer, often traveling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He turned to religion and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, contain few signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his later work. In 1886, he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes. His paintings grew brighter as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include series of olive trees, wheat fields, and sunflowers.

    Van Gogh suffered from psychotic episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly and drank heavily. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor when, in a rage, he severed part of his own left ear. He spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris, he came under the care of the homeopathic doctor Paul Gachet. His depression persisted, and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh is believed to have shot himself in the chest with a Lefaucheux revolver.[6] He died from his injuries two days later.

    Van Gogh was commercially unsuccessful during his lifetime, and he was considered a madman and a failure. As he only became famous after his suicide, he became to be seen as a misunderstood genius in the public imagination.[7] His reputation grew in the early 20th century as elements of his style came to be incorporated by the Fauves and German Expressionists. He attained widespread critical, commercial, and popular success over the ensuing decades, and he is remembered as an important but tragic painter whose troubled personality typifies the romantic ideal of the tortured artist. Today, Van Gogh's works are among the world's most expensive paintings to have ever sold, and his legacy is honoured by a museum in his name, the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, which holds the world's largest collection of his paintings and drawings.

    1. ^ "Sunflowers – Van Gogh Museum". vangoghmuseum.nl. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
    2. ^ "BBC – Magazine Monitor: How to Say: Van Gogh". BBC. 22 January 2010. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
    3. ^ Sweetman (1990), 7.
    4. ^ Davies (2007), p. 83.
    5. ^ Veltkamp, Paul. "Pronunciation of the Name 'Van Gogh'". vggallery.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015.
    6. ^ Le revolver avec lequel Van Gogh se serait mortellement blessé en vente à Paris Archived 2 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine in Le Figaro 2 April 2019
    7. ^ McQuillan (1989), 9.


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    30 June 1997 – The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to China.

    Handover of Hong Kong

    The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong,[1][2][3] commonly known as the handover of Hong Kong (shortened to the Handover and the Return in mainland China), was the formal passing of responsibility for the territory of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China at midnight on 1 July 1997. This event ended 156 years of British rule in the former colony. Hong Kong was reestablished as a special administrative region of China, and largely continues to maintain its existing economic and governing systems distinct from those of mainland China.

    With a population of about 6.5 million people in 1997, Hong Kong constituted 97 per cent of the total population of all British Dependent Territories at the time and was one of the UK's last significant colonial territories. The transfer is often considered to mark the definitive end of the British Empire.

    1. ^ "This law took effect on 1 July 1997, upon the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China" Hong Kong Year Book Archived 25 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
    2. ^ "...existing system in order to preserve continuity in the administration of the public service after the transfer of sovereignty" Legislative Council of Hong Kong record Archived 6 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
    3. ^ Parliament of Australia Inquiry: Hong Kong: The Transfer of Sovereignty
     
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    1 July 1979Sony introduces the Walkman.

    Walkman

    Walkman (stylized WALKMAN) is a brand of portable media players manufactured by Sony. The original Walkman, released in 1979, was a portable cassette player that allowed people to listen to music of their choice on the move.[2][3] Its popularity made "walkman" an unofficial term for personal stereos of any producer or brand.[4] By 2010, when production stopped, Sony had built about 200 million cassette-based Walkmans.[5]

    The Walkman brand was extended to serve most of Sony's portable audio devices as well as related media devices. The name has been used on portable DAT players, MiniDisc players/recorders, CD players (originally Discman then renamed the CD Walkman), radio receivers, Sony's line of digital audio and media players, mobile phones and more.[6][7] As of 2020, only digital audio and media players are currently in production.

    1. ^ "Sony Japan - タイムカプセル vol.20 そして、その名は世界共通語になった". Sony.
    2. ^ Bull, Micheal (2006). "Investigating the Culture of Mobile Listening: From Walkman to Ipod". Consuming Music Together. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. 35: 131–149. doi:10.1007/1-4020-4097-0_7. ISBN 1-4020-4031-8.
    3. ^ Du Gay, Paul (1997). Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9780761954026.
    4. ^ Batey, Mark (2016), Brand Meaning: Meaning, Myth and Mystique in Today's Brands (Second ed.), Routledge, p. 140
    5. ^ walkman-archive.com, Gallery Sony, retrieved 31 May 2020.
    6. ^ "Sony's modern take on the iconic Walkman". The Hindu BusinessLine. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
    7. ^ "Sony History". Sony Electronics Inc. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
     
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    2 July 1698Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine.

    Steam engine

    A model of a beam engine featuring James Watt's parallel linkage for double action.[a]
    A mill engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England
    A steam locomotive from East Germany. This class of engine was built in 1942–1950 and operated until 1988.
    A steam ploughing engine by Kemna

    A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder. This pushing force can be transformed, by a connecting rod and flywheel, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is generally applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines,[1] where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants (including boilers etc.), such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine.

    Although steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeolipile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century, Thomas Savery is considered the inventor of the first commercially-used steam powered device, a steam pump that used steam pressure operating directly on the water. The first commercially successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation, greatly improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, and steam locomotives operated on the railways.

    Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the gradual replacement of steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, and higher efficiency.[2]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Wiser was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
     
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    3 July 1863American Civil War: The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminates with Pickett's Charge.

    Pickett's Charge

    Pickett's Charge from a position on the Confederate line looking toward the Union lines, Ziegler's Grove on the left, clump of trees on right, painting by Edwin Forbes
    Map of Pickett's Charge, July 3, 1863
      Confederate
      Union
    Map of Pickett's Charge (details), July 3, 1863
      Confederate
      Union

    Pickett's Charge (July 3, 1863), also known as the Pickett–Pettigrew–Trimble Charge, was an infantry assault ordered by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Union positions on the last day of the Battle of Gettysburg in the state of Pennsylvania during the Civil War.

    Its futility was predicted by the charge's commander, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, and it was arguably an avoidable mistake from which the Southern war effort never fully recovered militarily or psychologically. The farthest point reached by the attack has been referred to as the high-water mark of the Confederacy. The charge is named after Maj. Gen. George Pickett, one of three Confederate generals who led the assault under Longstreet.

    Pickett's Charge was part of Lee's "general plan"[1] to take Cemetery Hill and the network of roads it commanded. His military secretary, Armistead Lindsay Long, described Lee's thinking:

    There was ... a weak point ... where [Cemetery Ridge], sloping westward, formed the depression through which the Emmitsburg road passes. Perceiving that by forcing the Federal lines at that point and turning toward Cemetery Hill [Hays' Division] would be taken in flank and the remainder would be neutralized. ... Lee determined to attack at that point, and the execution was assigned to Longstreet.[2]

    On the night of July 2, Meade correctly predicted to General Gibbon, after a council of war, that Lee would attack the center of his lines the following morning.

    The infantry assault was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment that was meant to soften up the Union defense and silence its artillery, but was largely ineffective. Approximately 12,500 men in nine infantry brigades advanced over open fields for three-quarters of a mile under heavy Union artillery and rifle fire. Although some Confederates were able to breach the low stone wall that shielded many of the Union defenders, they could not maintain their hold and were repelled with over 50% casualties, a decisive defeat that ended the three-day battle and Lee's campaign into Pennsylvania.[3] Years later, when asked why his charge at Gettysburg failed, Pickett reportedly replied, "I've always thought the Yankees had something to do with it."[4][5]

    1. ^ War of the Rebellion: Official Records (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1889), Volume 27, Series I, Part 2, p. 320.
    2. ^ A. L. Long. Memoirs of Robert E. Lee: His Military and Personal History. London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Seale and Rivington, 1886, pp. 287–288.
    3. ^ Pfanz, pp. 44–52.
    4. ^ Boritt, p. 19.
    5. ^ Savas, Theodore P.; Woodbury, David A. (2013). The Campaign for Atlanta & Sherman's March to the Sea, Volume 1. Savas Publishing. ISBN 9781940669052. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
     
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    4 July 1827Slavery is abolished in the State of New York.

    Slavery in the United States

    An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
    Slave auction block, Green Hill Plantation, Campbell County, Virginia, Historic American Buildings Survey

    Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery, comprising the enslavement primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. Slavery was established throughout European colonization in the Americas. From early colonial days, it was practiced in Britain's colonies, including the Thirteen Colonies which formed the United States. Under the law, an enslaved person was treated as property and could be bought, sold, or given away. Slavery lasted in about half of U.S. states until 1865. As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping and convict leasing.

    By the time of the American Revolution (1775–1783), the status of enslaved people had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry.[1] During and immediately following the Revolution, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states and a movement developed to abolish slavery. The role of slavery under the U.S. Constitution (1789) was the most contentious issue during its drafting. Although the creators of the Constitution never used the word "slavery", the final document, through the three-fifths clause, gave slave-owners disproportionate political power.[2] All Northern states had abolished slavery in some way by 1805; sometimes, abolition was a gradual process, and hundreds of people were still enslaved in the Northern states as late as the 1840 Census. Some slaveowners, primarily in the Upper South, freed their slaves, and philanthropists and charitable groups bought and freed others. The Atlantic slave trade was outlawed by individual states beginning during the American Revolution. The import-trade was banned by Congress in 1808, although smuggling was common thereafter.[3][4]:7

    The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for slave labor, and the Southern states continued as slave societies. The United States became ever more polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states. Driven by labor demands from new cotton plantations in the Deep South, the Upper South sold more than a million slaves who were taken to the Deep South. The total slave population in the South eventually reached four million.[5][6] As the United States expanded, the Southern states attempted to extend slavery into the new western territories to allow proslavery forces to maintain their power in the country. The new territories acquired by the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican Cession were the subject of major political crises and compromises. By 1850, the newly rich, cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. Slavery was defended in the South as a "positive good", and the largest religious denominations split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South.

    When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven slave states broke away to form the Confederacy. Shortly afterward, the Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the U.S. Army's Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Four additional slave states then joined the confederacy after Lincoln requested arms from them to make a retaliatory strike. Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war effectively ended chattel slavery in most places. Following the Union victory, the institution was banned in the whole territory of the United States upon the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865.

    1. ^ Wood, Peter (2003). "The Birth of Race-Based Slavery". Slate. (May 19, 2015): Reprinted from Strange New Land: Africans in Colonial America by Peter H. Wood with permission from Oxford University Press. ©1996, 2003.
    2. ^ Douglass, Frederick (1849). "The Constitution and Slavery".
    3. ^ Smith, Julia Floyd (1973). Slavery and Plantation Growth in Antebellum Florida, 1821–1860. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-0-8130-0323-8.
    4. ^ McDonough, Gary W. (1993). The Florida Negro. A Federal Writers' Project Legacy. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0878055883.
    5. ^ Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00071-5.
    6. ^ Introduction – Social Aspects of the Civil War Archived July 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, National Park Service.
     
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    5 July 1946Micheline Bernardini models the first modern bikini at a swimming pool in Paris.

    Micheline Bernardini

    Micheline Bernardini (born 1 December 1927) is a French former nude dancer at the Casino de Paris who agreed to model, on 5 July 1946, Louis Réard's two-piece swimsuit, which he called the bikini, named four days after the first test of an American nuclear weapon at the Bikini Atoll.[1]

    1. ^ "Operation Crossroads: Fact Sheet". Department of the Navy—Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
     
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    6 July 1964Malawi declares its independence from the United Kingdom.

    Malawi

    Coordinates: 13°30′S 34°00′E / 13.500°S 34.000°E / -13.500; 34.000

    Malawi (/məˈlɔːwi, məˈlɑːwi, ˈmæləwi/; Chewa[maláβi] or [maláwi]),[9] officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeastern Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the west, Tanzania to the north and northeast, and Mozambique to the east, south and southwest. Malawi spans over 118,484 km2 (45,747 sq mi) and has an estimated population of 19,431,566 (as of January 2021).[10] Malawi's capital (and largest city) is Lilongwe. Its second-largest is Blantyre, its third-largest is Mzuzu and its fourth-largest is its former capital, Zomba. The name Malawi comes from the Maravi, an old name for the Chewa people who inhabit the area. The country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of its people.[11]

    The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled around the 10th century by migrating Bantu groups. Centuries later, in 1891, the area was colonized by the British and became a protectorate of the United Kingdom known as Nyasaland. In 1953, it became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964, the protectorate was ended: Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II, and was renamed Malawi. Two years later it became a republic. It gained full independence from the United Kingdom, and by 1970 had become a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained in this role until 1994.[12][13][14] Today, Malawi has a democratic, multi-party republic headed by an elected president. Lazarus Chakwera of the Malawi Congress Party led the Tonse Alliance grouping of nine political parties and won the court-mandated Presidential Election rerun held on 23 June 2020 after the May 2019 Presidential Election was annulled due to massive electoral irregularities. The country's military, the Malawian Defence Force, includes an army, a navy, and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western. It maintains positive diplomatic relations with most countries, and participates in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the African Union (AU).

    Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries. The economy is heavily based on agriculture, and it has a largely rural and rapidly growing population. The Malawian government depends heavily on outside aid to meet its development needs, although the amount needed (and the aid offered) has decreased since 2000. The Malawian government faces challenges in its efforts to build and expand the economy, improve education, healthcare, and environmental protection, and become financially independent despite widespread unemployment. Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on addressing these issues, and the country's outlook appears to be improving: Key indicators of progress in the economy, education, and healthcare were seen in 2007 and 2008.

    Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent, which both reduces the labor force and requires increased government expenditures. The country has a diverse population that includes native peoples, Asians, and Europeans. Several languages are spoken, and there is an array of religious beliefs. Although in the past there was a periodic regional conflict fueled in part by ethnic divisions, by 2008 this internal conflict had considerably diminished, and the idea of identifying with one's Malawian nationality had reemerged.

    1. ^ "Malawi National Anthem Lyrics". National Anthem Lyrics. Lyrics on Demand. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
    2. ^ a b "2018 Population and Housing Census Main Report" (PDF). Malawi National Statistical Office. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference DHS 2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". population.un.org.
    5. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
    6. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
    7. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
    8. ^ a b "Country profile: Malawi". BBC News. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
    9. ^ "Malawi: Maláui, Malaui, Malauí, Malavi ou Malávi?". DicionarioeGramatica.com.br. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
    10. ^ "Malawi Population (2021) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
    11. ^ "Malawi, The Warm Heart of Africa". Network of Organizations for Vulnerable & Orphan Children. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
    12. ^ "Hastings Kamuzu Banda | president of Malawi". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    13. ^ "The cult of Hastings Banda takes hold" – via The Globe and Mail.
    14. ^ McCracken, John (1 April 1998). "Democracy and Nationalism in Historical Perspective: The Case of Malawi". African Affairs. 97 (387): 231–249. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a007927 – via academic.oup.com.
     
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    6 July 1964Malawi declares its independence from the United Kingdom.

    Malawi

    Coordinates: 13°30′S 34°00′E / 13.500°S 34.000°E / -13.500; 34.000

    Malawi (/məˈlɔːwi, məˈlɑːwi, ˈmæləwi/; Chewa[maláβi] or [maláwi]),[9] officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeastern Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the west, Tanzania to the north and northeast, and Mozambique to the east, south and southwest. Malawi spans over 118,484 km2 (45,747 sq mi) and has an estimated population of 19,431,566 (as of January 2021).[10] Malawi's capital (and largest city) is Lilongwe. Its second-largest is Blantyre, its third-largest is Mzuzu and its fourth-largest is its former capital, Zomba. The name Malawi comes from the Maravi, an old name for the Chewa people who inhabit the area. The country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of its people.[11]

    The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled around the 10th century by migrating Bantu groups. Centuries later, in 1891, the area was colonized by the British and became a protectorate of the United Kingdom known as Nyasaland. In 1953, it became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964, the protectorate was ended: Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II, and was renamed Malawi. Two years later it became a republic. It gained full independence from the United Kingdom, and by 1970 had become a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained in this role until 1994.[12][13][14] Today, Malawi has a democratic, multi-party republic headed by an elected president. Lazarus Chakwera of the Malawi Congress Party led the Tonse Alliance grouping of nine political parties and won the court-mandated Presidential Election rerun held on 23 June 2020 after the May 2019 Presidential Election was annulled due to massive electoral irregularities. The country's military, the Malawian Defence Force, includes an army, a navy, and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western. It maintains positive diplomatic relations with most countries, and participates in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the African Union (AU).

    Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries. The economy is heavily based on agriculture, and it has a largely rural and rapidly growing population. The Malawian government depends heavily on outside aid to meet its development needs, although the amount needed (and the aid offered) has decreased since 2000. The Malawian government faces challenges in its efforts to build and expand the economy, improve education, healthcare, and environmental protection, and become financially independent despite widespread unemployment. Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on addressing these issues, and the country's outlook appears to be improving: Key indicators of progress in the economy, education, and healthcare were seen in 2007 and 2008.

    Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent, which both reduces the labor force and requires increased government expenditures. The country has a diverse population that includes native peoples, Asians, and Europeans. Several languages are spoken, and there is an array of religious beliefs. Although in the past there was a periodic regional conflict fueled in part by ethnic divisions, by 2008 this internal conflict had considerably diminished, and the idea of identifying with one's Malawian nationality had reemerged.

    1. ^ "Malawi National Anthem Lyrics". National Anthem Lyrics. Lyrics on Demand. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
    2. ^ a b "2018 Population and Housing Census Main Report" (PDF). Malawi National Statistical Office. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference DHS 2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". population.un.org.
    5. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
    6. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
    7. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
    8. ^ a b "Country profile: Malawi". BBC News. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
    9. ^ "Malawi: Maláui, Malaui, Malauí, Malavi ou Malávi?". DicionarioeGramatica.com.br. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
    10. ^ "Malawi Population (2021) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
    11. ^ "Malawi, The Warm Heart of Africa". Network of Organizations for Vulnerable & Orphan Children. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
    12. ^ "Hastings Kamuzu Banda | president of Malawi". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    13. ^ "The cult of Hastings Banda takes hold" – via The Globe and Mail.
    14. ^ McCracken, John (1 April 1998). "Democracy and Nationalism in Historical Perspective: The Case of Malawi". African Affairs. 97 (387): 231–249. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a007927 – via academic.oup.com.
     
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    7 July 1916 – The New Zealand Labour Party was founded in Wellington.

    New Zealand Labour Party

    The New Zealand Labour Party (Māori: Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa),[10] or simply Labour (Reipa),[11] is a centre-left political party in New Zealand.[5]

    The New Zealand Labour Party formed in 1916 out of various socialist parties and trade unions. It is the country's oldest political party still in existence.[12] Alongside its main rival, the New Zealand National Party, Labour has alternated in leading governments of New Zealand since the 1930s.[13] As of 2020, there have been six periods of Labour government under ten Labour prime ministers.

    The party first came to power under prime ministers Michael Joseph Savage and Peter Fraser from 1935 to 1949, when it established New Zealand's welfare state. It governed from 1957 to 1960, and again from 1972 to 1975 (a single term each time). In 1974, the prime minister Norman Kirk died in office, which contributed to a decline in party support. Up to the 1980s, the party advocated a strong role for governments in economic and social matters. When it governed from 1984 to 1990, Labour instead privatised state assets and reduced the role of the state in the economy; Labour prime minister David Lange also introduced New Zealand's nuclear-free policy. Labour again became the largest party from 1999 to 2008, when it governed in coalition with, or based on negotiated support from, several minor parties; Helen Clark became the first Labour prime minister to lead her government through the third term in office.

    Following the 2008 general election, Labour comprised the second-largest caucus represented in the House of Representatives. In the 2017 general election the party, under Jacinda Ardern, returned to prominence with its best showing since the 2005 general election, winning 36.9% of the party vote and 46 seats.[14] On 19 October 2017, Labour formed a minority coalition government with New Zealand First, with confidence and supply from the Green Party. In the 2020 general election, Labour won in a landslide, winning an overall majority of 10 and 50.01% of the vote. Jacinda Ardern currently serves as the party leader and prime minister, while Kelvin Davis is the deputy leader.

    1. ^ Moir, Jo. "Labour appoints Rob Salmond as new general secretary". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bean2009 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Aimer was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Busky, Donald F. (2000). "Democratic Socialism in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East". Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 204. ISBN 9780275968861.
    5. ^ a b Boston, Jonathan; et al. (2003). New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002. Victoria University Press. p. 358.
    6. ^ "Voters' preexisting opinions shift to align with political party positions". Association for Psychological Science. 2 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018 – via Science Daily.
    7. ^ Papillon, Martin; Turgeon, Luc; Wallner, Jennifer; White, Stephen (2014). Comparing Canada: Methods and Perspectives on Canadian Politics. UBC Press. p. 126. ISBN 9780774827867. Retrieved 30 August 2016. [...] [I]n New Zealand politics, by the centre-left Labour Party and the centre-right National Party [...].
    8. ^ "Parties & Organisations". Progressive Alliance. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
    9. ^ "Labour Party unveils new 2020 campaign slogan ahead of general election". TVNZ. 4 July 2020.
    10. ^ "Ngā Rōpū Pāremata" (in Maori). New Zealand Parliament Pāremata Aotearoa. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
    11. ^ "Reipa - Māori Dictionary". maoridictionary.co.nz. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
    12. ^ Cite error: The named reference founded was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    13. ^ Miller 2005, pp. 32–33.
    14. ^ "2017 General Election – Official Result". New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
     
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    8 July 1968 – The Chrysler wildcat strike begins in Detroit, Michigan.

    Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement

    The Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM) was an organization of African-American workers formed in May 1968 in the Chrysler Corporation's Dodge Main assembly plant in Detroit, Michigan.

    Detroit labor activist Martin Glaberman estimated at the time that the Hamtramck plant was 70 per cent black while the union local (UAW Local 3), the plant management and lower supervision, and the Hamtramck city administration was dominated by older Polish-American workers.[1]

    DRUM sought to organize black workers to obtain concessions not only from the Chrysler management, but also from the United Auto Workers. Walter Reuther and the senior leadership had been early supporters of the American Civil Rights Movement; yet in spite of their growing presence in the auto-industry African-Americans rarely rose to positions of leadership within the union. On July 8, 1968 DRUM led a wildcat strike against conditions in the Hamtramck plant. The strike was observed by some 4,000 workers, lasted 2.5 days and prevented the production of 3,000 cars. In the subsequent Local 3 election, DRUM ran as an alternative slate. Although it did not win, the new organization drew notice for its militancy and willingness to challenge the UAW hierarchy.

    The "Revolutionary Union Movement" form of organization spread to other Detroit plants: including FRUM (Ford Revolutionary Union Movement) at the Ford River Rouge Plant, and ELRUM (Eldon Avenue Revolutionary Union Movement) at the Chrysler Eldon Avenue plant. These organizations were brought together in the League of Revolutionary Black Workers which formed in June 1969.

    As it grew, DRUM faced a crisis of expectations. Auto workers had created an independent organization, but opinions differed about DRUM's future mission. Debates concerned whether DRUM should continue as a reform movement within the UAW or a dual-union which would seek to replace the UAW. The League of Revolutionary Black Workers eventually split between those who wanted to remain focused on the auto industry and those who wished to expand the League into a national political organization. The nationally oriented movement, led by General Baker, retained the organizational name the League and DRUM and was associated with the New Communist Movement.[2] By 1975, however, the plant-level organization was largely defunct. Many members had been fired, and those who stayed often joined other currents in the union reform movement, such as the United National Caucus.

    1. ^ Glaberman, Martin (1969). "The Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement". International Socialism. 1st series (36). Retrieved 21 April 2016.
    2. ^ "Dodge Revolution Union Movement Finding Aid".
     
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    9 July 1877 – The inaugural Wimbledon Championships begins.

    The Championships, Wimbledon

    Coordinates: 51°26′1.5″N 0°12′50.5″W / 51.433750°N 0.214028°W / 51.433750; -0.214028

    The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon or The Championships, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely regarded as the most prestigious.[2][3][4][5][6] It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, London, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts, with a retractable roof over two courts since 2009.

    Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass, which is the traditional tennis playing surface.

    The tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the last Monday in June and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However, changes to the tennis calendar in 2015 have seen the event moved back by a week to begin in early July.[7][8] Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions also taking place.

    Wimbledon traditions include a strict all-white dress code for competitors, and royal patronage. Strawberries and cream are traditionally consumed at the tournament.[9] The tournament allows advertising around the courts only by the official sponsors, which are Rolex, which provides timekeeping technology during matches, IBM, Oppo, Slazenger, and Robinsons barley water.

    In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain. A roof was operational over No. 1 Court from 2019, when a number of other improvements were made, including adding cushioned seating, a table and 10 independently operable cameras per court to capture the games.

    Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 Championships were cancelled, the first cancellation of the tournament since World War II.[10]
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ "Prize Money and Finance". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    2. ^ Clarey, Christopher (7 May 2008). "Traditional Final: It's Nadal and Federer". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2008. Federer said[:] 'I love playing with him, especially here at Wimbledon, the most prestigious tournament we have.'
    3. ^ Will Kaufman & Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson, ed. (2005). "Tennis". Britain and the Americas. 1 : Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 958. ISBN 1-85109-431-8. this first tennis championship, which later evolved into the Wimbledon Tournament ... continues as the world's most prestigious event.
    4. ^ "Djokovic describes Wimbledon as "the most prestigious event"". BBC News. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
    5. ^ Ryan Rudnansky (24 June 2013). "Wimbledon Tennis 2013: Why Historic Tournament Is Most Prestigious Grand Slam". bleacherreport. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
    6. ^ Monte Burke (30 May 2012). "What Is The Most Prestigious Grand Slam Tennis Tournament?". Forbes. Retrieved 25 June 2013. It seems pretty clear that of the four tennis Grand Slam events—Wimbledon and the French, Australian and U.S. Opens—the former is by far the most prestigious one.
    7. ^ "Wimbledon Championships moved back a week from 2015". BBC Sport. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
    8. ^ "Enhanced UK grass court season announced for 2017". Wimbledon. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
    9. ^ "Wimbledon's strawberries and cream has Tudor roots". BBC. 9 June 2015.
    10. ^ Rossingh, Danielle. "Taking A Look At Every Time Wimbledon Has Been Canceled, Including The 2020 Tournament". Forbes. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
     
  40. NewsBot

    NewsBot The Admin that posts the news.

    Articles:
    1
    10 July 1962Telstar, the world's first communications satellite, is launched into orbit.

    Telstar

    Universal newsreel about Telstar 1

    Telstar is the name of various communications satellites. The first two Telstar satellites were experimental and nearly identical. Telstar 1 launched on top of a Thor-Delta rocket on July 10, 1962. It successfully relayed through space the first television pictures, telephone calls, and telegraph images, and provided the first live transatlantic television feed. Telstar 2 launched May 7, 1963. Telstar 1 and 2—though no longer functional—still orbit the Earth.[1]

    1. ^ "1962-ALPHA EPSILON 1". US Space Objects Registry. June 19, 2013. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
     

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