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This day in .....

Discussion in 'Break Room' started by NewsBot, Apr 6, 2008.

  1. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    6 April 1947 – The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievement.

    Tony Award

    The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre,[1] more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League[2] at an annual ceremony in New York City. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are also given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award.[3] The awards are named after Antoinette "Tony" Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing.

    The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only.[4] The Tony Awards are considered the highest U.S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards (Oscars) for film, the Emmy Awards for television, and the Grammy Awards for music. It also forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is, someone who has won all four awards. The Tony Awards are also considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France.

    From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre.[5] In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre.[6] From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, and 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall.[7] The 70th Tony Awards was held on June 12, 2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards and 72nd Tony Awards were held at Radio City Music Hall in 2017 and 2018, respectively.[8]

    1. ^ American Theatre Wing. "2014 Rules for use of Tony Awards trademarks" tonyawards.com, Apr 8, 2017
    2. ^ Gans, Andrew (December 18, 2007). "League of American Theatres and Producers Announces Name Change" Archived December 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013. The League of American Theatres and Producers was renamed "The Broadway League".
    3. ^ Staff (undated). "Who's Who". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    4. ^ "Tony Awards Rules and Regulations for 2013–14 season" tonyawards.com, accessed June 12, 2014
    5. ^ Lefkowitz, David and Simonson, Robert. " 'Fosse', 'Annie', 'Salesman' & 'Side Man' Win Top Tonys" Archived November 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. playbill.com, June 7, 1999
    6. ^ Gans, Andrew (April 18, 2011). "No Tickets Will Be Available to General Public for 2011 Tony Awards" Archived May 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    7. ^ Purcell, Carey (June 9, 2013). Kinky Boots, Vanya and Sonia, Pippin and Virginia Woolf? Are Big Winners at 67th Annual Tony Awards" Archived June 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
    8. ^ McPhee, Ryan (April 18, 2017). "Kevin Spacey Will Host the 2017 Tony Awards". Playbill. 
  2. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    7 April 1906Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.

    Mount Vesuvius

    Mount Vesuvius ( /vɪˈsviəs/; Italian: Monte Vesuvio [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo]; Neapolitan: Vesuvio; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources)[1] is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

    Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the burying and destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km (21 mi), spewing molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres (7.8×105 cu yd) per second,[2] ultimately releasing a hundred thousand times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings.[3] More than 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus.[4]

    Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living nearby, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type.[5]

    1. ^ http://latinlexicon.org/definition.php?p1=2062800
    2. ^ Woods, Andrew W. (2013). "Sustained explosive activity: volcanic eruption columns and hawaiian fountains". In Fagents, Sarah A.; Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.(editors). Modeling Volcanic Processes: The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0521895439. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference sciencepompeii was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference epistularum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ McGuire, Bill (October 16, 2003). "In the shadow of the volcano". The Guardian. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  3. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    8 April 1964 – The Gemini 1 test flight is conducted.

    Gemini 1

    Gemini 1 was the first unmanned test flight of the Gemini spacecraft in NASA's Gemini program.[3] Its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II launch vehicle. It was also the first test of the new tracking and communication systems for the Gemini program and provided training for the ground support crews for the first manned missions.[4]

    Gemini 1 was launched from Launch Complex 19 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on April 8, 1964. The spacecraft stayed attached to the second stage of the rocket. The mission lasted for three orbits while test data were taken, but the spacecraft stayed in orbit for almost 64 orbits until the orbit decayed due to atmospheric drag. The spacecraft was not intended to be recovered; in fact, holes were drilled through its heat shield to ensure it would not survive re-entry.

    1. ^ Hacker, Barton C.; Grimwood, James M. (February 2003) [First published 1977]. "Table of Contents". On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. NASA SP-4203. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
    2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014. 
    3. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-06-28. 
    4. ^ "Gunters Space Page". Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  4. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    9 April 2003Iraq War: Baghdad falls to American forces.

    Battle of Baghdad (2003)

    The Battle of Baghdad, also known as the Fall of Baghdad, was a military invasion of Baghdad that took place in early April 2003, as part of the invasion of Iraq.

    Three weeks into the invasion of Iraq, Coalition Forces Land Component Command elements, led by the U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division moved into Baghdad. The United States declared victory on April 14, and President George W. Bush gave his Mission Accomplished Speech on May 1.

    Baghdad suffered serious damage to its civilian infrastructure, economy, and cultural inheritance from the fighting, as well as looting and arson. During the invasion, the Al-Yarmouk Hospital in south Baghdad saw a steady rate of about 100 new patients an hour.[7]

    Several thousand Iraqi soldiers as well as a small number of coalition forces were killed in the battle.

    After the fall of Baghdad, Coalition forces entered the city of Kirkuk on April 10 and Tikrit on April 15, 2003.

    1. ^ Woods, Kevin M. (2009). Iraqi Perspectives Project: A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam's Senior Leadership (PDF). p. 145; 210. ISBN 0-9762550-1-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2010. 
    2. ^ "Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War". www.comw.org. 
    3. ^ Iraqi Death Toll, Health Perils Assessed by Medical Group Archived June 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ Iraq Coalition Casualties: Military Fatalities Archived March 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
    5. ^ "On April 4, 5th RCT ran into several hundred fedayeen from Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and other parts of the Middle East and Africa. The result was wholesale slaughter, but the cost was considerable: two Abrams tanks were destroyed by the attackers, while numerous vehicles sustained damage from RPG fire. The marines killed a senior general from the Republican Guard ... In addition, marine tankers destroyed twelve to fifteen T-72s and T-55s as well as numerous 37mm anti-aircraft guns, which the Iraqis attempted to use against advancing marines." The Iraq War, Wiiliamson Murray, Robert Scales, p.225, Harvard University Press, 2005
    6. ^ Myers, Steven Lee (April 7, 2003). "Iraqi Missile Hits Army Base" – via NYTimes.com. 
    7. ^ Cite error: The named reference usa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    10 April 1970Paul McCartney announces that he is leaving The Beatles for personal and professional reasons.

    Paul McCartney

    Sir James Paul McCartney CH MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer. He gained worldwide fame as the bass guitarist and singer for the rock band the Beatles, widely considered the most popular and influential group in the history of pop music. His songwriting partnership with John Lennon was the most successful of the post-war era.[2] After the group disbanded in 1970, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife, Linda, and Denny Laine.

    McCartney is one of the most successful composers and performers of all time. More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song "Yesterday", making it one of the most covered songs in popular music history. Wings' 1977 release "Mull of Kintyre" is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK. A two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (as a member of the Beatles in 1988, and as a solo artist in 1999), and an 18-time Grammy Award winner, McCartney has written, or co-written, 32 songs that have reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100, and as of 2009 he had 25.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr all received appointment as Members of the Order of the British Empire in 1965 and, in 1997, McCartney was knighted for services to music. McCartney is also one of the wealthiest musicians in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$1.2 billion.

    McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music. He has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to such subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, vegetarianism, poverty, and music education. He has married three times and is the father of five children.

    1. ^ "Paul McCartney". Front Row. 26 December 2012. BBC Radio 4. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
    2. ^ Newman, Jason (23 August 2011). "It Takes Two: 10 Songwriting Duos That Rocked Music History". billboard.com. Retrieved 5 October 2017. By any measure, no one comes close to matching the success of The Beatles' primary songwriters. 
  6. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    11 April 1970Apollo 13 is launched.

    Apollo 13

    Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 14:13 EST (19:13 UTC) from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module (SM) upon which the Command Module (CM) had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17, 1970, six days after launch.

    The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. "Jack" Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original CM pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.

    The story of the Apollo 13 mission has been dramatized multiple times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13.

    1. ^ Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
  7. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    12 April 1831 – Soldiers marching on the Broughton Suspension Bridge in Manchester, England cause it to collapse.

    Broughton Suspension Bridge

    Broughton Suspension Bridge was an iron chain suspension bridge built in 1826 to span the River Irwell between Broughton and Pendleton, now in Salford, Greater Manchester, England. One of Europe's first suspension bridges, it has been attributed to Samuel Brown, though some suggest it was built by Thomas Cheek Hewes, a Manchester millwright and textile machinery manufacturer.[1][2]

    On 12 April 1831, the bridge collapsed, reportedly due to mechanical resonance induced by troops marching in step.[3] As a result of the incident, the British Army issued an order that troops should "break step" when crossing a bridge. Though rebuilt and strengthened, the bridge was subsequently propped with temporary piles whenever crowds were expected. In 1924 it was replaced by a Pratt truss footbridge, still in use.

    1. ^ "Broughton Suspension Bridge". Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
    2. ^ Skempton, A. W.; Chrimes (2002). A biographical dictionary of civil engineers in Great Britain and Ireland. M (Illustrated ed.). Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-7277-2939-2. 
    3. ^ Bishop, R.E.D. (1979). Vibration (Second ed.). Cambridge University Press, London. 
  8. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 April 1870 – The New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded.

    Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met",[a] is the largest art museum in the United States. With 7.06 million visitors in 2016, it was the third most visited art museum in the world, and the fifth most visited museum of any kind.[8] Its permanent collection contains over two million works,[9] divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.

    The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries.

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

    1. ^ "Today in Met History: April 13". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 2015-01-17. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 
    2. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art: About". Artinfo. 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Met History was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ The Art Newspaper Review, April 2018
    5. ^ National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
    6. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
    7. ^ "A New Strategy at The Met". Archived from the original on 2017-03-22. Retrieved 2017-03-22. 
    8. ^ "The World's 20 most popular museums", CNN.com, 22 June 2017
    9. ^ "Metropolitan Museum Launches New and Expanded Web Site" Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine., press release, The Met, January 25, 2000

    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  9. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 April 1881 – The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight is fought in El Paso, Texas.

    Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight

    The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight was a famous gun fight that occurred on April 14, 1881, on El Paso Street, in El Paso, Texas. Witnesses generally agreed that the incident lasted no more than five seconds after the first gunshot, though a few would insist it was at least ten seconds. Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire accounted for three of the four fatalities with his twin .44 caliber Smith & Wesson revolvers.

  10. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 April 1945Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated.

    Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

    Bergen-Belsen [ˈbɛʁɡn̩.bɛlsn̩], or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp,[1] in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp. Initially this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas.[2] The camp was later expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps.

    After 1945 the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, but it is most commonly associated with the concentration camp. From 1941 to 1945, almost 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there.[3] Overcrowding, lack of food and poor sanitary conditions caused outbreaks of typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever and dysentery, leading to the deaths of more than 35,000 people in the first few months of 1945, shortly before and after the liberation.

    The camp was liberated on April 15, 1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division.[4] The soldiers discovered approximately 60,000 prisoners inside, most of them half-starved and seriously ill,[5] and another 13,000 corpses, including those of Anne and Margot Frank, lying around the camp unburied.[4] The horrors of the camp, documented on film and in pictures, made the name "Belsen" emblematic of Nazi crimes in general for public opinion in many countries in the immediate post-1945 period. Today, there is a memorial with an exhibition hall at the site.

    1. ^ "Belsen Military Camp". Archived from the original on March 29, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
    2. ^ Shephard, Ben (2006). After daybreak : the liberation of Belsen, 1945. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-1844135400. 
    3. ^ Oppenheimer, Paul (1996). From Belsen to Buckingham Palace. Nottingham: Quill Press. ISBN 0-9536280-3-5. 
    4. ^ a b "The 11th Armoured Division (Great Britain)", United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
    5. ^ "Bergen-Belsen". www.ushmm.org. 
  11. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    16 April 1941World War II: The Italian-German Tarigo convoy is attacked and destroyed by British ships.

    Battle of the Tarigo Convoy

    The Battle of the Tarigo Convoy (sometimes referred to as the Action off Sfax) was a naval battle of World War II, part of the Battle of the Mediterranean. It was fought on 16 April 1941, between four British and three Italian destroyers, near the Kerkennah Islands off Sfax, in the Tunisian coast. The battle was named after the Italian flagship, the destroyer Luca Tarigo.

    Control of the sea between Italy and Libya was heavily disputed as both sides sought to safeguard their own convoys while interdicting those of their opponent. Axis convoys to North Africa supplied the German and Italian armies there, and British attacks were based on Malta, itself dependent upon convoys.

  12. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    17 April 1961Bay of Pigs Invasion: A group of Cuban exiles financed and trained by the CIA lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also some US military personnel[6]), trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Castro.

    The coup of 1952 led by General Fulgencio Batista, an ally of the United States, against President Carlos Prio, forced Prio into exile to Miami, Florida. Prio's exile was the reason for the 26th July Movement led by Castro. The movement, which did not succeed until after the Cuban Revolution of 31 December 1958, severed the country's formerly strong links with the US after nationalizing American economic assets (banks, oil refineries, sugar and coffee plantations, along with other American owned businesses).

    It was after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, that Castro forged strong economic links with the Soviet Union, with which, at the time, the United States was engaged in the Cold War. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was very concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960 he allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow. The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counter-revolutionary forces, training Brigade 2506 in Guatemala. Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy, approved the final invasion plan on 4 April 1961.

    Over 1,400 paramilitaries, divided into five infantry battalions and one paratrooper battalion, assembled in Guatemala before setting out for Cuba by boat on 13 April 1961. Two days later, on 15 April, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields and then returned to the US. On the night of 16 April, the main invasion landed at a beach named Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs. It initially overwhelmed a local revolutionary militia. The Cuban Army's counter-offensive was led by José Ramón Fernández, before Castro decided to take personal control of the operation. As the US involvement became apparent to the world, and with the initiative turning against the invasion, Kennedy decided against providing further air cover.[7] As a result, the operation only had half the forces the CIA had deemed necessary. The original plan devised during Eisenhower's presidency had required both air and naval support. On 20 April, the invaders surrendered after only three days, with the majority being publicly interrogated and put into Cuban prisons.

    The failed invasion helped to strengthen the position of Castro's leadership, made him a national hero, and entrenched the rocky relationship between the former allies. It also strengthened the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union. This eventually led to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The invasion was a major failure for US foreign policy; Kennedy ordered a number of internal investigations across Latin America.

    1. ^ Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70. "Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba's armed forces, a share of credit for the victory".
    2. ^ Szulc (1986), p. 450. "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the Central Intelligence Agency's; because the revolutionary morale was high; and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training program and Fernández as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
    3. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference szulc1986 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ a b FRUS X, documents 19, 24, 35, 245, 271.
    5. ^ Quesada 2009, p. 46.
    6. ^ "Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Alabama Air National Guard | Encyclopedia of Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2017-11-20. 
    7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  13. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    18 April 1909Joan of Arc is beatified in Rome.

    Joan of Arc

    Warning: Page using Template:Infobox saint with unknown parameter "parents" (this message is shown only in preview).

    Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc; [ʒan daʁk]; 6 January c. 1412 – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (French: La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory.

    On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English. She was later handed over to the English[7] and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.[8] After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.[9]

    In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr.[9] In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte.[10] She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.

    Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, playwrights, filmmakers, artists, and composers have created, and continue to create, cultural depictions of her.

    1. ^ Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490, dated to the second half of the 15th century. "The later, fifteenth-century manuscript of Charles, Duke of Orléans, contains a miniature of Joan in armour; the face has certain characteristic features known from her contemporaries' descriptions, and the artist may have worked from indications by someone who had known her." Joan M. Edmunds, The Mission of Joan of Arc (2008), p. 40.
    2. ^ Her name was written in a variety of ways, particularly prior to the mid-19th century. See Pernoud and Clin, pp. 220–221. Her signature appears as "Jehanne" (see www.stjoan-center.com/Album/, parts 47 and 49; it is also noted in Pernoud and Clin).
    3. ^ Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January").
    4. ^ An exact date of birth (6 January 1412) is uniquely indicated by Perceval de Boulainvilliers, councillor of king Charles VII, in a letter to the duke of Milan. Régine Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January". However, Marius Sepet has alleged that Boulainvilliers' letter is mythographic and therefore unreliable in his opinion (Marius Sepet, "Observations critiques sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc. La lettre de Perceval de Boulainvilliers", in Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, n°77, 1916, pp. 439–447, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k12454p/f439.image ; Gerd Krumeich, "La date de la naissance de Jeanne d'Arc", in De Domremy ... à Tokyo: Jeanne d'Arc et la Lorraine, 2013, pp. 21–31.)
    5. ^ "Chemainus Theatre Festival – The 2008 Season – Saint Joan – Joan of Arc Historical Timeline". Chemainustheatrefestival.ca. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
    6. ^ "Holy Days". 
    7. ^ Le Procès de Jeanne d'Arc, in Série "Les grands procès de l'histoire", Ministère de la Justice (France), 6 July 2012: http://www.justice.gouv.fr/histoire-et-patrimoine-10050/proces-historiques-10411/le-proces-de-jeanne-darc-24376.html
    8. ^ Régine Pernoud, "Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses", pp. 179, 220–222
    9. ^ a b Andrew Ward (2005) Joan of Arc on IMDb
    10. ^ Dirk Arend Berents, D. E. H. de Boer, Marina Warner (1994). Joan of Arc: Reality and Myth. Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 8. ISBN 90-6550-412-5. 
  14. Admin2

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    19 April 1971 – Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.

    Salyut 1

    Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Russian: Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971. The Salyut program followed this with five more successful launches out of seven more stations. The final module of the program, Zvezda (DOS-8) became the core of the Russian segment of the International Space Station and remains in orbit.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nasa 1971-032A was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. Admin2

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    20 April 1946 – The League of Nations officially dissolves, giving most of its power to the United Nations.

    League of Nations

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    The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations [la sɔsjete de nɑsjɔ̃] abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.[1] Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.[2] Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.[3] At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.

    The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious Great Powers of World War I (France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Japan were the permanent members of the executive Council) to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. The Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."[4]

    After some notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never officially joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and only briefly.[5][6][7][8] Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy, Spain and others. The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.

    1. ^ Christian, Tomuschat (1995). The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 77. ISBN 9789041101457. 
    2. ^ "Covenant of the League of Nations". The Avalon Project. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
    3. ^ See Article 23, "Covenant of the League of Nations". , "Treaty of Versailles".  and Minority Rights Treaties.
    4. ^ Jahanpour, Farhang. "The Elusiveness of Trust: the experience of Security Council and Iran" (PDF). Transnational Foundation of Peace and Future Research. p. 2. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
    5. ^ Osakwe, C O (1972). The participation of the Soviet Union in universal international organizations.: A political and legal analysis of Soviet strategies and aspirations inside ILO, UNESCO and WHO. Springer. p. 5. 
    6. ^ Pericles, Lewis (2000). Modernism, Nationalism, and the Novel. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. 
    7. ^ Ginneken, Anique H. M. van (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. Scarecrow Press. p. 174. 
    8. ^ Ellis, Charles Howard (2003). The Origin, Structure & Working of the League of Nations. Lawbook Exchange Ltd. p. 169. 
  16. Admin2

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    21 April 1977Annie opens on Broadway.

    Annie (musical)

    Annie is a Broadway musical based upon the popular Harold Gray comic strip Little Orphan Annie, with music by Charles Strouse, lyrics by Martin Charnin, and book by Thomas Meehan. The original Broadway production opened in 1977 and ran for nearly six years, setting a record for the Alvin Theatre (now the Neil Simon Theatre).[1] It spawned numerous productions in many countries, as well as national tours, and won the Tony Award for Best Musical. The musical's songs "Tomorrow" and "It's the Hard Knock Life" are among its most popular musical numbers.

    1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Morrison was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. Admin2

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    22 April 2005 – Japan's Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi apologizes for Japan's war record.

    List of war apology statements issued by Japan

    This is a list of war apology statements issued by the state of Japan with regard to the war crimes committed by the Empire of Japan during World War II. The statements were made on and after the end of World War II in Asia, from the 1950s to the 2010s. There is an ongoing controversy regarding the way these statements are categorized, that being the question whether they are formal apologies or general statements of remorse, each of which carry a different level of responsibility and recognition.

  18. Admin2

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    23 April 1985Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than three months.

    New Coke

    New Coke was the unofficial name for the reformulation of Coca-Cola introduced in April 1985 by the Coca-Cola Company to replace the original formula of its flagship soft drink Coca-Cola (also called Coke). In 1992, it was named Coke II.[1]

    By 1985, Coca-Cola had been losing market share to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Consumers who were purchasing regular colas seemed to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, as Coca-Cola learned in conducting blind taste tests. However, the American public's reaction to the change was negative, even hostile, and the "New Coke" was considered a major failure. The company reintroduced Coke's original formula within three months of New Coke's debut, rebranded as "Coca-Cola Classic", and this resulted in a significant gain in sales. This led to speculation by some that the introduction of the New Coke formula was just a marketing ploy to stimulate sales of original Coca-Cola; however, the company has maintained that it was a genuine attempt to replace the original product.[2]

    Coke II was discontinued in July 2002. It remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering with a well-established and successful brand.

    1. ^ Jamieson, Sean (April 5, 1990). "Coke II makes its Spokane debut". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. A8. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Snopes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. Admin2

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    24 April 1993 – An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.

    1993 Bishopsgate bombing

    The Bishopsgate bombing occurred on 24 April 1993, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a powerful truck bomb on Bishopsgate, a major thoroughfare in London's financial district, the City of London. Telephoned warnings were sent about an hour beforehand, but a news photographer was killed in the blast and 44 people were injured, with fatalities minimised due to it occurring on a Saturday. The blast destroyed the nearby St Ethelburga's church and wrecked Liverpool Street station and the NatWest Tower.[1][2] The financial cost was severe, estimated at the time to be over £1 billion of damage (about £2 billion in 2018), making it the costliest terrorist attack at the time (since surpassed by the September 11 attacks).[3]

    As a result of the bombing, which happened just over a year after the bombing of the nearby Baltic Exchange, a "ring of steel" was implemented to protect the City, and many firms introduced disaster recovery plans in case of further attacks or similar disasters. £350 million was spent on repairing damage. In 1994 detectives believed they knew the identities of the IRA bombers, but lacked sufficient evidence to arrest them.[4]

  20. Admin2

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    25 April 1916Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at ANZAC Cove.

    Anzac Day

    Anzac Day (/ˈænzæk/) is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".[1][2]

    Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Anzac Day is also observed in the Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, and Tonga, and previously was a national holiday in Papua New Guinea and Samoa.[3][4]

    1. ^ "ANZAC Day". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
    2. ^ "Anzac Day Today". Anzac.govt.nz. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
    3. ^ Qpp Studio [1][permanent dead link] Retrieved on 25 April 2014
    4. ^ Air New Zealand International, Samoa to commemorate ANZAC day without a public holiday, 25 April 2008 Archived 14 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. Admin2

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    26 April 1964Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to form Tanzania.


    Coordinates: 6°18′25″S 34°51′14″E / 6.307°S 34.854°E / -6.307; 34.854

    Tanzania (/ˌtænzəˈnə/),[13] officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south; and the Indian Ocean to the east. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.

    Some prehistoric population migrations into Tanzania include Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia;[14] Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago;[14] and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.[14]:page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.[14][15]

    European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.[16]

    The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.[7] The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located.[17] Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre.[16][18][19] Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power.

    Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa.[20] The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.

    Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[21] The country does not have a de jure official language,[citation needed] although the national language is Swahili.[22] Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education,[21] although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether.[23] Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.[21]

    1. ^ "Tanzania". Ethnologue. SL International. 
    2. ^ CIA World Factbook 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
    3. ^ David Lawrence (2009). Tanzania: The Land, Its People and Contemporary Life. Intercontinental Books. p. 146. ISBN 978-9987-9308-3-8. 
    4. ^ "About the United Republic of Tanzania". Permanent Representative of Tanzania to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
    5. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978)
    6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference BFF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    7. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
    8. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2012 census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    9. ^ a b c d Tanzania. IMF.org
    10. ^ "GINI Index". The World Bank. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
    11. ^ "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018. 
    12. ^ "UPDATE 2-Tanzania's GDP expands by 32 pct after rebasing – officials". Reuters. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
    13. ^ "Tanzania | Define Tanzania at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
      This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation [tanzaˈni.a]. However, /tænˈzeɪniə/ is also heard in English.
    14. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference Genetics was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    15. ^ Christopher Ehret (2001). An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400. University Press of Virginia. ISBN 978-0-8139-2057-3. 
    16. ^ a b Central Intelligence Agency. "Tanzania". The World Factbook. 
    17. ^ Aloysius C. Mosha. "The planning of the new capital of Tanzania: Dodoma, an unfulfilled dream" (PDF). University of Botswana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
    18. ^ "The Tanzania National Website: Country Profile". Tanzania.go.tz. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
    19. ^ "Dar es Salaam Port". Tanzaniaports.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
    20. ^ "Kalambo Falls". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    21. ^ a b c Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1967. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1. 
    22. ^ "Tanzania Profile". Tanzania.go.tz. Tanzanian Government. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
    23. ^ "Tanzania Ditches English In Education Overhaul Plan". AFK Insider. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 

    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

  22. Admin2

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    27 April 1941World War II: German troops enter Athens.

    Axis occupation of Greece

    The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Greek: Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Allied Greece since October 1940. Following the conquest of Crete, all of Greece was occupied by June 1941. The occupation in the mainland lasted until Germany and its ally Bulgaria were forced to withdraw under Allied pressure in early October 1944. However, German garrisons remained in control of Crete and some other Aegean islands until after the end of World War II in Europe, surrendering these islands in May and June 1945.

    Fascist Italy had initially declared war and invaded Greece in October 1940, but the Hellenic Army initially managed to push back the invading forces into neighboring Albania, then an Italian protectorate. Nazi Germany intervened on its ally's behalf in southern Europe. While most of the Hellenic Army was dislocated on the Albanian front to fend off the relentless Italian counter-attacks, a rapid German Blitzkrieg campaign commenced in April 1941, and by June (with the conquest of Crete) Greece was defeated and occupied. As result, the Greek government went into exile, and an Axis collaborationist puppet government was established in the country. Furthermore, Greece's territory was divided into occupation zones run by the Axis powers, with the Germans proceeding to administer the most important regions of the country themselves, including Athens, Thessaloniki and the most strategic Aegean Islands. Other regions of the country were given to Germany's partners, Italy and Bulgaria.

    The occupation ruined the Greek economy and brought about terrible hardships for the Greek civilian population.[1] Much of Greece was subjected to enormous destruction of its industry (80% of which was destroyed), infrastructure (28% destroyed), ports, roads, railways and bridges (90%), forests and other natural resources (25%)[2][3][4] and loss of civilian life (7.02% – 11.17% of its citizens).[5][6] Over 40,000 civilians died in Athens alone from starvation, tens of thousands more died because of reprisals by Nazis and collaborators.[7]

    The Jewish population of Greece was nearly eradicated. Of its pre-war population of 75-77,000, only around 11-12,000 survived, either by joining the resistance or being hidden.[8] Most of those who died were deported to Auschwitz, while those in Thrace, under Bulgarian occupation, were sent to Treblinka. The Italians did not deport Jews living in territory they controlled, but when the Germans took over, Jews living there were also deported.

    At the same time the Greek Resistance, one of the most effective resistance movements in Occupied Europe,[citation needed] was formed. These resistance groups launched guerrilla attacks against the occupying powers, fought against the collaborationist Security Battalions, and set up large espionage networks. By late 1943 the resistance groups began to fight amongst themselves. When liberation of the mainland came in October 1944, Greece was in a state of extreme political polarization, which soon led to the outbreak of civil war. The subsequent civil war gave the opportunity to many prominent Nazi collaborators not only to escape punishment (because of their anti-communism), but to eventually become the ruling class of postwar Greece, after the communist defeat.[9][10]

    The Greek government claimed in 2014 that the Greek Resistance killed 21,087 Axis soldiers (17,536 Germans, 2,739 Italians, 1,532 Bulgarians) and captured 6,463 (2,102 Germans, 2,109 Italians, 2,252 Bulgarians), for the death of 20,650 Greek partisans and an unknown number captured.[11]

    1. ^ Martin Seckendorf; Günter Keber; u.a.; Bundesarchiv (Hrsg.): Die Okkupationspolitik des deutschen Faschismus in Jugoslawien, Griechenland, Albanien, Italien und Ungarn (1941–1945) Hüthig, Berlin 1992; Decker/ Müller, Heidelberg 2000. Reihe: Europa unterm Hakenkreuz Band 6, ISBN 3-8226-1892-6
    2. ^ http://www.truth-out.org/speakout/item/24456-the-math-of-mass-starvation-and-murder-germany-in-greece-during-world-war-ii
    3. ^ http://news247.gr/eidiseis/afieromata/ta-ereipia-ths-germanikhs-katoxhs-sthn-ellada.1425953.html
    4. ^ http://www.newsbeast.gr/greece/arthro/796214/oi-megales-katastrofes-kai-to-germaniko-hreos-stin-ellada-mesa-apo-dokoumeda
    5. ^ "Council for Reparations from Germany, Black Book of the Occupation(In Greek and German) Athens 2006 p. 1018–1019" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
    6. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 89-91
    7. ^ Mazower (2001), p. 155
    8. ^ Munoz, Antonio J. The German Secret Field Police in Greece, 1941–44, Jefferson: MacFarland & Company, Inc., 2018 pages 95.
    9. ^ Giannis Katris, The Birth of Neofascism in Greece, 1971
    10. ^ Andreas Papandreou, Democracy at Gunpoint (Η Δημοκρατία στο απόσπασμα)
    11. ^ "Council for Reparations from Germany, Black Book of the Occupation (in Greek and German), Athens 2006, p. 125-126" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  23. Admin2

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    28 April 1923 – Wembley Stadium is opened, named initially as the Empire Stadium.

    Wembley Stadium (1923)

    The original Wembley Stadium (/ˈwɛmbli/; formerly known as the Empire Stadium) was a football stadium in Wembley Park, London, which stood on the same site now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium.

    The demolition in 2003 of its famous twin towers upset many people worldwide.[1] Debris from the stadium was used to make the Northala Fields in Northolt, London.

    Wembley hosted the FA Cup final annually, League Cup and Challenge Cup finals annually, five European Cup finals, the 1948 Summer Olympics, the 1966 World Cup Final, the final of Euro 96, and the 1992 and 1995 Rugby League World Cup Finals. Brazilian footballer Pelé once said of the stadium: "Wembley is the cathedral of football. It is the capital of football and it is the heart of football,"[2] in recognition of its status as the world's best-known football stadium. It also hosted numerous music events, including the 1985 Live Aid charity concert.

    1. ^ Campbell, Denis (13 June 1999). "Foster topples the Wembley towers". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
      "Wembley loses twin towers". BBC News. 29 July 1999. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
      "The road to Wembley". The Daily Telegraph. 25 September 2002. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
    2. ^ [dead link] Mayor of London – Case for Wembley Stadium Archived 30 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. Admin2

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    29 April 1945 – World War II: The German army in Italy surrenders to the Allies.

    Operation Sunrise (World War II)

    SS General Karl Wolff's Proxy of Surrender for northern Italy, May 2, 1945

    Operation Sunrise, or the Bern incident, refers to a series of secret negotiations from February to May 1945 between representatives of Nazi Germany and the Western Allies of World War II to arrange a local surrender of German forces in northern Italy.[1] Most of the meetings took place in the vicinity of Bern, Switzerland, and the lead negotiators were Waffen-SS General Karl Wolff and American agent Allen Dulles. The meetings provoked Soviet suspicion that the Americans were seeking to sign a separate peace with the Germans and led to heated correspondence between Joseph Stalin and Franklin Roosevelt, an early episode of the emerging Cold War.[2]

    Roosevelt denied that there were any negotiations for surrender taking place in Switzerland. Dulles, however, appears to have made a verbal agreement to protect SS General Wolff from prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials as they worked out details of surrender.[3] Although Switzerland was neutral during World War II, the Swiss intelligence officer Max Waibel and the school director Max Husmann arranged for the meetings.[4] Prime Minister Winston Churchill was following the discussion closely, and said he believed that "misunderstandings" with the Soviets were resolved with Roosevelt's death on April 13. Churchill referred to the negotiations as Operation Crossword, apparently because he found them puzzling.[5][6] In spite of warnings from other officials that he was violating the Casablanca agreement that called for all dealings with Axis members to be on terms of unconditional surrender, Dulles worked supportively with Wolff, determined to end the war before the communists reached Trieste.[7]

    President Harry Truman officially closed down talks with the Germans in Switzerland, and made sure that a Russian general was represented at the talks in Caserta, Italy that finalized the surrender of the entire force.[8] Nonetheless, fallout from the incident seems to have discouraged full Soviet participation in the founding United Nations conference later that month.[9]

    1. ^ Zabecki, David T.; "Dulles, Allen Welsh" (May 2015). World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781135812423. 
    2. ^ Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (2013-05-13). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 1135923116. 
    3. ^ K., von Lingen,. "Conspiracy of Silence: How the "Old Boys" of American Intelligence Shielded SS General Karl Wolff from Prosecution". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 22 (1). ISSN 1476-7937. 
    4. ^ Lingen, Kerstin von (2013-09-30). Allen Dulles, the OSS, and Nazi War Criminals: The Dynamics of Selective Prosecution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–80. ISBN 9781107025936. 
    5. ^ Waller, Douglas (2016-10-25). Disciples: The World War II Missions of the CIA Directors Who Fought for Wild Bill Donovan. Simon and Schuster. p. 333. ISBN 9781451693744. 
    6. ^ Martin Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, Volume 7: Road to Victory, 1941–1945 (1986) ch 65
    7. ^ Lingen, Kerstin von (2013-09-30). Allen Dulles, the OSS, and Nazi War Criminals: The Dynamics of Selective Prosecution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–80. ISBN 9781107025936. 
    8. ^ Stephen P. Halbrook, "Operation Sunrise: America’s OSS, Swiss Intelligence, and the German Surrender 1945," (2006) online
    9. ^ Randell, Sara B. (2018). Ending the war - Operation Sunrise and Max Husmann. Stämpfli Verlag. ISBN 9783727260148. 
  25. Admin2

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    30 April 1905Albert Einstein completes his doctoral thesis at the University of Zurich.

    Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein (/ˈnstn/;[4] German: [ˈalbɛɐ̯t ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn] (About this sound listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist[5] who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[3][6]:274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[7][8] He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".[9] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[10] a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

    Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern (1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and he published a paper on general relativity in 1916 with his theory of gravitation. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.[11][12]

    Einstein lived in Switzerland between 1895 and 1914, except for one year in Prague, and he received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) in Zürich in 1900. He acquired Swiss citizenship in 1901, which he kept for the rest of his life after being stateless for more than five years. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. The same year, he published four groundbreaking papers during his renowned annus mirabilis (miracle year) which brought him to the notice of the academic world at the age of 26. Einstein taught theoretical physics at Zurich between 1912 and 1914 before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

    In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany.[13] He settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940.[14] On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the US begin similar research. This eventually led to the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported the Allied forces, but he generally denounced the idea of using nuclear fission as a weapon. He signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

    Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers and more than 150 non-scientific works.[11][15] His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius".[16] Eugene Wigner wrote of Einstein in comparison to his contemporaries that "Einstein's understanding was deeper even than Jancsi von Neumann's. His mind was both more penetrating and more original than von Neumann's. And that is a very remarkable statement."[17]

    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Heilbron, John L., ed. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Oxford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-19-974376-6. 
    2. ^ Pais (1982), p. 301.
    3. ^ a b c Whittaker, E. (1 November 1955). "Albert Einstein. 1879–1955". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 37–67. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005Freely accessible. JSTOR 769242. 
    4. ^ Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0. 
    5. ^ "Albert Einstein – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2007. 
    6. ^ Fujia Yang; Joseph H. Hamilton (2010). Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4277-16-7. 
    7. ^ Howard, Don A., ed. (2014) [First published 11 February 2004]. "Einstein's Philosophy of Science". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University. Retrieved 2015-02-04. 
    8. ^ Howard, Don A. (December 2005). "Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science" (PDF). Physics Today. 58 (12): 34–40. Bibcode:2005PhT....58l..34H. doi:10.1063/1.2169442. Retrieved 2015-03-08 – via University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage. 
    9. ^ Bodanis, David (2000). E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation. New York: Walker. 
    10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Nobel Prize was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    11. ^ a b "Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe" (PDF). Nobel Media AB. p. 2. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
    12. ^ Overbye, Dennis (24 November 2015). "A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
    13. ^ Levenson, Thomas (9 June 2017). "The Scientist and the Fascist". The Atlantic. 
    14. ^ Paul S. Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky (2001). The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-19-508209-8. 
    15. ^ Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed. (1951). Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. II. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition). pp. 730–746. . His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
    16. ^ "Result of WordNet Search for Einstein". 3.1. The Trustees of Princeton University. Retrieved 2015-01-04. 
    17. ^ The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner, By Eugene Paul Wigner, Andrew Szanton, (Springer, 11 Nov 2013), page 170
  26. NewsBot

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    1 May 1931 – The Empire State Building is dedicated in New York City.

    Empire State Building

    The Empire State Building is a 102-story[b] Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931, the building has a roof height of 1,250 feet (380 m) and stands a total of 1,454 feet (443.2 m) tall, including its antenna. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of New York. As of 2017 the building is the 5th-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States and the 28th-tallest in the world. It is also the 6th-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas.

    The site of the Empire State Building, located on the west side of Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets, was originally part of an early 18th century farm. In the late 1820s, it came into the possession of the prominent Astor family, with John Jacob Astor's descendants building the Waldorf–Astoria Hotel on the site in the 1890s. By the 1920s, the family had sold the outdated hotel and the site indirectly ended up under the ownership of Empire State Inc., a business venture that included businessman John J. Raskob and former New York governor Al Smith. The original design of the Empire State Building was for a 50-story office building. However, after fifteen revisions, the final design was for a 86-story 1,250-foot building, with an airship mast on top. This ensured it would be the world's tallest building, beating the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street, two other Manhattan skyscrapers under construction at the time that were also vying for that distinction.

    Demolition of the Waldorf–Astoria began in October 1929, and the foundation of the Empire State Building was excavated before demolition was even complete. Construction on the building itself started on March 17, 1930, with an average construction rate of one floor per day. A well-coordinated schedule meant that the 86 stories were topped out on September 19, six months after construction started, and the mast was completed by November 21. From that point, interior work proceeded at a quick pace, and it was opened on May 1, 1931, thirteen and a half months after the first steel beam was erected. Despite the publicity surrounding the building's construction, its owners failed to make a profit until the early 1950s. However, it has been a popular tourist attraction since opening, with around 4 million visitors to the building's 86th and 102nd floor observatories every year.

    The Empire State Building stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years until the completion of the World Trade Center's North Tower in Lower Manhattan in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was again the tallest building in New York until the new One World Trade Center was completed in April 2012.

    The Empire State Building is an American cultural icon and has been featured in more than 250 TV shows and movies since the film King Kong was released in 1933. A symbol of New York City, the tower has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Empire State Building and its ground-floor interior have been designated as a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and were confirmed as such by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was also designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986, and was ranked number one on the American Institute of Architects' List of America's Favorite Architecture in 2007.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ Jackson 2010, p. 413.
    2. ^ Langmead 2009, p. 86.
    3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYTimes-Open-1931 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference cost was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
    5. ^ Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2018). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved January 5, 2018.  United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
    6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Empire State Building" The Skyscraper Center Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat website
    7. ^ a b c Emporis GmbH. "Empire State Building, New York City – 114095 – EMPORIS". emporis.com. 
    8. ^ a b "Empire State Building" SkyscraperPage
    9. ^ National Geodetic Survey datasheet KU3602. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
    10. ^ "Empire State Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 11, 2007. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011. 
    11. ^ National Park Service (January 23, 2007). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
    12. ^ William Branigin (August 24, 2012). "Gunman shoots former co-worker near Empire State Building, is shot by police". Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2013. The 103-floor Empire State Building draws 
    13. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYTimes-Perch-2011 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  27. Admin2

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    2 May 1986Chernobyl disaster: The City of Chernobyl is evacuated six days after the disaster.

    Chernobyl disaster

    Deceased Chernobyl liquidators portraits used for an anti-nuclear power protest in Geneva

    The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident. It occurred on 25–26 April 1986 in the No. 4 light water graphite moderated reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant near the now-abandoned town of Pripyat, in northern Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, approximately 104 km (65 mi) north of Kiev.[2]

    The event occurred during a late-night safety test which simulated a station blackout power-failure, in the course of which safety systems were intentionally turned off. A combination of inherent reactor design flaws and the reactor operators arranging the core in a manner contrary to the checklist for the test, eventually resulted in uncontrolled reaction conditions. Water flashed into steam generating a destructive steam explosion and a subsequent open-air graphite fire.[note 1] This fire produced considerable updrafts for about nine days. These lofted plumes of fission products into the atmosphere. The estimated radioactive inventory that was released during this very hot fire phase approximately equaled in magnitude the airborne fission products released in the initial destructive explosion.[3] This radioactive material precipitated onto parts of the western USSR and Europe.

    During the accident, steam-blast effects caused two deaths within the facility; one immediately after the explosion, and the other, compounded by a lethal dose of radiation. Over the coming days and weeks, 134 servicemen were hospitalized with acute radiation sickness (ARS), of which 28 firemen and employees died in the days-to-months afterward from the radiation effects.[4] In addition, approximately fourteen radiation induced cancer deaths among this group of 134 hospitalized survivors, were to follow within the next ten years (1996).[5] Among the wider population, an excess of 15 childhood thyroid cancer deaths were documented as of 2011.[1][6] It will take further time and investigation to definitively determine the elevated relative risk of cancer among the surviving employees, those that were initially hospitalized with ARS and the population at large.[7]

    The Chernobyl accident is considered the most disastrous nuclear power plant accident in history, both in terms of cost and casualties. It is one of only two nuclear energy accidents classified as a level 7 event (the maximum classification) on the International Nuclear Event Scale, the other being the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011.[8] The struggle to safeguard against scenarios which were perceived[3] as having the potential for greater catastrophe, together with later decontamination efforts of the surroundings, ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles.[9]

    The remains of the No. 4 reactor building were enclosed in a large cover which was named the "Object Shelter", often known as the sarcophagus. The purpose of the structure was to reduce the spread of the remaining radioactive dust and debris from the wreckage and the protection of the wreckage from further weathering. The sarcophagus was finished in December 1986 at a time when what was left of the reactor was entering the cold shut-down phase. The enclosure was not intended as a radiation shield, but was built quickly as occupational safety for the crews of the other undamaged reactors at the power station, with No. 3 continuing to produce electricity up into 2000.[10][11]

    The accident motivated safety upgrades on all remaining Soviet-designed reactors in the RBMK (Chernobyl No. 4) family, of which eleven continued to power electric grids as of 2013.[12][13]

    1. ^ a b "Chernobyl at 25th anniversary – Frequently Asked Questions – April 2011" (PDF). World Health Organisation. 23 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
    2. ^ "Nuclear Exclusion Zones". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2018. 
    3. ^ a b "Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact, 2002 update; Chapter II – The release, dispersion and deposition of radionuclides" (PDF). OECD-NEA. 2002. Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
    4. ^ Nuclear fallout medical effects. Mettler
    5. ^ 134 (237 were hospitalized) 28 died within 3 months 14 died within the subsequent 10 years (2 died of blood disease)
    6. ^ Chernobyl: the true scale of the accident, Joint News Release WHO/IAEA/UNDP, 5 September 2005
    7. ^ "Video: Ukraine remembers Chernobyl victims and heroes". European Press Agency. 30 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 
    8. ^ Black, Richard (12 April 2011). "Fukushima: As Bad as Chernobyl?". BBC. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
    9. ^ Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996), interview in Johnson, Thomas, The Battle of Chernobyl on YouTube, [film], Discovery Channel, retrieved 19 February 2014.
    10. ^ Chernobyl Gallery timeline
    11. ^ Чернобыль, Припять, Чернобыльская АЭС и зона отчуждения. ""Shelter" object description". Chornobyl.in.ua. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
    12. ^ http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/appendices/rbmk-reactors.aspx RBMK Reactors Appendix to Nuclear Power Reactors. WNA.2016
    13. ^ rbmk nuclear power plants: generic safety issues – IAEA 1996

    Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

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    3 May 1937Gone with the Wind, a novel by Margaret Mitchell, wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

    Gone with the Wind (novel)

    Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936. The story is set in Clayton County and Atlanta, both in Georgia, during the American Civil War and Reconstruction Era. It depicts the struggles of young Scarlett O'Hara, the spoiled daughter of a well-to-do plantation owner, who must use every means at her disposal to claw her way out of poverty following Sherman's destructive "March to the Sea". This historical novel features a Bildungsroman or coming-of-age story, with the title taken from a poem written by Ernest Dowson.[2]

    Gone with the Wind was popular with American readers from the outset and was the top American fiction bestseller in 1936 and 1937. As of 2014, a Harris poll found it to be the second favorite book of American readers, just behind the Bible. More than 30 million copies have been printed worldwide.

    Written from the perspective of the slaveholder, Gone with the Wind is Southern plantation fiction. Its portrayal of slavery and African Americans has been considered controversial, especially by succeeding generations, as well as its use of a racial epithet and ethnic slurs common to the period. However, the novel has become a reference point for subsequent writers of the South, both black and white. Scholars at American universities refer to, interpret, and study it in their writings. The novel has been absorbed into American popular culture.

    Mitchell received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for the book in 1937. It was adapted into a 1939 American film. Gone with the Wind is the only novel by Mitchell published during her lifetime.[3]

    Mitchell used color symbolism, especially the colors red and green, which frequently are associated with Scarlett O'Hara. Mitchell identified the primary theme as survival. She left the ending speculative for the reader. She was often asked what became of her lovers, Rhett and Scarlett. She replied, "For all I know, Rhett may have found someone else who was less difficult."[4] Two sequels authorized by Mitchell's estate were published more than a half century later. A parody was also produced.

    1. ^ About the Author
    2. ^ Margaret Mitchell, touched by the "far away, faintly sad sound I wanted" of the third stanza's first line, chose that line as the title of her novel Gone with the Wind. https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/SOURCE-of-the-TITLE-GWTW-Margaret-Mitchell-Gone-with-the-Wind
    3. ^ Obituary: Miss Mitchell, 49, Dead of Injuries (August 17, 1949) New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
    4. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated63 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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    4 May 1836 – Formation of Ancient Order of Hibernians

    Ancient Order of Hibernians

    The Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH) is an Irish Catholic fraternal organization. Members must be Catholic and either born in Ireland or of Irish descent. Its largest membership is now in the United States, where it was founded in New York City in 1836. Its name was adopted by groups of Irish immigrants in the United States,[1] its purpose to act as guards to protect Catholic churches from anti-Catholic forces in the mid-19th century, and to assist Irish Catholic immigrants, especially those who faced discrimination or harsh coal mining working conditions. Many members in the coal mining area of Pennsylvania had a background with the Molly Maguires. It became an important focus of Irish American political activity.[1]

    1. ^ a b Miller 1973, pp. 209–215.
  30. Admin2

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    5 May 1964 – The Council of Europe declares May 5 as Europe Day.

    Europe Day

    Europe Day is the name of two annual observance days, 5 May by the Council of Europe[1] and 9 May by the European Union which recognise the peace and prosperity within Europe both have achieved since their formation.

    The first recognition of a "Europe Day" was by the Council of Europe, introduced in 1964 and made a public holiday by Ukraine in 2003 held on the third Saturday of March.[2] The European Union later started to celebrate its own European Day [3] in commemoration of the 1950 Schuman Declaration, leading it to be referred to by some as 'Schuman Day'.[4] Both days are celebrated usually with the displaying of the "European flag".[5]

    1. ^ https://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/-/europe-d-1
    2. ^ Signifying Europe by Johan Fornäs, Intellect Ltd, 2012, ISBN 1841505218
      Police to strengthen maintenance of public order in Kyiv on May 18, Interfax-Ukraine (16 April 2013)
    3. ^ Nicole Scicluna, European Union Constitutionalism in Crisis, Routledge (2014), p. 56
    4. ^ Does the EU have a "National" Day? Archived 2009-05-04 at the Wayback Machine., European Commission Delegation to Ukraine.
    5. ^ Due to the objection against adopting symbols of statehood, the 1985 adoption of the "European flag" had only been possible by avoiding the official use of the term "flag", so that the "European flag" is still officially "a logo or emblem eligible to be reproduced on rectangular pieces of fabric". (Scicluna, 2014, p. 56) The proposal to officially adopt it as the flag of the EU was made in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (2004) which however failed to be ratified. Instead, the Treaty of Lisbon (2007) includes an annex signed by sixteen members which declares that the European flag, anthem, motto, currency, and Europe Day "will for them continue as symbols to express the sense of community of the people in the European Union and their allegiance to it."
  31. Admin2

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    6 May 1983 – The Hitler Diaries are revealed as a hoax after being examined by experts.

    Hitler Diaries

    The front cover of Stern magazine. The image is of three black notebooks; on the top book are the gold letters FH in gothic script. The Stern logo—an irregular six-pointed white star on a red background is in the top left of the cover, next to the word "stern". At the bottom are the words in German "Hitlers Tagebücher endeckt" ("Hitler's diaries discovered").
    "Hitler's diaries discovered". Stern's front page on 28 April 1983

    The Hitler Diaries (German: Hitler-Tagebücher) were a series of sixty volumes of journals purportedly written by Adolf Hitler, but forged by Konrad Kujau between 1981 and 1983. The diaries were purchased in 1983 for 9.3 million Deutsche Marks (£2.33 million or $3.7 million) by the West German news magazine Stern, which sold serialisation rights to several news organisations. One of the publications involved was The Sunday Times, who asked their independent director, the historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, to authenticate the diaries; he did so, pronouncing them genuine. At the press conference to announce the forthcoming publication, Trevor-Roper announced that on reflection he had changed his mind, and other historians also raised questions concerning their validity. Rigorous forensic analysis, which had not been performed previously, quickly confirmed that the diaries were fakes.

    Kujau, born and raised in East Germany, had a history of petty crime and deception. In the mid-1970s he began selling Nazi memorabilia which he was smuggling from the East, but soon found he could raise the prices by forging additional authentication details which linked ordinary souvenirs to the Nazi leaders. He began forging paintings by Hitler and an increasing number of notes, poems and letters, until he produced his first diary in the mid- to late 1970s. The West German journalist with Stern who "discovered" the diaries and was involved in their purchase was Gerd Heidemann, who had an obsession with the Nazis. When Stern started buying the diaries, Heidemann stole a significant proportion of the money provided.

    Kujau and Heidemann both spent time in prison for their parts in the fraud, and several newspaper editors lost their jobs. The story of the scandal has been the basis of various films: Selling Hitler (1991) for the British channel ITV and the German cinema release Schtonk! (1992).

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    8 May 1912Paramount Pictures is founded.

    Paramount Pictures

    Paramount Pictures Corporation (also known simply as Paramount) is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world,[2] the second oldest in the United States, and the sole member of the "Big Six" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood.

    In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. These fortunate few would become the first "movie stars."[3] In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only.[4] The company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, California, United States.[5]

    Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).[6]

    2. ^ Richard Abel (1994). The Ciné Goes to Town: French Cinema, 1896–1914. University of California Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-520-07936-1. 
    3. ^ http://ocgirl.net/wp-content/uploads/image/paramount/paramount-2.jpg
    4. ^ Fingas, Jon (January 19, 2014). "Paramount now releases movies only in digital form". 
    5. ^ "Directions". The Studios at Paramount. 
    6. ^ "Motion Picture Association of America – Who We Are - Our Story". MPAA. Retrieved 17 January 2018. 
  34. Admin2

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    9 May 1901 – Australia opens its first parliament in Melbourne.

    Parliament of Australia

    The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament;[1] also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Crown (represented by the Governor-General), the Senate and the House of Representatives.[1][2] The combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modeled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster System.[3]

    The upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, and two each for the Northern Territory (including Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands) and the Australian Capital Territory (including Norfolk Island and the Jervis Bay Territory). Senators are elected using the single transferable vote proportional representation system and as a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power.[4] The governing party or coalition has not held a majority in the Senate since 1981 (except between 2005–2008) and usually needs to negotiate with other parties and Independents to get legislation passed.[5]

    The lower house, the House of Representatives, currently consists of 150 members, each elected using full-preference instant-runoff voting from single-member constituencies known as electoral divisions (and commonly referred to as "electorates" or "seats").[6][7] This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major political groups, the centre-right Coalition (consisting of the Liberal and National Parties) and the centre-left Labor Party. The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power.

    Although elections can be called early, every three years the full House of Representatives and half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection. A deadlock-breaking mechanism known as a double dissolution can be used to dissolve the full Senate as well as the House in the event that the Upper House twice refuses to pass a piece of legislation passed by the Lower House.[8]

    The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House (except in a rare joint sitting) on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
    Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

    1. ^ a b Constitution of Australia, section 1.
    2. ^ Constitution of Australia, section 2.
    3. ^ Williams, George; Brennan, Sean; Lynch, Andrew (2014). Blackshield and Williams Australian Constitutional Law and Theory: Commentary and Materials (6 ed.). Leichhardt, NSW: Federation P. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-86287-918-8. .
    4. ^ "Odgers' Australian Senate Practice Fourteenth Edition Chapter 4 – Elections for the Senate". 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
    5. ^ Williams, George; Brennan, Sean; Lynch, Andrew (2014). Blackshield and Williams Australian constitutional law and theory : commentary and materials (6th ed.). Annandale, NSW: Federation Press. p. 415. ISBN 9781862879188. 
    6. ^ "House of Representatives Practice, 6th Ed – Chapter 3 – Elections and the electoral system". 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
    7. ^ "A Short History of Federal Election Reform in Australia". Australian electoral history. Australian Electoral Commission. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007. 
    8. ^ "Odgers' Australian Senate Practice Fourteenth Edition Chapter 21 – Relations with the House of Representatives". 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  35. Admin2

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    10 May 1824 – The National Gallery in London opens to the public.

    National Gallery

    The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900.[a]

    The Gallery is an exempt charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.[2] Its collection belongs to the government on behalf of the British public, and entry to the main collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Louvre, the British Museum, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[3]

    Unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein in 1824. After that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which today account for two-thirds of the collection.[4] The collection is small compared with many European national galleries, but encyclopaedic in scope; most major developments in Western painting "from Giotto to Cézanne"[5] are represented with important works. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition,[6] but this is no longer the case.

    The present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838. Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, as the building has been expanded piecemeal throughout its history. Wilkins's building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space; the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897.

    The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, is a notable example of Postmodernist architecture in Britain. The current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi.

    The Gallery was caught in controversy in 2018 over having some of the most expensive exhibition prices ever seen in London[7].

    1. ^ a b "2017 Visitor Figures". Association of Leading Visitor Attractions. Retrieved 22 March 2018. 
    2. ^ "Constitution". The National Gallery. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2010. 
    3. ^ Top 100 Art Museum Attendance, The Art Newspaper, 2014. Retrieved on 10 July 2014.
    4. ^ Gentili, Barcham & Whiteley 2000, p. 7
    5. ^ Chilvers, Ian (2003). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Oxford Oxford University Press, p. 413. The formula was used by Michael Levey, later the Gallery's eleventh director, for the title of a popular survey of European painting: Levey, Michael (1972). From Giotto to Cézanne: A Concise History of Painting. London: Thames and Hudson
    6. ^ Potterton 1977, p. 8
    7. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/apr/06/national-gallerys-22-ticket-revives-debate-exhibition-prices
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    12 May 1965 – The Soviet spacecraft Luna 5 crashes on the Moon.

    Luna 5

    Luna 5, or E-6 No.10, was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft intended to land on the Moon as part of the Luna programme. It was intended to become the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, however its retrorockets failed, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface.

    1. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference NSSDC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  38. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    13 May 1971 – Over 900 unarmed Bengali Hindus are murdered in the Demra massacre.

    Demra massacre

    Demra massacre (Bengali: ডেমরা হত্যাকান্ড) in Bangladesh was the massacre of unarmed Hindu residents of the villages under Demra Union in present-day Faridpur Upazila in Pabna District by the Pakistani occupation army aided by local collaborators on 13 May 1971. It is estimated that 800–900 people were killed in a single day.[1][2] Rape and plunder were also carried out, and mosques, temples, schools and houses were set on fire.[1]

    1. ^ a b Md. Habibullah (2012). "Faridpur Upazila". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
    2. ^ Cite error: The named reference tds07112010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  39. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    14 May 1836 – The Treaties of Velasco are signed in Velasco, Texas.

    Treaties of Velasco

    The Treaties of Velasco were two documents signed at Velasco, Texas (now Surf side Beach, Texas) on May 14, 1836, between Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico and the Republic of Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. The signatories were Interim President David G. Burnett for Texas and Santa Anna for Mexico. The treaties were intended, on the part of Texas, to provide a conclusion of hostilities between the two enemies and to offer the first steps toward the official recognition of the breakaway republic's independence.

    Santa Anna signed both a public treaty and a secret treaty, but neither treaty was ratified by the Mexican government because he had signed the documents under coercion, as a prisoner. Mexico claimed Texas was a breakaway province, but it was too weak to attempt another invasion. The documents were not even called "treaties" until so characterized by US President James K. Polk in his justifications for war some ten years later, as Representative Abraham Lincoln pointed out in 1848.[1]

  40. Admin2

    Admin2 Administrator Staff Member

    15 May 1929 – A fire at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio kills 123.

    Cleveland Clinic fire of 1929

    The Cleveland Clinic fire was a major structure fire at Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio on May 15, 1929. It started in the basement of the hospital and it was caused by nitrocellulose x-ray film that ignited when an exposed light bulb was too close to the film.[1] The fire generated poisonous gas and two separate explosions. The fire claimed 123 lives, including that of one of the clinic's founders, Dr. John Phillips.[2][3] Policeman Ernest Staab was killed by the gas while rescuing 21 victims.[2]


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